Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture and its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the cathedrals, abbeys. It is the architecture of many castles, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings, for this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches. A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and continued, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, the term Gothic architecture originated as a pejorative description. Hence, François Rabelais, of the 16th century, imagines an inscription over the door of his utopian Abbey of Thélème, Here enter no hypocrites, slipping in a slighting reference to Gotz and Ostrogotz.
Authorities such as Christopher Wren lent their aid in deprecating the old medieval style, the Company disapproved of several of these new manners, which are defective and which belong for the most part to the Gothic. Gothic architecture is the architecture of the medieval period, characterised by use of the pointed arch. As an architectural style, Gothic developed primarily in ecclesiastical architecture, the greatest number of surviving Gothic buildings are churches. The Gothic style is most particularly associated with the cathedrals of Northern France. At the end of the 12th century, Europe was divided into a multitude of city states, norway came under the influence of England, while the other Scandinavian countries and Poland were influenced by trading contacts with the Hanseatic League. Angevin kings brought the Gothic tradition from France to Southern Italy, throughout Europe at this time there was a rapid growth in trade and an associated growth in towns. Germany and the Lowlands had large flourishing towns that grew in comparative peace, in trade and competition with other, or united for mutual weal.
Civic building was of importance to these towns as a sign of wealth. England and France remained largely feudal and produced grand domestic architecture for their kings and bishops, the Catholic Church prevailed across Europe at this time, influencing not only faith but wealth and power. Bishops were appointed by the lords and they often ruled as virtual princes over large estates. The early Medieval periods had seen a growth in monasticism, with several different orders being prevalent. Foremost were the Benedictines whose great abbey churches vastly outnumbered any others in France, a part of their influence was that towns developed around them and they became centers of culture and commerce
Daylighting is the practice of placing windows or other openings and reflective surfaces so that during the day natural light provides effective internal lighting. Particular attention is given to daylighting while designing a building when the aim is to maximize visual comfort or to reduce energy use, Energy savings can be achieved from the reduced use of artificial lighting or from passive solar heating. Daylighting is a term given to a common centuries-old, geography. The amount of daylight received in a space can be analyzed by measuring illuminance on a grid or undertaking a daylight factor calculation. Today, the use of software, such as Radiance, can allow an architect or engineer to quickly undertake complex calculations to review the benefit of a particular design, the source of all daylight is the sun. The proportion of direct to diffuse light impacts the amount and quality of daylight, solar radiation that reaches a site without being scattered within the earth’s atmosphere is called direct sunlight.
In contrast, light that is scattered in the atmosphere is referred to as diffused daylight, ground reflected light contributes to the daylight. Each climate has different composition of these daylights and different cloud coverage, so daylighting strategies vary with site locations, houses were designed with minimal windows on the polar side but more and larger windows on the equatorial-side. Equatorial-side windows receive at least some direct sunlight on any day of the year so they are effective at daylighting areas of the house adjacent to the windows. Even so, during mid-winter, light incidence is highly directional and this may be partially ameliorated through light diffusion, light pipes or tubes, and through somewhat reflective internal surfaces. In fairly low latitudes in summertime, windows that face east and west, windows are the most common way to admit daylight into a space. Their vertical orientation means that they selectively admit sunlight and diffuse daylight at different times of the day, windows on multiple orientations must usually be combined to produce the right mix of light for the building, depending on the climate and latitude.
Different types and grades of glass and different window treatments can affect the amount of transmission through the windows. The type of glazing is an important issue, expressed by its VT coefficient, as the name suggests, this coefficient measures how much visible light is admitted by the window. A low VT can reduce by half or more the coming into a room. But be aware of high VT glass, high VT numbers can be a cause of glare, on the other hand, you should take into account the undesirable effects of large windows. Another important element in creating daylighting is the use of clerestory windows and these are high, vertically placed windows. They can be used to increase direct solar gain when oriented towards the equator, when facing toward the sun and other windows may admit unacceptable glare
English Gothic architecture
English Gothic is an architectural style that flourished in England from about 1180 until about 1520. As with the Gothic architecture of other parts of Europe, English Gothic is defined by its arches, vaulted roofs, large windows. The earliest large-scale applications of Gothic architecture in England are at Canterbury Cathedral, many features of Gothic architecture had evolved naturally from Romanesque architecture. This evolution can be seen most particularly at the Norman Durham Cathedral, English Gothic was to develop along lines that sometimes paralleled and sometimes diverged from those of continental Europe. Historians traditionally divide English Gothic into a number of different periods, Gothic architecture continued to flourish in England for a hundred years after the precepts of Renaissance architecture were formalised in Florence in the early 15th century. Many of the largest and finest works of English architecture, notably the medieval cathedrals of England are largely built in the Gothic style, so are castles, great houses and many smaller unpretentious secular buildings, including almshouses and trade halls.
Another important group of Gothic buildings in England are the parish churches, historians sometimes refer to the styles as periods, e. g. Perpendicular period in much the same way as an historical era may be referred to as the Tudor period. The various styles are seen at their most fully developed in the cathedrals, abbey churches, according to the originator of the term in 1817, Thomas Rickman, the period ran from 1189 to 1307, Rickman based his defining dates on the reigns of certain English monarchs. In the late 12th century, the Early English Gothic style superseded the Romanesque or Norman style, during the late 13th century, it developed into the Decorated Gothic style, which lasted until the mid-14th century. With all of early architectural styles, there is a gradual overlap between the periods. As fashions changed, new elements were used alongside older ones, especially in large buildings such as churches and cathedrals. It is customary, therefore, to recognise a transitional phase between the Romanesque and Early English periods from the middle of the 12th century, although usually known as Early English, this new Gothic style had originated in the area around Paris before spreading to England.
There it was first known as the French style and it was first used in the choir or quire of the abbey church of St Denis, dedicated in June 1144. Even before that, some features had been included in Durham Cathedral, showing a combination of Romanesque, by 1175, with the completion of the Choir at Canterbury Cathedral by William of Sens, the style was firmly established in England. The most significant and characteristic development of the Early English period was the pointed arch known as the lancet, pointed arches were used almost universally, not only in arches of wide span such as those of the nave arcade, but for doorways and lancet windows. It allows for greater variation in proportions, whereas the strength of round arches depends on semicircular form. The barrel vaults and groin vaults characteristic of Romanesque building were replaced by rib vaults, the arched windows are usually narrow by comparison to their height and are without tracery. For this reason Early English Gothic is sometimes known as the Lancet style, although arches of equilateral proportion are most often employed, lancet arches of very acute proportions are frequently found and are highly characteristic of the style
A handheld fan is an implement used to induce an airflow for the purpose of cooling or refreshing oneself. Any broad, flat surface waved back-and-forth will create a small airflow, purpose-made handheld fans are shaped like a sector of a circle and made of a thin material mounted on slats which revolve around a pivot so that it can be closed when not in use. The movement of a handheld fan provides cooling by increasing the airflow over the skin and it increases heat convection by displacing the warmer air produced by body heat that surrounds the skin. This evaporation has an effect due to the latent heat of evaporation of water. Fans are convenient to carry around, especially folding fans, next to the folding fans, the rigid hand screen fan, was a highly decorative and desired object among the higher classes. Its purpose is different since they are cumbersome to carry around. They were mostly used to shield the face against the glare of the sun or the fire. Archaeological ruins and ancient texts show that the fan was used in ancient Greece at least since the 4th century BC and was known under the name rhipis.
Christian Europes earliest fan was the flabellum, which dates to the 6th century and this was used during services to drive insects away from the consecrated bread and wine. Its use died out in western Europe, but continues in the Eastern Orthodox, Hand fans were absent in Europe during the High Middle Ages until they were reintroduced in the 13th and 14th centuries Fans from the Middle East were brought back by Crusaders. Portuguese traders brought back from China and Japan in the 16th century. The fan is popular in Spain, where flamenco dancers used the fan. European brands have introduced more modern designs and have enabled the hand fan to work with modern-day fashion, in the 17th century the folding fan, and its attendant semiotic culture, were introduced from Japan. Simpler formed fans were developed in China and Egypt and these fans are particularly well displayed in the portraits of the high-born women of the era. Queen Elizabeth I of England can be seen to carry both folding fans decorated with pom poms on their guardsticks as well as the older style rigid fan, usually decorated with feathers and jewels.
These rigid style fans often hung from the skirts of ladies, one of the characteristics of these fans is the rather crude bone or ivory sticks and the way the leather leaves are often slotted onto the sticks rather than glued as with folding fans. Fans made entirely of decorated sticks without a fan leaf were known as brisé fans, despite the relative crude methods of construction folding fans were at this era high status, exotic items on par with elaborate gloves as gifts to royalty. In the 17th century the rigid fan which was seen in portraits of the century had fallen out of favour as folding fans gained dominance in Europe
10 Downing Street
Situated in Downing Street in the City of Westminster, Number 10 is over 300 years old and contains approximately 100 rooms. A private residence occupies the floor and there is a kitchen in the basement. At the rear is a courtyard and a terrace overlooking a garden of 0.5 acres. Adjacent to St Jamess Park, Number 10 is near Buckingham Palace, the London residence of the British monarch, and the Palace of Westminster, originally three houses, Number 10 was offered to Sir Robert Walpole by King George II in 1732. Walpole accepted on the condition that the gift was to the office of First Lord of the Treasury rather than to him personally, Walpole commissioned William Kent to join the three houses and it is this larger house that is known as Number 10 Downing Street. The arrangement was not an immediate success, despite its size and convenient location near to Parliament, few early Prime Ministers lived there. Costly to maintain and run-down, Number 10 was close to being demolished several times but the property survived and became linked with many statesmen, in 1985 Margaret Thatcher said Number 10 had become one of the most precious jewels in the national heritage.
Number 10 Downing Street was originally three properties, a mansion overlooking St Jamess Park called the House at the Back, a house behind it. The town house, from which the building gets its name, was one of several built by Sir George Downing between 1682 and 1684. Downing, a spy for Oliver Cromwell and Charles II, invested in property. In 1654, he purchased the lease on land south of St Jamess Park, Downing planned to build a row of town houses for persons of good quality to inhabit in. The street on which he built them now bears his name, straightforward as the investment seemed, it proved otherwise. The Hampden family had a lease on the land that they refused to relinquish, Downing fought their claim, but failed and had to wait thirty years before he could build. When the Hampden lease expired, Downing received permission to build on land further west to take advantage of recent property developments. The new warrant issued in 1682 reads, Sir George Downing. to build new, subject to the proviso that it be not built any nearer than 14 feet of the wall of the said Park at the West end thereof.
Between 1682 and 1684, Downing built a cul-de-sac of two-storey town houses with coach-houses, over the years, the addresses changed several times. In 1787 Number 5 became Number 10, Downing employed Sir Christopher Wren to design the houses. Although large, they were put up quickly and cheaply on soft soil with shallow foundations, the fronts were façades with lines painted on the surface imitating brick mortar
A mullion is a vertical element that forms a division between units of a window, door, or screen, or is used decoratively. When dividing adjacent window units, its purpose is to provide structural support to an arch or lintel above the window opening. Its secondary purpose may be as a support to the glazing of the window. When used to support glazing, they are teamed with horizontal elements called transoms which divide an openings upper part into one or more additional lights. In the commercial industry, the term floating mullion is applied to an interlock profile which is fitted in between a pair of double swing doors. Stone mullions were used in Armenian and Islamic architecture prior to the 10th century and they became common across Europe in the Romanesque architecture, with paired windows divided by a mullion, set beneath a single arch becoming a fashionable architectural form. The same structural form was used for open arcades as well as windows, in Gothic architecture windows became larger and arrangements of multiple mullions and openings were used, both for structure and ornament.
This is particularly the case in Gothic churches where stained glass is set in lead, mullioned windows of a simpler form continued to be used into the Renaissance and various Revival styles. Italian windows with a mullion, dividing the window into two equal elements are said to be biforate, or to parallel the Italian, bifore windows. Mullions may be made of any material, but wood and aluminum are most common, I. M. Pei used all-glass mullions in his design of JFK Airports Terminal 6, unprecedented at the time. Mullions are vertical elements and are confused with transoms, which lie horizontally. The word is confused with the muntin which is the word for the very small strips of wood or metal that divide a sash into smaller glass panes or lights. A mullion acts as a member, in most applications the mullion transfers wind loads and weight of the glazing. Although in the instance of a wall screen, the mullions only support the weight of the transoms, glass. Also in the case of a wall screen the weight of glazing can be supported from above this puts the mullions under tension rather than compression.
In traditional designs today and transoms are normally used in combination with divided-light windows, came Glass mullion system Mullion wall Muntin Stained glass Transom Müller, W. G. Vogel. Examples of houses with mullioned windows in the UK
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements, Architecture can mean, A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures. The art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures, the style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure Knowledge of art, technology, the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering services in connection with the design and construction of buildings. The earliest surviving work on the subject of architecture is De architectura. According to Vitruvius, a building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas, commonly known by the original translation – firmness, commodity.
An equivalent in modern English would be, Durability – a building should stand up robustly, utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing, according to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty primarily as a matter of proportion, for Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean. The most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only true Christian form of architecture. The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, Architecture was the art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men. That the sight of them contributes to his health, power.
For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance and his work goes on to state that a building is not truly a work of architecture unless it is in some way adorned. For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, but suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say, This is beautiful, le Corbusiers contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said Architecture starts when you carefully put two bricks together. The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design, function came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural
Alice Roosevelt Longworth
Alice Lee Roosevelt Longworth was an American writer and prominent socialite. She was the eldest child of U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt, Alice led an unconventional and controversial life. She temporarily became a Democrat during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, Alice Lee Roosevelt was born in the Roosevelt family home at 6 West 57th St. in New York City. Her mother, Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt, was a Boston banking heiress and her father, was a New York State Assemblyman. As an Oyster Bay Roosevelt, Alice is a descendant of the Schuyler family, two days after her birth, in the same house, her mother died of undiagnosed kidney failure. Eleven hours earlier that day, Theodores mother Martha Stewart Mittie Bulloch had died of typhoid fever, Theodore was rendered so distraught by his wifes death that he could not bear to think about her. He almost never spoke of her again, would not allow her to be mentioned in his presence, his daughter Alice was called Baby Lee instead of her name.
She continued this practice late in life, often preferring to be called Mrs. L rather than Alice, seeking solace, Theodore retreated from his life in New York and headed west, where he spent two years traveling and living on his ranch in North Dakota. He left his infant daughter in the care of his sister Anna, There are letters to Bamie that reveal Theodores concern for his daughter. In one 1884 letter, he wrote, I hope Mousiekins will be very cunning, Bamie had a significant influence on young Alice, who would speak of her admiringly, If auntie Bye had been a man, she would have been president. Bamie took her into her care, moving Alice into her book-filled Manhattan house. After Theodores marriage to Edith Kermit Carow, Alice was raised by her father and stepmother and Ediths five children were Theodore III, Ethel and Quentin. They remained married until his death in January 1919, during much of Alices childhood, Bamie was a remote figure who eventually married and moved to London for a time.
But later, as Alice became more independent and came into conflict with her father and stepmother, Aunt Bye provided needed structure, late in life, she said of her Aunt Bye, There is always someone in every family who keeps it together. In ours, it was Auntie Bye, Edith once angrily told her that if Alice Hathaway Lee had lived, she would have bored Theodore to death. Alice, frequently spoiled with gifts, matured into young womanhood and, in the course, when her father was Governor of New York, he and his wife proposed that Alice attend a conservative school for girls in New York City. Pulling out all the stops, Alice wrote, If you send me I will humiliate you, I will do something that will shame you. In years, Alice expressed admiration for her stepmothers sense of humor, when her father took office in 1901 following the assassination of President William McKinley, Jr. Alice was known as a rule-breaker in an era when women were under great pressure to conform
A roof lantern is a daylighting cupola architectural element. Architectural lanterns are atop a roof and provide natural light into the space or room below. In contemporary use it is an architectural skylight structure, the term roof top lantern is used to describe the lighted decorative lanterns atop taxi cabs in Japan, designed to reflect the cultural heritage of Japanese paper lanterns. The glazed lantern was developed during the Middle Ages, roof lanterns of masonry and glass were used in Renaissance architecture, such as in principal cathedrals. Post-Renaissance roof lanterns were made of timber and glass and were prone to leaking. “Initially wood-framed in the 18th and 19th centuries, skylights became even more popular in construction with the advent of sheet-metal shops during the Victorian era. Virtually every urban row house of the late-19th and early-20th centuries relied upon a skylight to illuminate its enclosed stairwell. Typically, roof lanterns are constructed using wood, UPVC or aluminium and they serve as an architectural feature, distinguished from commercial manufactured skylights by their custom design, providing unique views to the outdoors.
Traditional architectural styles characterise most roof lanterns in the UK, in the U. S. where the term custom skylight is often used, modern styles of roof lanterns are common in the building vernacular. Daylighting Passive daylighting Cupola Conservatory Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Lantern
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series and it is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earths outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earths crust, like the other group 8 elements and osmium, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +6, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen, fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust. Unlike the metals that form passivating oxide layers, iron oxides occupy more volume than the metal and thus flake off, Iron metal has been used since ancient times, although copper alloys, which have lower melting temperatures, were used even earlier in human history. Pure iron is soft, but is unobtainable by smelting because it is significantly hardened and strengthened by impurities, in particular carbon. A certain proportion of carbon steel, which may be up to 1000 times harder than pure iron.
Crude iron metal is produced in blast furnaces, where ore is reduced by coke to pig iron, further refinement with oxygen reduces the carbon content to the correct proportion to make steel. Steels and iron alloys formed with metals are by far the most common industrial metals because they have a great range of desirable properties. Iron chemical compounds have many uses, Iron oxide mixed with aluminium powder can be ignited to create a thermite reaction, used in welding and purifying ores. Iron forms binary compounds with the halogens and the chalcogens, among its organometallic compounds is ferrocene, the first sandwich compound discovered. Iron plays an important role in biology, forming complexes with oxygen in hemoglobin and myoglobin. Iron is the metal at the site of many important redox enzymes dealing with cellular respiration and oxidation and reduction in plants. A human male of average height has about 4 grams of iron in his body and this iron is distributed throughout the body in hemoglobin, muscles, bone marrow, blood proteins, ferritin and transport in plasma.
The mechanical properties of iron and its alloys can be evaluated using a variety of tests, including the Brinell test, Rockwell test, the data on iron is so consistent that it is often used to calibrate measurements or to compare tests. An increase in the content will cause a significant increase in the hardness. Maximum hardness of 65 Rc is achieved with a 0. 6% carbon content, because of the softness of iron, it is much easier to work with than its heavier congeners ruthenium and osmium. Because of its significance for planetary cores, the properties of iron at high pressures and temperatures have been studied extensively
Thirteen years after her death, she was portrayed on the Broadway stage by Barbra Streisand in the musical Funny Girl and its 1968 film adaptation, for which Streisand won an Oscar. Fania Borach was born in New York City, the child of Rose, a Hungarian Jewish woman who emigrated to America at age ten. The Boraches were saloon owners and had four children, born in 1887, born in 1889, born in 1891, under the name Lew Brice, her younger brother became an entertainer and was the first husband of actress Mae Clarke. In 1908, Brice dropped out of school to work in a burlesque revue, two years she began her association with Florenz Ziegfeld, headlining his Ziegfeld Follies from 1910 to 1911. She was hired again in 1921 and performed in the Follies into the 1930s, in the 1921 Follies, she was featured singing My Man, which became both a big hit and her signature song. She made a recording of it for Victor Records. The second song most associated with Brice is Second Hand Rose and she recorded nearly two dozen record sides for Victor and cut several for Columbia.
She is a recipient of a Grammy Hall of Fame Award for her 1921 recording of My Man. Brices Broadway credits include Fioretta and Low, and Billy Roses Crazy Quilt and her films include My Man, Be Yourself. and Everybody Sing with Judy Garland. According to film historian Richard Barrios, My Man is a lost film, Ray Bolger and Harriet Hoctor were the only original Ziegfeld performers to portray themselves in The Great Ziegfeld and Ziegfeld Follies. For her contribution to the picture industry, she has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at MP6415 Hollywood Boulevard. Brices first regular radio show was probably The Chase & Sanborn Tea Hour, from the 1930s until her death in 1951, Fanny made a radio presence as a bratty toddler named Snooks, a role she premiered in a Follies skit co-written by playwright Moss Hart. Baby Snooks premiered in The Ziegfeld Follies of the Air in February 1936 on CBS, with Alan Reed playing Lancelot Higgins, her beleaguered Daddy. In September 1944, Brices longtime Snooks sketch writers, Philip Rapp and David Freedman, brought in partners, Arthur Stander and Everett Freeman, to develop an independent, the program launched on CBS in 1944, moving to NBC in 1948, with Freeman producing.
First called Post Toasties Time, the show was renamed The Baby Snooks Show within short order, though in years it was known colloquially as Baby Snooks. On the spinoff version of Baby Snooks, Hanley Stafford played Daddy, with Reed instead appearing as Daddys employer, Stafford eventually became the longest-running actor to portray the Daddy character. Brice was so meticulous about the program and the character that she was known to perform in costume as a toddler girl even though seen only by the radio studio audience. She was 45 years old when the character began her long radio life and she was completely devoted to the character, as she told biographer Norman Katkov, Snooks is just the kid I used to be
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content provide media to deliver, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books, Publishing includes the following stages of development, copy editing, production and marketing and distribution. There are two categories of book publisher, Non-paid publishers, A non-paid publisher is a house that does not charge authors at all to publish their books. Paid publishers, The author has to meet with the expense to get the book published. This is known as vanity publishing, at a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publishers established circle of writers, for works written independently of the publisher, writers often first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher.
Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers ultimately choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict no unsolicited submissions policy and this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Literary agents take a percentage of earnings to pay for their services. Some writers follow a route to publication. Such books often employ the services of a ghostwriter, for a submission to reach publication, it must be championed by an editor or publisher who must work to convince other staff of the need to publish a particular title.
An editor who discovers or champions a book that becomes a best-seller may find their reputation enhanced as a result of their success. Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of property rights. The authors of traditional printed materials typically sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed. In the case of books, the publisher and writer must agree on the formats of publication —mass-market paperback