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Transport in Andorra

Andorra is a landlocked country in Europe, whose transport infrastructure is road-based. Andorra has no railways, never had, although the line connecting Latour-de-Carol and Toulouse, which in turn connects to France's TGVs at Toulouse, runs within 2 kilometres of the Andorran border. One station in France is connected by bus to Andorra la VellaL'Hospitalet-près-l'Andorre. A bus service used to run to Latour-de-Carol, served by both SNCF's line to Toulouse and Spain's line to Barcelona. A new public transport system, "Metro Aeri", was proposed by the government in 2004, but has not been built, it would have been an elevated cable metro system. Andorra has a network of roads, with a total length of 269 km, of which 198 km are paved, leaving 71 km of unpaved road; the main road to the north goes through the Envalira pass, 2,409 metres high but open all year round as it has a tunnel as well. The two main roads out of Andorra la Vella are the CG-1 to the Spanish border, the CG-2 to the French border via the Envalira Tunnel near Pas de la Casa.

In winter, the main roads in Andorra are quickly cleared of snow and remain accessible, but the main road out of Andorra on the French side is less cleared and is sometimes closed by avalanches. Other main roads out of Andorra la Vella are the CG-3 and CG-4 to Pal, respectively. Secondary roads and trails cross the border but are sometimes closed in winter because of deep snows. Bus services cover all metropolitan areas and many rural communities, with services on most major routes running half-hourly or more during peak travel times. There are frequent long-distance bus services from Andorra to Barcelona and Barcelona Airport, to Toulouse and Toulouse Airport, in each case taking 3 hours. Bus routes serve Girona Airport and Portugal via Lleida. Bus services are run by private companies, but some local ones are operated by the government; the private bus companies are Autocars Nadal, Camino Bus, Cooperativa Interurbana Andorrana, Hispano Andorrana, Novatel. Buses, the principal means of mass transit, provide regular service to la Seu d'Urgell and Barcelona in Spain, to Perpignan in France.

Among several cable cars, the most important operates between Engolasters Lake. There are no airports for fixed-wing aircraft within Andorra's borders but there are, heliports in La Massana and Escaldes-Engordany with commercial helicopter services. Nearby airports located in Spain and France provide access to international flights for the Principality. There is an airport located in the neighbouring Spanish comarca of Alt Urgell, 12 km south of the Andorran-Spanish border, named Andorra–La Seu d'Urgell Airport. Since July 2015 it has operated commercial flights to Madrid and Palma de Mallorca, is the main hub for Air Andorra and Andorra Airlines; as of 11 July 2018, there are no regular commercial flights at the airport. The nearest other airports are at Perpignan and Lleida, Spain; the largest nearby airports are at Toulouse and Barcelona, Spain. There are hourly bus services from both the Toulouse airports to Andorra. Transport in France Transport in Spain Visa policy of Andorra This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2000 edition".

Media related to Transport in Andorra at Wikimedia Commons Andorra Public Transport Transport ministry of Andorra

Delta Scorpii

Delta Scorpii is a binary star in the constellation of Scorpius. The primary star is named Dschubba. Delta Scorpii is 2.0 degrees south of the ecliptic. In 1981 it was occulted by Saturn's rings as seen by Voyager 2, with starlight unexpectedly blocked by the empty gaps, indicating that "there is little empty space anywhere in the main ring system." Delta Scorpii A is a Gamma Cassiopeiae variable star. This type of star shows irregular slow brightness variations of a few hundredths of a magnitude due to material surrounding the star. In June 2000 Delta Scorpii was observed by Sebastian Otero to be 0.1 magnitudes brighter than normal. Spectra taken after the outburst began have shown that the star is throwing off luminous gases from its equatorial region; the companion passed close by in 2011, again resulting in the star peaking at 1.65 between 5 and 15 July 2011. Δ Scorpii is the system's Bayer designation. The two components are designated Delta Scorpii A and B. Delta Scorpii bore the traditional name Dschubba.

In 2016 the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names to catalogue and standardize proper names for stars. The WGSN approved the name Dschubba for δ Scorpii A on 21 August 2016 and it is now so entered in the IAU Catalog of Star Names. In Chinese, 房宿, meaning Room, refers to an asterism consisting of δ Scorpii, β1 Scorpii, β2 Scorpii, π Scorpii, ρ Scorpii; the Chinese name for δ Scorpii itself is 房宿三, "the Third Star of Room". Δ Scorpii was once used as a spectroscopic standard for the B0 IV classification, but is now considered too unusual and variable. The primary, δ Scorpii A, is a B class subgiant surrounded by a disc of material spun off by the rotating star; the secondary, δ Scorpii B, orbits every 10.5 years in a elongated elliptical orbit. There have been reports that Delta Scorpii A is itself a close spectroscopic binary, but this does not appear to be the case.δ Scorpii is a proper motion member of the Upper Scorpius subgroup of the Scorpius–Centaurus OB association, the nearest such co-moving association of massive stars to the Sun.

The Upper Scorpius subgroup contains thousands of young stars with mean age 11 million years at average distance of 470 light years. Jim Kaler's Stars, University of Illinois: Dschubba Delta Scorpii brighter than Delta Scorpii still showing off Delta Scorpii: the birth of a Be star

James Russell McCoy

James Russell McCoy served as Magistrate of the British Overseas Territory of Pitcairn Island 7 times, between 1870 and 1904. McCoy was among the first wave of settlers to return to Pitcairn from Norfolk Island in 1859, he was the son of Margaret Christian. His son Matthew Edmond McCoy served as Magistrate, was among the last islanders to hold the surname McCoy. Through his daughter Adelia, he is a grandfather of Warren Clive Christian, Ivan Christian, a great-grandfather of Steve Christian and Brenda Christian, he appears as Magistrate "James Russell Nickoy" in Mark Twain's 1879 story "The Great Revolution in Pitcairn." There he is forced to resign his post through the political intrigue of an American interloper, Butterworth Stavely. Jack London reinvented McCoy as a mythic hero and agent of redemption in the short story "The Seed of McCoy," based on a true incident of piloting a burning ship to safety in 1900

Patricia McGee

Patricia K. "Pat" McGee was a longtime New York State Senator from Franklinville, New York. McGee was a registered Republican for her entire political career, was cross-endorsed by the Conservative Party of New York. Prior to her foray into politics, McGee worked as a secretary and administrative assistant at Franklinville Central School and the Olean campus of Jamestown Community College. McGee's political career began in 1978 as she was elected to the Cattaraugus County Legislature, where she served for 10 years, served as that county's first female majority leader. McGee was elected in 1987 in a special election to fill the 149th Assembly District seat caused by the resignation of longtime incumbent Daniel B. Walsh of Olean. Walsh had resigned in early 1987 to accept a policy position with the Business Council of New York State. In the assembly, McGee served on many committees. In 1998, she was tapped to replace Jess Present, who had died, in the New York State Senate. Moving to the Republican-dominated Senate led to McGee earning the title of chairperson on the Agriculture Committee, the Commission on Rural Resources and the Committee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse, as well as serving prominently on numerous other committees.

She was seen as a conservative maverick. McGee was instrumental in helping her longtime associate in the State Senate, Randy Kuhl, get elected to Congress in 2004. Kuhl had served as state senator in a neighboring district to McGee's. In addition to her legislative work, McGee was a frequent columnist, her columns, more than press releases, were published in the Cattaraugus County Chronicle and on her own Web site. On April 2, 2005, McGee died at Kenmore Mercy Hospital in Kenmore, New York due to pulmonary fibrosis. To this day, McGee is seen in a high regard as a New York State politician, her status in Cattaraugus County borders on legendary; the Pat McGee Trail, the cornerstone of Cattaraugus County's trail system built on 12 miles of abandoned railbed from Cattaraugus, New York to Salamanca, New York, bears her name. McGee was succeeded in the State Senate by Catharine Young. Article from the Olean Times Herald on McGee's passing Senator McGee's Web site, right after her death at the Wayback Machine

Kenya at the Cricket World Cup

The Kenya national cricket team is the team that represents the country of Kenya in international cricket matches. Kenya was part of the East Africa cricket team which became an associate member of the ICC in 1966, competed in the first World Cup. Kenya first competed as an independent nation at the 1996 Cricket World Cup, after which they were given full ODI status, which they held until 2014, when they finished fifth in the 2014 Cricket World Cup Qualifier. Kenya's best performance at the Cricket World Cup was in 2003. White: Group/Round-Robin Stage Green: Quarter-Finals/Super Six/Super 8 Light Blue: Semifinals Silver: Runner Up Gold: Champions 1996 was Kenya's debut at the Cricket World Cup, they were drawn against co-hosts Sri Lanka, Australia, West Indies and Zimbabwe. Kenya beat the West Indies, but lost their other 4 games, were eliminated after the Group Stages. In the 1999 World Cup itself, they were placed in the same first round group as hosts England, India, South Africa, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe.

They lost all five of their games in the tournament. The 2003 Cricket World Cup was to be Kenya's finest moment in international cricket to date; the tournament was to be held in South Africa, with Kenya hosting their two matches against Sri Lanka and New Zealand. The tournament started with a defeat to South Africa, but Kenya bounced back with a four wicket win over Canada in Cape Town. New Zealand forfeited their match against Kenya in Nairobi due to safety concerns, but Sri Lanka did visit Nairobi and lost by 53 runs; the tournament continued, back in South Africa, with a win over Bangladesh and a defeat to the West Indies. Kenya had done enough to qualify for the Super Six stage, becoming the first non-test nation to progress beyond the first round of the World Cup. In the Super Six stage, they lost to India and Australia, but beat Zimbabwe by seven wickets, qualifying for the semi-final. In the Semi-Final, Kenya lost to India by 91 runs; the fairytale ended for the Kenyan team, the only non-Test-playing nation to make a World Cup semi-final.

Sachin Tendulkar and Sourav Ganguly, batted the Kenyans out of the game as India careered to a total of 270. Under the Durban lights, the potent Indian seam attack of Zaheer Khan, the experienced Javagal Srinath and Ashish Nehra careered through the Kenyan top order. Kenya were bowled out with only Steve Tikolo putting up any significant resistance. Kenya hosted Division One of the World Cricket League at three grounds in Nairobi, playing against Bermuda, Ireland, the Netherlands and Scotland. Kenya won this event, beating Scotland in the final; this was followed by Kenya's fourth World Cup. Kenya beat Canada in the first round, but lost to England and New Zealand, thus missing out on the Super Eight stage. Kenya captain Steve Tikolo was named man of the match after playing all the way through the chase, coming in at 52 for two, with David Obuya and Ravindu Shah dismissed in single figures with a strike rate below 25. Only Canada's captain John Davison conceded less than 3.5 runs an over, as the three first Canadian bowlers, Umar Bhatti, Anderson Cummins and Henry Osinde conceded 16 wides among the 107 runs in 22.2 overs.

The Kenyan spinners, on the other hand, took five for 78 from 29 overs, "strangling the scoring rate." Cummins became the second man to play World Cup cricket for two different countries, having represented West Indies in 1992. Ed Joyce's second fifty in as many matches helped England qualify for the Super Eights in what was a play-off match, eliminating 2003 semi-finalists Kenya. Steve Tikolo came in at four after James Anderson had removed both openers, though he made his 20th half-century, none of his team-mates passed 20. Extras were the second-highest contributor, with six wides and eight no-balls, most of the latter coming from Sajid Mahmood and Andrew Flintoff, who bowled three no-balls each. Flintoff did get Tikolo out with a yorker, while three of Kenya's players were run out as they were bowled out on the last ball of the rain-reduced innings. Kenya's opening bowler Peter Ongondo extracted "tennis-ball bounce" to remove Michael Vaughan for one with the 19th ball of the game. With Kevin Pietersen getting a fifty, England made it through with ten overs to spare.

Kenya qualified for the 2011 Cricket World Cup, but failed to win a single match, being eliminated in the Group Stages. The first match of Group A saw Kenya taking on the New Zealanders. Kenya elected to bat first on a pitch which seemed to have a lot of runs. However, the New Zealanders started well, restricting the Kenyans for runs throughout the first 6 overs; the pressure paid off as Tim Southee trapped Alex Obanda in front with the score at 16 after 7 overs. Fellow opener Seren Waters and Collins Obuya tried to rebuild but Hamish Bennett came into the attack and got Waters lbw to make the score 40/2. Bennett ripped through the Kenyan batting and got 3 more wickets in double-quick time to reduce the Kenyans to 49/5; the shattered Kenyans folded, with only Rakep Patel offering resistance with 16 not out as Southee and Jacob Oram finished off the tail to get Kenya all out for 69 in 23.5 overs. The New Zealand openers started off in their small chase, with Martin Guptill doing most of the early scoring.

Brendon McCullum was bowled off a free hit but got into his stride and finished off the game with two successive boundaries

Opatowiec

Opatowiec is a town in Kazimierza County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in south-central Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Opatowiec, it lies in Lesser Poland, on the left bank of the Vistula 18 kilometres east of Kazimierza Wielka and 73 km south of the regional capital Kielce. In 2006 the village had a population of 410. Opatowiec has a long history, it was granted town charter as early as 1271, stripped of it by Russian authorities in 1869. The village is located on National Road Nr. 79. Local points of interest include a 15th-century Dominican church, a monument to Józef Piłsudski next to the Vistula river; the village of Opatowiec was first mentioned in 1085, when Judyta, the wife of Prince Władysław I Herman, presented it to the Benedictine Abbey from Tyniec. In 1271, Prince Boleslaw V the Chaste granted Opatowiec Magdeburg rights town charter, upon request of abbot Modlibob; the town became a local trade center, due to its location along the Vistula waterway, on a merchant road from Silesia to Kievan Rus.

In 1283, abbot Tomasz from Tyniec founded here a Dominican Order abbey, in 1341, King Kazimierz Wielki granted Opatowiec the right to organize fairs. In the mid-14th century, Opatowiec had 1,500 inhabitants. Here, in 1474, a congress of Lesser Poland’s szlachta took place, during which war with Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus was discussed. In the same year, King Kazimierz Jagiellończyk hosted at Opatowiec envoys from the Republic of Venice, to discuss war with the Ottoman Empire. By 1500, Opatowiec had a parish church, bath houses and several guilds. In 1579, it had 55 different workshops, four mills. For centuries, the town belonged to Wiślica County of Lesser Poland's Sandomierz Voivodeship. Like all municipal centers of Lesser Poland, the town was destroyed by Swedish soldiers in the Deluge. In 1772, when after the first partition of Poland, the Tyniec abbey became part of Austrian Galicia, Opatowiec changed hands and became the property of the government. Soon afterwards, it was purchased by the Walewski family.

In 1815, the town was part of Russian-controlled Congress Poland, began to lose its importance. By 1862, it had 67 houses. In 1869, as a punishment for January Uprising, it was stripped of its town charter and became a village. Opatowiec was destroyed in World War I, further destruction was brought by World War II. In September 1939, the village was burned by the Wehrmacht, on Sept. 8, 1939, German soldiers shot here 45 Polish prisoners of war. On July 28, 1944, a skirmish took place here between a local Home Army unit and the Russian Liberation Army; as a result, the village was burned, 31 persons were murdered, including children. It regained its urban status on 1 January 2019, becoming the smallest town in Poland, with only 338 inhabitants