The spritsail is a four-sided, fore-and-aft sail, supported at its highest points by the mast and a diagonally running spar known as the sprit. The foot of the sail can be held loose-footed just by its sheets. A spritsail has four corners: the throat, peak and tack; the Spritsail can be used to describe a rig that uses a spritsail. Spritsails were the first fore-and-aft rigs, appearing in Greco-Roman navigation in the 2nd century BC; the luff of the sail is bound to the mast, but unlike the gaff rig where the head is bound to a spar, this rig supports the leech of the sail by means of a diagonal spar or spars named a sprit. The forward end of the sprit spar is attached to the mast, with the after end of the sprit spar attached to the peak; the sprit is steadied and controlled from the deck by a pair of wire vangs attached to the peak of the sail. It is said to be the ancestor of the common gaff rig; the foot of the sail may be loose-footed and just controlled by its sheets. The spritsail was best known from its use in the Thames sailing barge, which employs two sized spars to form the framework for the sail area.
In a barge, the mast is stepped vertically in a mast case or tabernacle, whilst the sprit is suspended by chain stanliffs from the hounds at the mast head at an angle of about 30° from vertical, with sprit to the starboard side of the mast. The heel of the sprit is secured to the mast, by the muzzle, which allows the sprit is free to move laterally, nearly as far to each side as the shrouds; this enables the vessel to run. The instability caused by allowing such a weighty spar to extend too far away from the vessel's centreline, had to be borne in mind when designing hull and rigging; the peak of the sail is permanently attached to the head of the sprit, steadied by two sets of vangs. The spritsail rig was used without a boom; such loose-footed sails can be found on gaff-rigged Norfolk wherrys and the bawley class of vessel. The spritsail was a feature of the Cromster where the ability to furl the foot of the sail and raise the sheets, made gunnery much more possible; the sail could still be controlled using the vangs.
In a commercial vessel, the rig has the advantage of allowing a high stack of deck cargo and freeing the cargo hatch of obstructions when loading and unloading. The entire sail can be brailed to the mast; the overriding advantage is safety in open water. Barges will heel excessively and must be pulled to wind; the sheet will be eased and the aft end of a boom could drag in the water making the rudder ineffective and a capsize inevitable. The sheet of loose footed boomless barge is just released and control is regained; the boom does not project outboard so that the vessel can pass through a narrow gap between moored vessels. Loose footed sails suffer from sail twist which reduces their aerodynamic efficiency when sailing off the wind, not a commercial issue, it can be an advantage in light air. The vangs control the head of the sail which can be set so as to make use of the air above the wind-shadow of moored ships, warehouses and so on; this fine control of the sail without need for the crew to leave the deck, is achieved by brailing up.
Rather than lowering the mainsail, it is gathered up against its own luff and head by means of lines called brails. This technique is an effective way of stowing the mainsail and gives fine control over the power obtained from the sail. In narrow channels, in the lee of tall buildings the mailsail and mizzen are brailed and the bowsprit topped up, she sails on topsail and foresail alone. A gaff rig was far more suitable for heavy weather and long sea passages, but when a daff rigged boomie takes in the mainsail, she cannot set the topsail. However, it means, it means that the sail cannot be covered when it is stowed, thus protected from the elements. But in any case, the crews of working vessels did not trouble with such dainty ways. In keeping with the general philosophy of working boats, all sails would therefore be traditionally treated with red oxide and other substances; the problem of the inaccessibility of gear was met in the Thames barge by stepping the mast in a tabernacle and using a windlass on the foredeck to strike the whole lot, sprit and rigging.
The crew could sail under a low bridge such as at Aylesford or Rochester the without losing steerage way. The windlass is below the tack of the tackle at the foot of the forestay. In striking the gear, the foresail tack tackle had to be cast off, the bridge cleared, the skipper and an extra man used the windlass to raise the mast. Modern use of the spritsail has become more common through its use in the Optimist - this uses a boomed spritsail - in the case of which the sprit is tensioned by a snotter arrangement; this much simpler implementation sees the sprit anchored higher on the mast than on barges. This is a sprit rig that uses a triangular sail, the luff is bent to the mast, the one spar, the sprit-boom attaches to the clew of the sail; the fore end of the boom is tensioned by use of a snotter chord. On a Bolger 59 rig, there is 13' 7" leech and 9' 0" foot; the spiritsail is commonly used in a fore-and-aft rig on local traditional wooden boats of the west coast of Norway, most notably the faering variant of the Oselvar.
Traditionally, up until the second half of the 1
A sail is a tensile structure—made from fabric or other membrane materials—that uses wind power to propel sailing craft, including sailing ships, windsurfers, ice boats, sail-powered land vehicles. Sails may be made from a combination of woven materials—including canvas or polyester cloth, laminated membranes or bonded filaments—usually in a three- or four-sided shape. A sail provides propulsive force via a combination of lift and drag, depending on its angle of attack—its angle with respect to the apparent wind. Apparent wind is the air velocity experienced on the moving craft and is the combined effect of the true wind velocity with the velocity of the sailing craft. Angle of attack is constrained by the sailing craft's orientation to the wind or point of sail. On points of sail where it is possible to align the leading edge of the sail with the apparent wind, the sail may act as an airfoil, generating propulsive force as air passes along its surface—just as an airplane wing generates lift—which predominates over aerodynamic drag retarding forward motion.
The more that the angle of attack diverges from the apparent wind as a sailing craft turns downwind, the more drag increases and lift decreases as propulsive forces, until a sail going downwind is predominated by drag forces. Sails are unable to generate propulsive force if they are aligned too to the wind. Sails may be attached to a mast, boom or other spar or may be attached to a wire, suspended by a mast, they are raised by a line, called a halyard, their angle with respect to the wind is controlled by a line, called a sheet. In use, they may be designed to be curved in both directions along their surface as a result of their curved edges. Battens may be used to extend the trailing edge of a sail beyond the line of its attachment points. Other non-rotating airfoils that power sailing craft include wingsails, which are rigid wing-like structures, kites that power kite-rigged vessels, but do not employ a mast to support the airfoil and are beyond the scope of this article. Sailing craft employ two types of the square rig and the fore-and-aft rig.
The square rig carries the primary driving sails are carried on horizontal spars, which are perpendicular or square, to the keel of the vessel and to the masts. These spars are called yards and their tips, beyond the last stay, are called the yardarms. A ship so rigged is called a square-rigger; the square rig is aerodynamically most efficient. A fore-and-aft rig consists of sails that are set along the line of the keel rather than perpendicular to it. Vessels so rigged. Archaeological studies of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture ceramics show use of sailing boats from the sixth millennium BCE onwards. Excavations of the Ubaid period in Mesopotamia provides direct evidence of sailing boats. Sails from ancient Egypt are depicted around 3200 BCE, where reed boats sailed upstream against the River Nile's current. Ancient Sumerians used square rigged sailing boats at about the same time, it is believed they established sea trading routes as far away as the Indus valley; the proto-Austronesian words for sail and other rigging parts date to about 3000 BCE when this group began their Pacific expansion.
Greeks and Phoenicians began trading by ship by around 1200 BCE. Triangular fore-and-aft rigs were invented in the Mediterranean as single-yarded lateen sails and independently in the Pacific as the more efficient bi-sparred crab claw sail, continue to be used throughout the world. During the 16th-19th centuries other fore-and-aft sails were developed in Europe, such as the spritsail, gaff rig, genoa and Bermuda rig mainsail, improving the upwind sailing ability of European vessels; the fore-and-aft rig began as a convention of southern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea: the gentle climate made its use practical, in Italy a few centuries before the Renaissance it began to replace the square rig which had dominated all of Europe since the dawn of sea travel. Northern Europeans were resistant to adopting the fore-and-aft rig, despite having seen its use in the course of trade and during the Crusades; the Renaissance changed this: beginning in 1475, their use increased and within a hundred years the fore-and-aft rig was in common use on rivers and in estuaries in Britain, northern France, the Low Countries, though the square rig remained standard for the harsher conditions of the open North Sea as well as for trans-Atlantic sailing.
The lateen sail proved to have better upwind performance for smaller vessels. Aerodynamic forces on sails depend on wind speed and direction and the speed and direction of the craft; the direction that the craft is traveling with respect to the true wind is called the "point of sail". The speed of the craft at a given point of sail contributes to the apparent wind —the wind speed and direction as measured on the moving craft; the apparent wind on the sail creates a total aerodynamic force, which may be resolved into drag—the force component in the direction of the apparent wind—and lift—the force component normal to the apparent wind. Depending on the alignment of the sail with the apparent wind, lift or drag may be the predominant propulsive component. Total aerodynamic force resolves into a forward, driving force—resisted by the medium through or over which the craft is passing —and a lateral force, resisted by the underwater foils, ice runners, or wheels of the sailing craft. For apparent wind angles aligned with the entry point of the sail, the sail acts as an airfoil and lift is the predominant component of propulsion.
A barquentine or schooner barque is a sailing vessel with three or more masts. While a full-rigged ship is square-rigged on all three masts, the barque is square-rigged on the foremast and main, the barquentine extends the principle by making only the foremast square-rigged; the advantages of a smaller crew, good performance before the wind and the ability to sail close to the wind while carrying plenty of cargo made it a popular rig at the end of the nineteenth century. Today, barquentines are popular with modern tall ship and sail training operators as their suite of fore-and-aft sails can be operated with ease and efficiency, but the single mast of square sails offers long distance speed and dramatic appearance in port; the term "barquentine" is seventeenth century in origin, formed from "barque" in imitation of "brigantine", a two-masted vessel square-rigged only on the forward mast, formed from the word brig. Gazela Primeiro of 1901. Concordia, a sail training ship that capsized and sank on 17 February 2010.
Mercator of 1932, Belgian training ship. Transit, an experimental design of 1800 that could be worked from the deck. Peacemaker launched 1989. Many smaller ships of the late nineteenth century Royal Navy were rigged as barquentines, including the Redbreast-class gunboats. Endurance, commanded by Sir Ernest Shackleton and crushed by ice in the Weddell Sea during the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914–17. KRI Dewaruci of Indonesian Navy and commissioned in 1953, still in service now. Esmeralda, a sail training ship of the Chilean Navy. City of New York, an arctic sailing ship Polish-built Pogoria class sail training ships: Pogoria and Iskra. Thor-Heyerdahl Southern Swan, tall ship from 1922 re-rigged as a Barquentine from its original rigging as a Schooner. Sails on Sydney Harbour for cruises. Juan Sebastián Elcano Spirit of New Zealand 1986 is a youth development training ship. Leeuwin II, a sail training ship based in Fremantle, Australia Photo gallery of barquentine Jadran Training Ship
Rigging comprises the system of ropes and chains, which support a sailing ship or sail boat's masts—standing rigging, including shrouds and stays—and which adjust the position of the vessel's sails and spars to which they are attached—the running rigging, including halyards, braces and vangs. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition "rigging" derives from Anglo-Saxon wrigan or wringing, "to clothe"; the same source points out that "rigging" a sailing vessel refers to putting all the components in place to allow it to function, including the masts, spars and the rigging. Rigging is divided into two classes, which supports the mast, running, which controls the orientation of the sails and their degree of reefing. Configurations differ for each type of rigging, between fore-and-aft rigged vessels and square-rigged vessels. Standing rigging is cordage, fixed in position. Standing rigging is always between a mast and the deck, using tension to hold the mast in place. Due to its role, standing rigging is now most made of steel cable.
It was made of the same materials as running rigging, only coated in tar for added strength and protection from the elements. Most fore-and-aft rigged vessels have the following types of standing rigging: a forestay, a backstay, upper and lower shrouds. Less common rigging configurations are diamond jumpers. Both of these are used to keep a thin mast in column under the load of a large down wind sail or in strong wind. Rigging parts include swageless terminals, swage terminals, shackle toggle terminals and fail-safe wire rigging insulators. Whereas 20th-century square-rigged vessels were constructed of steel with steel standing rigging, prior vessels used wood masts with hemp-fiber standing rigging; as rigs became taller by the end of the 19th century, masts relied more on successive spars, stepped one atop the other to form the whole, from bottom to top: the lower mast, top mast, topgallant mast. This construction relied on support by a complex array of stays and shrouds; each stay in either the fore-and-aft or athwartships direction had a corresponding one in the opposite direction providing counter-tension.
Fore-and-aft the system of tensioning started with the stays that were anchored at in front each mast. Shrouds were tensioned by pairs deadeyes, circular blocks that had the large-diameter line run around them, whilst multiple holes allowed smaller line—lanyard—to pass multiple times between the two and thereby allow tensioning of the shroud. In addition to overlapping the mast below, the top mast and topgallant mast were supported laterally by shrouds that passed around either a platform, called a "top", or cross-wise beams, called "crosstrees"; each additional mast segment is supported aft by a series of stays that led forward. These lines were countered in tension by backstays, which were secured along the sides of the vessel behind the shrouds. Running rigging is the cordage used to control the shape and position of the sails. Materials have evolved from the use of Manilla rope to synthetic fibers, which include dacron and kevlar. Running rigging varies between fore-and-aft rigged vessels and square-rigged vessels.
They have common functions between them for supporting and orienting sails, which employ different mechanisms. For supporting sails, are used to raise sails and control luff tension. On gaff-rigged vessels, topping lifts hold the yards across the top of the sail aloft. Sail shape is controlled by lines that pull at the corners of the sail, including the outhaul at the clew and the downhaul at the tack on fore-and-aft rigs; the orientation of sails to the wind is controlled by sheets, but by braces, which position the yard arms with respect to the wind on square-rigged vessels. Full rigged ship John. Seamanship in the Age of Sail. Illus. by Mark Myers. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-955-3. OCLC 11036800. Lees, James; the Masting and Rigging of English Ships of War, 1625–1860. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-948-0. OCLC 11908132. Marchaj, C. A.. Aero-Hydrodynamics of Sailing. Saint Michaels, Md.: Tiller Publishing. ISBN 1-888671-18-1. OCLC 62546510. Marchaj, C. A.. Sail Performance: Theory and Practice.
Maidenhead, England: McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-141310-3. OCLC 51913243. Underhill, Harold A.. Masting and Rigging: The Clipper Ship and Ocean Carrier. Brill Academic Pub. ISBN 9780851741734. Photos of different types of ship rigging Sail Ship Rigging, at GlobalSecurity.org
On boats and ships, the keel is either of two parts: a structural element that sometimes resembles a fin and protrudes below a boat along the central line, or a hydrodynamic element. These parts overlap; as the laying down of the keel is the initial step in the construction of a ship, in British and American shipbuilding traditions the construction is dated from this event. Only the ship's launching is considered more significant in its creation; the word can be used as a synecdoche to refer to a complete boat, such as a keelboat. The adjustable centerboard keel traces its roots to the medieval Chinese Song dynasty. Many Song Chinese junk ships had a ballasted and bilge keel that consisted of wooden beams bound together with iron hoops. Maritime technology and the technological know-how allowed Song dynasty ships to be used in naval warfare between the Southern Song Dynasty, the Jin dynasty, the Mongols. A structural keel is the bottom-most structural member; the keel runs from the bow to the stern.
The keel is the first part of a ship's hull to be constructed, laying the keel, or placing the keel in the cradle in which the ship will be built may mark the start time of its construction. Large, modern ships are now built in a series of pre-fabricated, complete hull sections rather than being built around a single keel, so shipbuilding process commences with cutting the first sheet of steel; the most common type of keel is the "flat plate keel", this is fitted in the majority of ocean-going ships and other vessels. A form of keel found on smaller vessels is the "bar keel", which may be fitted in trawlers and smaller ferries. Where grounding is possible, this type of keel is suitable with its massive scantlings, but there is always a problem of the increased draft with no additional cargo capacity. If a double bottom is fitted, the keel is inevitably of the flat plate type, bar keels being associated with open floors, where the plate keel may be fitted. Duct keels are provided in the bottom of some vessels.
These run from the forward engine room bulkhead to the collision bulkhead and are utilized to carry the double bottom piping. The piping is accessible when cargo is loaded; the keel surface on the bottom of the hull gives the ship greater directional stability. In non-sailing hulls, the keel helps the hull to move forward, rather than slipping to the side. In traditional boat building, this is provided by the structural keel, which projects from the bottom of the hull along most or all of its length. In modern construction, the bar keel or flat-plate keel performs the same function. There are many types of fixed keels, including full keels, long keels, fin keels, winged keels, bulb keels, bilge keels among other designs. Deep-draft ships will have a flat bottom and employ only bilge keels, both to aid directional control and to damp rolling motions In sailboats, keels use the forward motion of the boat to generate lift to counteract the leeward force of the wind; the rudimentary purpose of the keel is to convert the sideways motion of the wind when it is abeam into forward motion.
A secondary purpose of the keel is to provide ballast. Keels are different from centreboards and other types of foils in that keels are made of heavy materials to provide ballast to stabilize the boat. Keels may be fixed, or non-movable. Retracting keels may pivot or slide upwards to retract, are retracted with a winch due to the weight of the ballast. Since the keel provides far more stability when lowered than when retracted, the amount of sail carried is reduced when sailing with the keel retracted. Types of non-fixed keels include canting keels. Canting keels can be found on racing yachts, such as those competing in the Volvo Ocean Race, they provide more righting moment as the keel moves out to the windward-side of the boat while using less weight. The horizontal distance from the weight to the pivot is increased, which generates a larger righting moment; the word "keel" comes from Old English cēol, Old Norse kjóll, = "ship" or "keel". It has the distinction of being regarded by some scholars as the first word in the English language recorded in writing, having been recorded by Gildas in his 6th century Latin work De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, under the spelling cyulae.
Carina is the origin of the term careen. An example of this use is Careening Cove, a suburb of Sydney, where careening was carried out in early colonial days. Coin ceremony Kelson False keel Daggerboard Leeboard Bilgeboard Bruce foil Keelhauling – an archaic maritime punishment Rousmaniere, The Annapolis Book of Seamanship, Simon & Schuster, 1999 Chapman Book of Piloting, Hearst Corporation, 1999 Herreshoff, The Sailor’s Handbook, Little Brown and Company Seidman, The Complete Sailor, International Marine, 1995 Jobson, Sailing Fundamentals, Simon & Schuster, 1987
Northfleet is a town in the Gravesham Borough of Kent. It borders the Dartford Borough, it is west of Gravesend and on a western border has its own railway station about a hundred metres east of Ebbsfleet International railway station. Its name is derived from being situated on the northern reach of what was once called the River Fleet. There is a village at the other end of the river named Southfleet, it has been the site of a settlement on the shore of the River Thames adjacent to Gravesend since Roman times. It was known as Fleote by the Saxons c. 600 AD, Flyote c. 900 AD, Flete c. 1000 AD. It was recorded as Norfluet in the Domesday Book, Northflet in 1201. By 1610 the name of Northfleet had become established. A battle took place during the civil war at the Stonebridge over the Ebbsfleet river. Northfleet became a town in 1874 with the Northfleet Urban District Council being established c. 1894. In 1974 it was merged with the adjacent Borough of Gravesend; the first council offices were off the Hill, but the council moved to Northfleet House.
Northfleet House was once the home of Thomas Sturge. Northfleet was in the hundred of Toltingtrough. Romans lived in the area now known as Springhead. A Roman road, which forms the basis of the A2 Watling Street, divides the area. In 1815 the first steamboat started plying between Gravesend and London, an event, to bring much prosperity to the area; the number of visitors increased, in the course of the next ten years several new and rival steam packets were started. The regular service given by the steam packets led entrepreneurs to establish amenities for the entertainment of visitors, one of, Rosherville Gardens. George Jones laid out the gardens in 1837 in one of the disused chalk pits, covering an area of 17 acres, their full title was the'Kent Zoological and Botanical Gardens Institution'. They occupied an area in. Robert Hiscock, in his A History of Gravesend describes them thus: They were a place of surpassing beauty and a favourite resort of Londoners. Adorned with small Greek temples and statuary set in the cliffs, there were terraces, archery lawn, Bijou theatre, Baronial Hall for refreshments, at one time a lake.
At night the gardens were illuminated with thousands of coloured lights and there were fireworks displays and dancing. Famous bands such as the American Sousa were engaged during the season. Blondin, the trapeze artist, performed... In 1857 as many as 20,000 visitors passed through the turnstiles in one week. By 1880 the gardens had reached the peak of their popularity... in 1901 they were closed. During a brief revival 1903–1911, they were used in the making of early films. A pier was built to carry these crowds ashore, a railway station opened on the Gravesend West branch railway, it was one of the steamboats from Rosherville Gardens, involved in a horrific accident in 1878. The Princess Alice passenger steamer, after leaving Rosherville pier, was in a collision with the collier Bywell Castle, from Woolwich. 640 people died from 240 being children. An inquest was held at Woolwich, but no conclusive reason was established as to the cause of the disaster at the Devils Elbow on the Thames. Joseph Rosher gave his name to a building scheme which began with the building of new houses in 1830.
A prospectus states that' this spot will ultimate become to Gravesend what St Leonards is to Hastings and Broadstairs to Margate'. That grandiose scheme did not materialise in quite that way, but the area of Northfleet still bears that name. On Friday, 16 August 1941 150 German aircraft flew through the Kent skies, to deal the worst blow to civilian life the county had experienced to that point in the war. With the formation splitting into groups to be variously challenged from Manston, Hornchurch, Biggin Hill and Hawkinge airfields, a group of Dorniers made it to Northfleet a little after midday, they dropped about 106 bombs ranging from 50–250 kilos over the town. The bombs killed 29 people, injured 27, badly damaged two schools. Northfleet Urban District Council was set up under the Local Government Act of 1894. Within its boundaries were the hamlets of Northfleet Green and Nash Street, as well as the now built-up Perry Street. Northfleet was merged, inter alia, with Gravesend to become Gravesham District Council on 1 April 1974.
With its situation on a busy waterway such as the River Thames, at a point where higher land came close to the river, it was an obvious place for industry to be located. The river provided water supplies and the means whereby raw materials and products could be transported; the forests of the area provided timber for various aspects of most industries. It was an area famous for Gun Flint manufacturing. Flint was used as a local building material. Flint walls can still be found in the area; the Springhead/Ebbsfleet Valley area was used for the growing of Watercress much of, supplied to the London market. The Romans first began to dig chalk from the area; the industry requires plentiful water supplies, chalk as its main ingredient, both of which were to hand. When in 1796, James Parker set up kilns on Northfleet creek to make his Roman cement, it was the beginning of a large complex of cement works along this stretch of the river; the manufacture of Portland cement began in April 1846 when William Aspdin, son of Joseph Aspdin, its inventor, acquired Parker's works and built new kilns.
A carronade is a short, cast iron cannon, used by the Royal Navy and first produced by the Carron Company, an ironworks in Falkirk, Scotland. It was used from the 1770s to the 1850s, its main function was to serve as a short-range, anti-ship and anti-crew weapon. Carronades were found to be successful, but they disappeared as naval artillery advanced, with the introduction of rifling and consequent change in the shape of the projectile, exploding shells replacing solid shot, naval engagements being fought at longer ranges; the carronade was designed as a short-range naval weapon with a low muzzle velocity for merchant ships, but it found a niche role on warships. It was produced by the Carron ironworks and was at first sold as a system with the gun and shot all together; the standard package of shot per gun was 25 roundshot, 15 barshot, 15 double-headed shot, 10 "single" grapeshot, 10 "single" canister shot. "Single" meant that the shot weighed the same as the roundshot, while some other canister and grapeshot were included which weighed one and a half times the roundshot.
Its invention is variously ascribed to Lieutenant General Robert Melville in 1759, or to Charles Gascoigne, manager of the Carron Company from 1769 to 1779. In its early years, the weapon was sometimes called a "mellvinade" or a "gasconade"; the carronade can be seen as the culmination of a development of naval guns reducing the barrel length and gunpowder charge. The Carron Company was selling a "new light-constructed" gun, two-thirds of the weight of the standard naval gun and charged with one sixth of the weight of ball in powder before it introduced the carronade, which further halved the gunpowder charge; the advantages for merchant ships are described in an advertising pamphlet of 1779. Production of both shot and gun by the same firm allowed a reduction in the windage, the gap between the bore of the gun and the diameter of the ball; the smaller gunpowder charge reduced the barrel heating in action, reduced the recoil. The mounting, attached to the side of the ship on a pivot, took the recoil on a slider, without altering the alignment of the gun.
The pamphlet advocated the use of woollen cartridges, which eliminated the need for wadding and worming, although they were more expensive. Simplifying gunnery for comparatively untrained merchant seamen in both aiming and reloading was part of the rationale for the gun; the replacement of trunnions by a bolt underneath, to connect the gun to the mounting, reduced the width of the carriage enhancing the wide angle of fire. A merchant ship would always be running away from an enemy, so a wide angle of fire was much more important than on a warship. A carronade weighed a quarter as much and used a quarter to a third of the gunpowder charge as a long gun firing the same cannonball; the reduced charge allowed carronades to have a shorter length and much lighter weight than long guns. Increasing the size of the bore and ball reduces the required length of barrel; the force acting on the ball is proportional to the square of the diameter, while the mass of the ball rises by the cube, so acceleration is slower.
Long guns were much heavier than carronades because they were over-specified to be capable of being double-shotted, whereas it was dangerous to do this in a carronade. A ship could carry more carronades, or carronades of a larger caliber, than long guns, carronades could be mounted on the upper decks, where heavy long guns could cause the ship to be top-heavy and unstable. Carronades required a smaller gun crew, important for merchant ships, they were faster to reload. Carronades became popular on British merchant ships during the American Revolutionary War. A lightweight gun that needed only a small gun crew and was devastating at short range was well suited to defending merchant ships against French and American privateers; the French came in possession of their first carronades in December 1779 with the capture of the brig Finkastre by the frigate Précieuse, but the weapon was judged ineffective and was not adopted by them at the time. However, in the Action of 4 September 1782, the impact of a single carronade broadside fired at close range by the frigate HMS Rainbow under Henry Trollope caused a wounded French captain to capitulate and surrender the Hébé after a short fight.
The Royal Navy was reluctant to adopt the guns due to mistrust of the Carron Company, which had developed a reputation for incompetence and commercial sharp dealing. Carronades were not counted in numbering the guns of a ship. Lord Sandwich started mounting them in place of the light guns on the forecastle and quarterdeck of ships, they soon proved their effectiveness in battle. French gun foundries were unable to produce equivalents for twenty years, so carronades gave British warships a significant tactical advantage during the latter part of the 18th century—though French ships mounted another type of weapon in the same role, the obusier de vaisseau. HMS Victory used the two 68-pounder carronades which she carried on her forecastle to great effect at the Battle of Trafalgar, clearing the gun deck of the Bucentaure by firing a round shot and a keg of 500 musket balls through the Bucentaure's stern windows; the carronade was very successful and adopted, a few experimental ships were fitted with a carronade-only armament, such as HMS Glatton and HMS Rainbow.
Glatton, a fourth-rate ship with 56 guns, had a more destructive broadside than HMS Victory, a first-rate ship with 100 guns. Glatton and Rainbow were both successful in battle, though the carronade's lack of range was an arguable tactical disadvantage of this arrangement ag