Transport in Nicaragua
Transport in Nicaragua revolves around road and water transport modalities. The road infrastructure is well spread across the Pacific side, while the Atlantic side has less infrastructure; as of 2009, from a total of 19,137 km 2,033 km are paved and 17,104 km are unpaved. Public transport in Nicaragua is served by buses on both short and wide range distances. There are five different types, based on the size of the vehicle, target group, frequency of stops and distance. Urban buses can be found in Managua, Estelí, León, Chinandega and Bluefields. In most cases, passengers have to pay for each ride on a bus, with the need to pay again when switching to another; the costs differ from 2.50 C$ in Managua to 10 C$ in Bluefields. An urban bus in Nicaragua takes the same road multiple times per day, following a more or less strict schedule; the organization of the buses in different towns differs as every town is organizing it on their own behave. In Estelí every bus driver is assisted by two persons helping them.
Bus drivers in Managua have to manage their job on their own. Another fact that differs are the vehicles used in the different cities. In Managua urban buses sponsored by Russia are used, in Estelí former school buses from the United States, in Bluefields japanese light commercial vans and in León pickup trucks that got extended with seats and a roof; the quality of bus stops heavily differs. In the center of Managua many proper bus stops exist with roofs or at least signs, in other areas there isn't any indication of a bus stop. Buses serve a network of established stops with common names known by bus assistants. Passengers need to ask where and when which bus stops. To improve the accessibility of public transport, in 2016 the OpenStreetMap group in Nicaragua MapaNica crowdsourced with the help of more than 150 citizens of Managua the first bus transit map in whole Central America. In 2018, they made this data machine-accessible, serving it today in different apps on several platforms. Suburban buses connect larger cities with communities in outer areas.
They only stop a few times inside the city nearly everywhere where passengers request to get off. Like with urban buses, a team serves a route several times per day and the service is organized by the local government. Prices can vary depending on the distance. Connecting two or more cities, Ruteados are the biggest part of bus services in Nicaragua. Express buses connect, like Ruteados and share taxis, two or more cities, but with less stops, resulting in a faster travel time. Share taxis are called Interlocales in Nicaragua and connect two or more cities, like Ruteados and express buses, with the main difference that they depart from the bus station once they are filled either or with passengers. Like express buses, they nearly don't stop between destination. Several airports are serving both international flights; as of 2013, 147 airports exist in Nicaragua. Nicaragua's main international airport is Managua International Airport. In total, there are 12 airports with paved runways with the following lengths: 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 4 In total, there are 135 airports with unpaved runways with the following lengths: 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 15 under 914 m: 119 Nicaragua offers 2,220 km of water transport roads, including the two large lakes Lake Nicaragua and Lake Managua.
A Nicaragua Canal was planned but canceled on 21 February 2018. Bluefields El Bluff Puerto Cabezas Corinto Puerto Sandino San Juan del Sur El Rama Since September 2001, all rail transport has been suspended in Nicaragua. FERISTSA German article "Yesterday and Today: Public Transport in Nicaragua" Transportation in Nicaragua
Transport in Greenland
The transportation system in Greenland is unusual in that Greenland has no railways, no inland waterways, no roads between towns. The major means of transportation has been by boat around the coast in summer and by dog sled in winter in the north and east. While Germany occupied Denmark during World War II, the United States controlled Greenland and built bases and airports; the airports were codenamed as Bluie West One through to Bluie West Eight on the west of the island and Bluie East One to Bluie East Four on the eastern side. The largest of those airports, Bluie West Eight, now renamed Kangerlussuaq Airport, remains the international hub for travel to Greenland, as it is the only airport that has a long enough runway to service jumbo jets. American authorities at one time entertained the idea of building a road from Kangerlussuaq to the second-largest airport, in Narsarsuaq, several hundred kilometres to the south; the idea was abandoned. These airbases are not located near settlements, so travellers need an air transfer by helicopter to reach settlements.
All civil aviation matters are handled by the Civil Aviation Administration Denmark or the Greenland Airport Authority. Greenland now has 18 airstrips; some are based on US airbases. All domestic flights are operated by Air Greenland; the name was anglicized in 2002 from the Danish Grønlandsfly. International flights are limited to four weekly flights from Copenhagen to Kangerlussuaq, to Reykjavik, Iceland. Air Iceland flies from Reykjavík to Narsarsuaq, it offers "day trips to the wilderness" from Reykjavík to Kulusuk on the east coast. Air Iceland flies to Ittoqqortoormiit over Kulusuk twice a week throughout the year. Flights from Reykjavik are flown throughout the year. Year-round flights from Reykjavik to Ilulissat will be offered after April 2011. From 2012 Air Greenland operates a route from Iqaluit in Canada to Nuuk during summer. Air cargo is important for Greenland. Most perishable foodstuff is imported from Denmark by air, it uses the Air Greenland Copenhagen–Kangerlussuaq passenger aircraft, this is a reason why such a large aircraft is used.
The air containers are transported to the other airports by the small planes that can use the small runways. Some air cargo is transported by boat from Kangerlussuaq, but not in the winter when the Kangerlussuaq Fjord freezes. A state-owned firm called Kalaallit Airports is tasked with operating and updating the airports in Nuuk and Ilulissat; this process has been contentious as Chinese firms bid for the contract, with one Danish PM stating "We don't want a communist dictatorship in our backyard,". There are no roads between settlements, only around them. There are 150 km of roads in the whole country; the roads are primary or local roads, there are no highways in Greenland. Speed limit ranges from 50 kilometres per hour for local roads to 80 kilometres per hour on primary roads; some farms in the south have extensive simple roads for all-terrain vehicles, used for sheep farming and hay collection. There are plans for a 170-kilometre-long road between Sisimiut and Kangerlussuaq, discussed for several years.
In 2015 the cost of it caused it to be replanned as a one-lane road for terrain capable vehicles, costing a tenth as much. It is still not decided. There are ports at Ilulissat, Qaqortoq, Nuuk and Sisimiut. Several other towns have small ports; the only two users of the harbors are Arctic Umiaq Line. Royal Arctic Line organises freight ships, for example container ships, with regular sailings from Denmark. Arctic Umiaq Line runs a passenger ship which carries freight; the distance from Denmark to Nuuk by ship is 3,800 kilometres, so more perishable foodstuff is imported by air. There are no car ferries to Greenland, it is possible to transport cars as container freight with Royal Arctic Line. Passengers must travel with another method; this is done when moving or buying a car, not when travelling, as there is no large road network anywhere. Special-purpose narrow gauge railways, such as the 600 mm gauge Qoornoq X-press in the village of Qoornoq in the Nuuk fjord, have operated; the Qoornoq X-press was used for transporting fish from the harbour to scaffolds for drying.
The railway cars were only flatbed wagon cars with no locomotives to move them. Built in 1955, the railway was abandoned shortly before the village around 1971. Besides Qoornoq there are several other railways that existed in Greenland: Malmbjerget Mestersvig - for the local mines that existed in the 1950s and 1960s Julianehaab Ivigtut - for the local mine that once operated in the community Disko Island near Qutdligssat Maamorilik Media related to Transport in Greenland at Wikimedia Commons
Transport in Martinique
As of 2000, Martinique had 2,105 km of paved highways. There is a part of the N5 road, upgraded as a motorway, running from the capital Fort-de-France through Lamentin and Rivière Salée until Les Coteaux. Martininique has now only one railway line in operation: The little-known 2.5 km long Le Train des Plantations is a heritage railway that runs from the Rhum Museum in Sainte-Marie through some sugarcane and banana plantations over two Bailey bridges to the Banana Museum. In former times several narrow gauge sugarcane railways existed. Saint-Pierre had horse-drawn trams. At least two steam locomotives are preserved in an optically refurbished condition, but not operational. There are harbours at Fort-de-France and La Trinité, it has the main one being Martinique Aimé Césaire International Airport. See List of Airports in Martinique
A moped is a type of small motorcycle with bicycle pedals having a less stringent licensing requirement than full motorcycles or automobiles. Mopeds travel only a bit faster than bicycles on public roads, possess both a motorcycle engine and pedals for propulsion. Mopeds are distinguished from scooters in that latter tends to be more powerful and subject to more regulation; some mopeds have a step-through frame design, while others have motorcycle frame designs, including a backbone and a raised fuel tank, mounted directly between the saddle and the head tube. Some resemble motorized bicycles. Most are similar to a regular motorcycle, but with pedals and a crankset that may be used with or instead of motor drive. Although mopeds have two wheels, some jurisdictions classify low-powered three- or four-wheeled vehicles as a moped. In some countries a moped can be any motorcycle with an engine capacity below 50cc; the word moped was coined by the Swedish journalist Harald Nielsen in 1952, as a portmanteau of the Swedish words "motor" and "pedaler".
The claimed derivation from the term motor-velocipede is incorrect. According to Douglas Harper, the Swedish terms originated from " mo ped", which means "pedal cycle with engine and pedals". Like some of the earliest two wheeled motorcycles, all mopeds were once equipped with bicycle pedals; the term moped has now been applied by some regional governments to vehicles without pedals such as motor scooters, based on criteria of restricted engine displacement, and/or power output. This is a misnomer, as they are no longer "mopeds" at all, might instead be called a "noped" if they appear to look like a typical moped, but no longer include pedals. Other terms used for low-powered cycles include motorbicycle, motorized bicycle, motor-driven cycle, goped; the term noped is sometimes used for mopeds. The term "moped" now only applies to low-power vehicles, but pedals were fitted to some early motorcycles, such as the pictured 1912 Douglas. Pedaling away from stationary was a great improvement over "run and jump" and light pedal assistance was valuable for climbing hills.
Better transmissions with wider ranges, better clutches and much better engine performance made pedals obsolete on most motorcycles by 1918 but the pedals on mopeds remained valuable for their original purposes as late as the 1990s. The earliest mopeds were bicycles with a helper motor in various locations, for example on top of the front wheel. An example of that type is the VéloSoleX brand, which has a roller driving the front tire. A more innovative design was known in the UK as the Cyclemaster; this had a complete powered rear wheel, substituted for the bicycle rear wheel, which originated from a design by two DKW engineers in Germany. Larger machines with a 98 cc engine were known as autocycles. On the other hand, some mopeds, such as the Czech-made Jawa, were derived from motorcycles. A further category of low-powered two-wheelers exists today in some jurisdictions for bicycles with helper motors – these are defined as power-assisted bicycles or motorized bicycles. Other jurisdictions may categorize the same machines as mopeds, creating a certain amount of confusion.
In many countries three-wheelers and microcars are classified as variations thereof. This practice is not restricted to the third world; the Ariel 3, a motorised three-wheeler is classed as a moped. In 1977, the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic considers the moped any two-wheeled or three-wheeled vehicle, fitted with an internal combustion engine having a cylinder capacity not exceeding 50 cc. Mopeds can achieve fuel economy of over 100 mpg‑US; the emissions of mopeds have been the subject of multiple studies. Studies have found that two-stroke 50 cc mopeds and without catalytic converters, emit ten to thirty times the hydrocarbons and particulate emissions of the outdated Euro 3 automobile standards. In the same study, four-stroke mopeds and without catalytic converters, emitted three to eight times the hydrocarbons and particulate emissions of the Euro 3 automobile standards. Approximate parity with automobiles was achieved with NOx emissions in these studies. Emissions performance was unaffected by fuel economy.
In the United States, the EPA allows motorcycles and mopeds with engine displacements less than 280cc to emit ten times the NOx and six times the CO as the median Tier II bin 5 automobile regulations. An additional air quality problem can arise from the use of moped and scooter transportation over automobiles, as a higher density of motorized vehicles can be supported by existing transportation infrastructure; the wide availability of previously-used but still functional small motorcycles in western societies enables and encourages cheap forms of racing. Dirt-racing forms of this sport are sometimes staged in the stadiums of agricultural shows, unlike football and athletic grounds, the surface is not too important. One popular series uses chicanes consisting of stacked large-diameter tractor tires and requires a team of riders, each doing ten laps and pulling into the middle of the ring for change-over. Two heats and a final, each lasting 25 minutes, can be held in one day interspersed with speedway racing and other displays.
Another series once held on full-size race-tracks, including Le Mans, ran for 25 hours (typically 3.00pm one day until 4.00pm the nex
Transportation in Canada
Transportation in Canada, the world's second-largest country in total area, is dedicated to having an efficient, high-capacity multimodal transport spanning vast distances between natural resource extraction sites and urban areas. Canada's transportation system includes more than 1,400,000 kilometres of roads, 10 major international airports, 300 smaller airports, 72,093 km of functioning railway track, more than 300 commercial ports and harbours that provide access to the Pacific and Arctic oceans as well as the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway. In 2005, the transportation sector made up 4.2% of Canada's GDP, compared to 3.7% for Canada's mining and oil and gas extraction industries. Transport Canada oversees and regulates most aspects of transportation within federal jurisdiction, including interprovincial transport; this includes rail and maritime transportation. Transport Canada is under the direction of the federal government's Minister of Transport; the Transportation Safety Board of Canada is responsible for maintaining transportation safety in Canada by investigating accidents and making safety recommendations.
There is a total of 1,042,300 km of roads in Canada, of which 415,600 km are paved, including 17,000 km of expressways. As of 2008, 626,700 km were unpaved. In 2009, there were 20,706,616 road vehicles registered in Canada, of which 96% were vehicles under 4.5 tonnes, 2.4% were vehicles between 4.5 and 15 t tonnes and 1.6% were 15 t or greater. These vehicles travelled a total of 333.29 billion kilometres, of which 303.6 billion was for vehicles under 4.5 t, 8.3 billion was for vehicles between 4.5 and 15 t and 21.4 billion was for vehicles over 15 t. For the 4.5 to 15 t trucks, 88.9% of vehicle-kilometres were intra-province trips, 4.9% were inter-province, 2.8% were between Canada and the US and 3.4% made outside of Canada. For trucks over 15 t, 59.1% of vehicle-kilometres were intra-province trips, 20% inter-province trips, 13.8% Canada-US trips and 7.1% trips made outside of Canada. Canada's vehicles consumed a total of 31.4 million cubic metres of gasoline and 9.91 million cubic metres of diesel.
Trucking generated 35% of the total GDP from transport, compared to 25% for rail and air combined. Hence roads are the dominant means of freight transport in Canada. Roads and highways were managed by provincial and municipal authorities until construction of the Northwest Highway System and the Trans-Canada Highway project initiation; the Alaska Highway of 1942 was constructed during World War II for military purposes connecting Fort St. John, British Columbia with Fairbanks, Alaska; the transcontinental highway, a joint national and provincial expenditure, was begun in 1949 under the initiation of the Trans Canada Highway Act on December 10, 1949. The 7,821 km highway was completed in 1962 at a total expenditure of $1.4 billion. Internationally, Canada has road links with Alaska; the Ministry of Transportation maintains the road network in Ontario and employs Ministry of Transport Enforcement Officers for the purpose of administering the Canada Transportation Act and related regulations. The Department of Transportation in New Brunswick performs a similar task in that province as well.
Regulations enacted in regards to Canada highways are the 1971 Motor Vehicle Safety Act and the 1990 Highway Traffic ActThe safety of Canada's roads is moderately good by international standards, is improving both in terms of accidents per head of population and per billion vehicle kilometers. Air transportation made up 9% of the transport sector's GDP generation in 2005. Canada's largest air carrier and its flag carrier is Air Canada, which had 34 million customers in 2006 and, as of April 2010, operates 363 aircraft. CHC Helicopter, the largest commercial helicopter operator in the world, is second with 142 aircraft and WestJet, a low-cost carrier formed in 1996, is third with 100 aircraft. Canada's airline industry saw significant change following the signing of the US-Canada open skies agreement in 1995, when the marketplace became less regulated and more competitive; the Canadian Transportation Agency employs transportation enforcement officers to maintain aircraft safety standards, conduct periodic aircraft inspections, of all air carriers.
The Canadian Air Transport Security Authority is charged with the responsibility for the security of air traffic within Canada. In 1994 the National Airports Policy was enacted Of over 1,800 registered Canadian aerodromes, certified airports and floatplane bases, 26 are specially designated under Canada's National Airports System: these include all airports that handle 200,000 or more passengers each year, as well as the principal airport serving each federal and territorial capital. However, since the introduction of the policy only one, Iqaluit Airport, has been added and no airports have been removed despite dropping below 200,000 passengers; the Government of Canada, with the exception of the three territorial capitals, retains ownership of these airports and leases them to local authorities. The next tier consists
Transport in Barbados
Barbados is an up-and-coming tourist country that provides reliable and safe transportation for natives and visitors alike. The country is small with a length of 21 miles and a width of 14 miles. Barbados has 1,600 kilometres of public paved roads, two active marine ports in, remnants of a railway system, one airport; as a former British colony, Barbados was influenced by the English culture and customs, which carried over into the infrastructure of Barbados. Similar to the driving habits in the United Kingdom, people in Barbados drive on the left side of the road. Barbados has a dependable highway system of main roads that stem from the country's capital, Bridgetown; the highways are identified by the numbers one to seven. H1 signifies the first highway; the numbering continues sequentially in a clockwise direction. The most popular highway throughout the island is the A. B. C. Highway. Throughout the Barbados roadways, the most prominent traffic junctions are the two lane roundabouts. Like roundabouts seen in the United States vehicles in the inner most lane of the roundabout have the right of way, however, in Barbados the traffic moves in clockwise direction.
The speed limit on all roads is 60 km/h. The speed limit on the ABC Highway and the Spring Garden Highway is 80 km/h. In 2010, an assessment released by the Economist Intelligence Unit of the United Kingdom, ranked Barbados 6th in the world, the top spot in the Western Hemisphere for road network density. In terms of traffic and accidents, the 2010 EIU report found that Barbados had 63.1 vehicles per kilometre of road on the island. A rank that placed Barbados as 23rd globally for number of vehicles, by the total surface area of roads. For accident totals, Barbados placed 12th globally for road victims per 100,000 people; the Ministry of Transport & Works of Barbados oversees the affairs of the nation's roads and the public transport system. Public transport services in Barbados include buses, share taxis, car rentals; some services run on a direct route to their destinations however, most public transport services require a connection through Bridgetown. The ZRs, are owned mini-vans that run on specific predetermined routes.
They are recognized by their white maroon stripe down the side. ZRs have a fixed fare of two dollars per person for one way. According to travel agencies, ZRs are not only the most reliable form of public transportation, but they provide entertainment to its customers. ZRs move and stop to pick up the maximum number of paying passengers in the shortest amount of time. Therefore, ZRs cramped spacing. Taxi services are available to natives and guests of the island. Taxis to the United States, provide transportation at a predetermined government rate; the bus services in Barbados are a mode of transportation that are available to all, natives are the predominant group that use the public buses. The Barbados Transport Board is a government organization, responsible for bus transportation; the board started as an organization on 24 August 1955 and has operated since. There are three hundred and four buses in use around the island. There are two types of large blue buses and yellow buses; the larger blue buses, are government-operated by the Barbados Transport Board and charge the same fee as the other services.
Adults have to pay the fee, but the public bus is free for all children in school uniforms, students with an institution ID that are under the age of eighteen and senior citizens. Unlike other transportation, Public government buses run on an exact fare system and are unable to give change. There are privately operated Mini- and Midibuses that are yellow with a blue stripe, they operate on the west and south coastline. The most popular routes are Bridgetown -- Bridgetown -- Sam Lord's Castle, they are able to give change. Car rental in Barbados is provided through any of several vehicle rental agencies, they offer a wide variety of vehicles from luxury cars to vans, smaller open top cars. Foreign drivers driving in Barbados require a temporary driver's licence in addition to an international licence. A proposal for a railway system in Barbados was first made in 1845 by Britain, it was not until 1881 that construction began on the new 3 ft 6 in narrow-gauge Barbados Railway by an independent country for the purpose of transporting sugar cane across the island to the seaport of Bridgetown.
It was converted to 2 ft 6 in narrow gauge by Everard Calthrop. From the early 20th century on, the railway system carried produce to and from factories to the city and passengers to and from the city. However, complications arose. There was a lack of funding for the upkeep of the system; the poor designs of the tracks and cars posed a challenge against the high tides of the Atlantic Ocean. To keep the railway in use, the government of Barbados took over in 1916. By 1937 the railway was shut down due to safety issues. There are still remnants of the railway today and many can be seen by the coastlines, and every year there is a marathon run & walk along the old route from Bridgetown to Carrington on the East Coast. In 1881 a horse-
Transport in Cuba
Transportation in Cuba is composed of a system of railways, airports, waterways and harbours: total: 8,285 km standard gauge: 8,125 km 1,435 mm gauge narrow gauge: 160 km gaugeCuba built the first railway system in the Spanish empire, before the 1848 start in the Iberian peninsula. While the rail infrastructure dates from colonial and early republican times, passenger service along the principal Havana to Santiago corridor is reliable and popular with tourists who can purchase tickets in Cuban convertible pesos; as with most public transport in Cuba, the vehicles used are second hand, the flagship Tren Francés between Havana and Santiago de Cuba is operated by coaches used in Europe between Paris and Amsterdam on the ex-TEE. The train is formed by a Chinese-built locomotive. With the order of 12 new Chinese locomotives, built specially for Cuban Railways at China Northern Locomotives and Rolling Stock Works, services have been improving in reliability; those benefiting the most are long distance freight services with the French train Havana-Santiago being the only passenger train using one of the new Chinese locomotives regularly.
Various orders are in place for 100 locomotives from China and various freight wagons and passenger coaches. Metro systems are not present in the island. Urban tramways were in operation between 1858 and 1954 as horse drawn systems. In the early 20th century electric trolley or storage battery powered tramways were introduced in seven cities. Of these overhead wire systems were adopted in Havana, Matanzas, Camagüey and Santiago de Cuba; the total length of Cuba's highways is 60,858 km, including paved: 29,820 km unpaved: 31,038 km Expressways include: the Autopista Nacional from Havana to Santa Clara and Sancti Spiritus, with additional short sections near Santiago and Guantanamo the Autopista Este-Oeste from Havana to Pinar del Río the Autopista del Mediodia from Havana to San Antonio de los Baños an autopista from Havana to Melena del Sur an autopista from Havana to Mariel the Havana ring road, which starts at a tunnel under the entrance to Havana Harbor the section of the Via Blanca from Matanzas to Varadero an autopista from Nueva Gerona to Santa Fe, in the Isla de la JuventudOlder roads include the Carretera Central, the Via Blanca from Havana to Matanzas.
There are several national bus companies in Cuba. Viazul operate a fleet of modern and comfortable coaches on longer distance routes designed principally for tourists. Schedules and ticket booking can be done on line, at any of the major international airports or National Terminals across Cuba. There are other bus lines operated by tourism companies. AstroBus, a bus service in Cuban National Pesos, designed to bring comfortable air conditioned coaches to Cuban locals at an affordable price; the AstroBus lines operate with modern Chinese YUTONG buses, are accessible to Cuban Residents of Cuba with their ID Card, is payable in Cuba Pesos. Routes that have benefited most so far are those from Havana to each of the 13 provincial capitals of the country. In Havana, urban transportation used to be provided by a colourful selection of buses imported from the Soviet Union or Canada. Many of these vehicles were second hand and despite the United States trade embargo, American-style yellow school buses are common sights.
On seven key lines in and out of the city, service is provided by Chinese Zhengzhou Yutong Buses. They replaced from 2008 the famous camellos, trailer buses that hauled as many as two hundred passengers in a passenger carrying trailer. After the upgrading of Seville's public bus fleet to CNG-powered and new vehicles, many of the decommissioned ones were donated to the city of Havana; these bright orange buses still display the name of Transportes Urbanos de Sevilla, S. A. M, their former owner, Seville's coat of arms as a sign of gratitude. In recent years, urban transport in Havana consists of modern Yutong diesel buses. Seville and Ikarus buses are gone. Since 2009, Cuba has imported sedans from Chinese automaker Geely to serve as police cars and rental vehicles; the Soviet Union supplied Volgas and Ladas, as well as heavy trucks like the ZIL and the KrAZ. It is estimated. Most new vehicles came to Cuba from the United States until the 1960 United States embargo against Cuba ended importation of both cars and their parts.
As many as 60,000 American vehicles are in nearly all in private hands. Of Cuba's vintage American cars, many have been modified with newer engines, disc brakes and other parts scavenged from Soviet cars, most bear the marks of decades of use. Pre-1960 vehicles remain the property of their original owners and descendants, can be sold to other Cubans providing the proper traspaso certificate is in place. In 2011, the Cuban government legalized the sale of used post-1959 autos. In December 2013, Cubans were allowed to buy new cars from state-run dealerships - this had not been permitted. However, the old American cars on the road today have "relatively high inefficiencies" due in large part to the lack of modern technology; this has resulted in increased fuel consumption as well as adding to the economic plight of its owners. With these inefficiencies, noticeable drop in tra