Quillacollo is the capital of Quillacollo Province in Cochabamba Department, Bolivia. The municipality was established on 14 September 1905 under the Presidency of Ismail Montes; the city of Quillacollo is located 13 km westward of Cochabamba City. Quillacollo's population is 74,980 based on the 2001 census; the National Statistics Institute estimated in 2010 that the population had grown unexpectedly to 142,724. The increase in population makes Quillacollo the second fastest growing city in Bolivia after El Alto in La Paz. Quillacollo City is one of the various provincial capitals around Cochabamba City, which are swallowed by the extending perimeter of "greater" Cochabamba. Quillacollo is linked to the city of Cochabamba through the Avenida Blanco Galindo, a busy stretch on the main national highway. Quillacollo is a market town with a sizable agricultural hinterland, but hosts some relevant industry and a district court which supports a relevant population of lawyers; the Virgen de Urqupiña festival is held annually on August 15.
It is dubbed the "Festival of National Integration" and sees a host of different activities, ranging from an extended folkloric spectacle, over a central Mass attended by the Bolivian president and other authorities, to a huge popular pilgrimage in the course of which people profess their Catholic faith, but engage in rituals which are seen as standing in an uneasy relationship with Catholic orthodoxy at best, or being outright pagan. People pray and offer promises to the Virgin of Urqupiña for money and luck. People greet pachamama with food, burying or spilling it on the floor. A curious rite held on this festivity is extracting rocks from a hill near the sanctuary of the Virgin, whether the rock is big or small, it has to be taken home with the people who cracked the rocky hill to get it, who must return it the next year, as a symbolic act to ask the Virgin to lend them something; the Urqupiña festival is annually attended by hundreds of thousands of faithful and national and international tourists, it is one of the biggest events of popular religiosity in South America.
Stretched out in preparations and aftermath over the entire month of August, the central days of the Urkupiña festival are August 14 to 16. While it falls on the same day as the Feast of the Assumption, so mirrors other Marian celebrations elsewhere, Urqupiña has spawned a variety of offshoots in other parts of the world, such as Argentina, Virginia and Sweden, wherever a sufficient number of followers of the Marian basilica of Quillacollo dwell. However, in addition to the pagan religions, Protestantism stands against the orthodoxy of the Church of Rome in Quillacollo, with various denominations represented, one of, the reformed baptist tradition, by the Iglesia de Quillacollo; the architecture of the city has a post-colonial blend. Contemporary architecture is seen in modern buildings. Gastronomy in the city is varied. Several restaurants are found in the city's streets; the city offers electronic artifacts cheaper than in Cochabamba. One of Quillacollo's main economic resources is tourism. Quillacollo has hostels to stay.
Flea markets and informal commerce abound in the city during the festivities. Sunday is market day. Asociación de Fraternidades Folklóricas "Virgen de Urqupiña" "Iglesia Evangelica Reformada, Tabernáculo de la Gracia"
In Hispanic countries, Montero is the name for Mitsubishi Pajero or Mitsubishi Challenger. For people named Montero, see Montero Montero is a city & a municipality in Santa Cruz, about 50 km north of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Population 109,503. Montero has experienced growth in recent decades. Montero has an elevation of 300 meters above sea level and an average temperature of 23 °C; the city is predominantly agricultural, producing soybeans, cotton and rice
Tarija or San Bernardo de la Frontera de Tarixa is a city in southern Bolivia. Founded in 1574, Tarija is the largest city & capital and municipality within the Tarija Department, with an airport offering regular service to primary Bolivian cities, as well as a regional bus terminal with domestic and international connections, its climate is semi-arid with mild temperatures in contrast to the harsh cold of the Altiplano and the year-round humid heat of the Amazon Basin. Tarija has a population of 234,442; the name of Tarija is said to come from Francisco de Tarija or Tarifa, researched information disproves that probability. Members of the first group of Spaniards to enter the valley where present-day Tarija is situated, stated that the name of Tarija was in use; this group did not include anyone by the name of Francisco de Tarija. Similar-sounding toponyms exist for surrounding places, such as Taxara. In 1826 the citizens of Tarija voted to become part of Bolivia. In 1807, Tarija had become separated from Upper Peru to become part of the jurisdiction of Salta, but because of its close ties to what became Bolivia, it returned to its original jurisdiction.
In 1899, Argentina renounced its claims in exchange for the Puna de Atacama. The valley that Tarija is situated in was first occupied by Western Hemispheric indigenous groups, such as the Churumatas and the Tomatas. Subsequently, the Inca Empire – administered by the Quechua civilization – conquered the land and dispersed the Churumatas and other local groups over wide territories of the Andes. Mitimaes is the Quechuan name that the Incas used for the resisting ethnic groups they uprooted and dispersed geographically; when the Spanish first arrived to the valley of Tarija they encountered several stone roads, most the remnants of pre-Incaic cultures, such as that of the Churumatas. However, during that period, the presence of indigenous peoples remained sparse within the valley. Several of the pre-Incaic roads and trials have been preserved, function as a walking trail for Tarijeños. Tarija has a semi-arid climate; the summers are warm and humid, while "winters” are dry, with any rainfall, temperatures warm during the day and cooler at night.
All the annual precipitation is received during the southern-hemisphere summer months. Freezes occur from May to October. Tarija's main plaza is surrounded by restaurants of various cuisines, local handicraft shops, internet cafes. Within immediate walking distance is the public market, a university campus, a number of tourist sights including the Paleontology Museum of Tarija City; the city includes higher-end restaurants as well as fast food restaurants like McRonalds and Homeros. Tarija's nightlife, including dance clubs, is popular with tourists. From Tarija, primary destinations and land routes coincide with the cardinal directions: Paraguay/the Gran Chaco, to the east via Yacuiba; the route to the altiplano and Potosí is much safer, as of December 2012. A new tunnel bypasses the mountain just west of the city of Tarija; the San Jacinto Dam is located a few kilometers south of Tarija, the Chorros de Jurina falls is located a few kilometers northwest from the city. Tarija's land and climate are adequate for wine production.
The Festival of Wine is held annually in Tarija. Tarija is regarded by Bolivian nationals and tourists alike as the "Bolivian Andalusia"; the Guadalquivir River that borders the city was named after the Spanish river of the same name. Residents of Tarija call themselves Chapacos, regardless of ethnic background. Although the origin of the name is uncertain, there is a hypothesis that it is a variation of chacapa, the name of an indigenous settlement in the region during early colonial times. During Bolivia's post-revolutionary period, the Chapacos voted in favor of being annexed by Bolivia instead of Argentina. For that reason, Tarijeños have been included among Bolivia's most patriotic people. However, the modern culture is isolated from the rest of urban Bolivia, in recent times, many Tarijeñans feel much more connected to Tarija itself than to the rest of Bolivia, their local creed is reflected in a famous, folkloric Cueca song, titled "Chapaco Soy". Reykjavík, Iceland Cobija, Bolivia Grimstad, Norway Brasschaat, Belgium Glasgow, United Kingdom Salta, Argentina Cannes, France Arica, Chile Seville, Spain Los Angeles, U.
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Cochabamba is a city and municipality in central Bolivia in a valley in the Andes mountain range. It is the capital of the Cochabamba Department and the fourth largest city in Bolivia, with a population of 630,587 according to the 2012 Bolivian census, its name is from a compound of the Quechua words qucha "lake" and pampa, "open plain." Residents of the city and the surrounding areas are referred to as cochalas or, more formally, cochabambinos. It is known as the "City of Eternal Spring" or "The Garden City" because of its spring-like temperatures all year round, it is known as "La Llajta," which means "town" in Quechua. The Cochabamba valley has been inhabited for thousands of years due to its fertile productive soils and mild climate. Archaeological evidence suggests that the initial inhabitants were of indigenous ethnic groups: Tiwanaku, Mojocoya and Inca inhabited the valley at times before the Spanish arrived; the area got its name, as part of the Inca civilization. The area was conquered by Topa Inca Yupanqui.
His son Huayna Capac turned Cochabamba into a large production enclave or state farm to serve the Incas. Depopulated during the conquest, Huayna Capac imported 14,000 people, called mitimas, to work the land; the principal crop was maize which could not be grown in much of the high and cold heartland of the Inca Empire. The maize was stored in 2,400 storehouses in the hills overlooking the valley or transported by llama caravan to storage sites in Paria, Cusco, of other Inca administrative centers. Most of the maize was used to sustain the Inca army during its campaigns; the first Spanish inhabitant of the valley was Garci Ruiz de Orellana in 1542. He purchased the majority of the land from local tribal chiefs Achata and Consavana through a title registered in 1552 at the Imperial City of Potosí; the price paid was 130 pesos. His residence, known as the House of Mayorazgo, stands in the Cala Cala neighborhood; the city, called Villa de Oropesa, was founded on 2 August 1571 by order of Viceroy Francisco de Toledo, Count of Oropesa.
It was to be an agricultural production centre to provide food and wood for the mining towns of the nearby Altiplano region Potosí which became one of the largest and richest cities in the world during the 16th and 17th centuries — funding the vast wealth that made Spain a world power. In fact, Anthropologist Jack Weatherford and others have cited the city of Potosí as the birth of capitalism because of the money it and materialism it provided Spain. Thus, with the silver mining industry in Potosi at its height, Cochabamba thrived during its first centuries. However, the city entered a period of decline during the 18th century. In 1786, King Charles III of Spain renamed the city to the ` valiant' Villa of Cochabamba; this was done to commend the city's pivotal role in suppressing the indigenous rebellions of 1781 in Oruro by sending armed forces to Oruro to quell the uprisings. Since the late 19th century it has again been successful as an agricultural centre for Bolivia; the 1793 census shows.
There were 12,980 mestizos, 6,368 Spaniards, 1,182 indigenous natives, 1,600 mulattos and 175 African slaves. In 1812, Cochabamba was the site of a riot against the Spanish Army. On May 27, thousands of women took up arms against the Spanish. According to historian Nathaniel Aguirre: "From Cochabamba, many men have fled. Not one woman. On the hillside, a great clamor. Cochabamba's plebeian women, at bay, fight from the center of a circle of fire. Surrounded by five thousand Spaniards, they resist with a few arquebuses. Whenever his army weakens, General Manuel Belgrano will shout those words which never fail to restore courage and spark anger; the general will ask his vacillating soldiers:'Are the women of Cochabamba present?"To celebrate their bravery, Bolivia now marks May 27 as Mother's Day. In 1900, the population was 21,886. Besides a number of schools and charitable institutions, the diocese has 55 parishes, 80 churches and chapels, 160 priests. In 1998, the International Monetary Fund agreed to give Bolivia a loan of $138 million to control inflation and promote economic growth.
However, it only agreed to do so on the condition that Bolivia sell "all remaining public enterprises," including its national oil refineries and the local water company, SEMAPA. In 1999, a group of private investors the Bechtel Corporation, came together under the name of Aguas del Tunari and bought the rights for the privatization of the city's water. In that same year, the World Bank refused to subsidize the water to help lower the cost for the people. In 2000, the people of Cochabamba began to protest as water priced hiked to a 50% increase that the majority could not afford; the Coalition for the Defense of Water and Life, its leader Oscar Olivera, started a demonstration in La Plaza 14 de Septiembre known as La Plaza Principal. The march was meant to be peaceful, but after two days the police used tear gas against the protestors and injured about 175 people and blinded two. Soon after, news reports were made about the violence; the Defense of Water and Life held an unofficial referendum and 96% of 50,000 people want Aguas del Tunari's contract to terminate, but the government refused.
The protests only grew and the entire world began to watch forcing Bechtel to leave its contract and return SEMAPA to the public. Bechtel as well tried to sue the Bolivian government for $50 million but it withdrew its claim shortly afte
Guayaramerín is a city within the Bolivian Beni Department. It is the capital of the Guayaramerín Municipality in the Vaca Díez Province. Guayaramerín is located on the west side of the Mamoré River, facing the Brazilian city of Guajará-Mirim, it is a port. Guayaramerín Airport is south of the city, is served by three local airlines: AeroCon Ecojet, TAM and Amaszonas. Facing the city there is the small island of Suárez, or Guajará-Mirim as it is called by the Brazilian government; the island is disputed by both countries, treaties in 1867, 1877 and 1958 have failed to clear the matter. There is a Brazilian vice-consulate in the city. OpenStreetMap - Guayaramerín Google Maps - Guayaramerín
Puno is a city in southeastern Peru, located on the shore of Lake Titicaca. It is the capital city of the Puno Region and the Puno Province with a population of 140,839; the city was established in 1668 by viceroy Pedro Antonio Fernández de Castro as capital of the province of Paucarcolla with the name San Juan Bautista de Puno. The name was changed to San Carlos de Puno, in honor of king Charles II of Spain. Puno has several churches dating back from the colonial period. Puno is an important livestock region. Much of the city economy relies on the black market, fueled by cheap goods smuggled in from Bolivia. Puno is served by the Inca Manco Capac International Airport in nearby Juliaca. Puno is situated between the shores of the mountains surrounding the city. There is less than two miles of flat land between the shores and the foothills, which has caused the growing city to continue to expand upwards onto the hillsides; as a result, the town's less developed and poorest areas, which are high on the hillsides have steep streets, which are unpaved and cannot be accessed by automobile.
Up one of these streets is the Kuntur Wasi viewpoint, which has a large metal sculpture of a condor. There are some 700 steps to climb to reach the sculpture, but the view across the city and Lake Titicaca beyond is breathtaking. During the celebrations of the Feast of the "Virgen de la Candelaria" and the Regional Competition of Autochthonous Dances. Puno's access to Lake Titicaca is surrounded by 41 floating islands. To this day, the Uros people maintain and live on these man-made islands, depending on the lake for their survival, are a large tourist destination. Dragon Boat racing, an old tradition in Puno, is a popular activity amongst tourists. Puno is the first major hub in the constant migration of indigenous peoples of the Andes to the larger cities of Peru, it is the largest city in the Southern Altiplano and is the recipient of new residents from surrounding smaller agricultural communities of people seeking better opportunities for education and employment. As such, Puno is served by several small Institutes of Technology and other technical or junior college-type facilities.
Additionally it is home to what is referred to as the "UNA" or the Universidad Nacional del Altiplano, founded in 1856. Puno features a subtropical highland climate; as Puno is located at such a high elevation, it experiences more extreme weather conditions than would be expected for its tropical latitude. The average annual temperature is about 8.4 °C, the weather never gets overly warm. During the winter months from June to August, night-time temperatures drop well below 0 °C. At this high altitude, the rays of the sun are strong. Most of the annual precipitation falls during the southern hemisphere summer, with the winter months being dry. Music and dance are typical parts of the Puno folklore; the most important dances are the Wifala de Asillo, the Ichu Carnival, the Tuntuna, the Khashua de Capachica, the Machu-tusuj, the Kcajelo, the Pandilla Puneña. Textiles and other products created from alpaca, llama, or sheep wool are characteristic of the area, they make musical instruments like the siku and the charango.
The Toritos de Pucara are the most impressive ceramic pieces made. Lake Titicaca rail ferry PeruRail Esteves Puno travel guide from Wikivoyage Puno on DiscoverPeru Travel Information about Puno
Paraguay the Republic of Paraguay, is a country of South America. It is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, Bolivia to the northwest. Although it is one of the only two landlocked countries in South America, the country has coasts and ports on the Paraguay and Paraná rivers that give exit to the Atlantic Ocean through the Paraná-Paraguay Waterway. Due to its central location in South America, it is sometimes referred to as Corazón de Sudamérica. Spanish conquistadores arrived in 1524 after navigating northwards from the Río de la Plata to the Paraná River, up the Paraguay River. In 1537, they established the city of Asunción, the first capital of the Governorate of Paraguay and Río de la Plata. Paraguay was the epicenter of the Jesuit Missions, where the Guaraní people were educated and introduced to Christianity and European culture under the direction of the Society of Jesus in Jesuit reductions during the 17th century. However, after the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spanish territories in 1767, Paraguay became a peripheral colony, with few urban centers and settlers.
Following independence from Spain at the beginning of the 19th century, Paraguay was ruled by a series of authoritarian governments who implemented nationalist and protectionist policies. This period ended with the disastrous Paraguayan War, during which Paraguay lost at least 50% of its prewar population and around 25–33% of its territory to the Triple Alliance of Argentina and Uruguay. In the 20th century, Paraguay faced another major international conflict – the Chaco War – against Bolivia, from which the Paraguayans emerged victorious. Afterwards, the country entered a period of military dictatorships, ending with the 35 year regime of Alfredo Stroessner that lasted until he was toppled in 1989 by an internal military coup; this marked the beginning of the "democratic era" of Paraguay. With around 7 million inhabitants, Paraguay is a founding member of Mercosur, an original member of the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Lima Group; the city of Luque, in Asuncion's Metropolitan Area, is the seat of the CONMEBOL.
The Guarani culture is influential and more than 90% of the people speak different forms of the Guarani language on top of Spanish. Paraguayans are known for being a happy and easy-living people and many times the country topped the "world's happiest place" charts because of the "positive experiences" lived and expressed by the population; the indigenous Guaraní had been living in eastern Paraguay for at least a millennium before the arrival of the Spanish. Western Paraguay, the Gran Chaco, was inhabited by nomads of whom the Guaycuru peoples were the most prominent; the Paraguay River was the dividing line between the agricultural Guarani people to the east and the nomadic and semi-nomadic people to the west in the Gran Chaco. The Guarcuru nomads were known for their warrior traditions and were not pacified until the late 19th century; these indigenous tribes belonged to five distinct language families, which were the bases of their major divisions. Differing language speaking groups were competitive over resources and territories.
They were further divided into tribes by speaking languages in branches of these families. Today 17 separate ethnolinguistic groups remain; the first Europeans in the area were Spanish explorers in 1516. The Spanish explorer Juan de Salazar de Espinosa founded the settlement of Asunción on 15 August 1537; the city became the center of a Spanish colonial province of Paraguay. An attempt to create an autonomous Christian Indian nation was undertaken by Jesuit missions and settlements in this part of South America in the eighteenth century, which included portions of Uruguay and Brazil, they developed Jesuit reductions to bring Guarani populations together at Spanish missions and protect them from virtual slavery by Spanish settlers and Portuguese slave raiders, the Bandeirantes. In addition to seeking their conversion to Christianity. Catholicism in Paraguay was influenced by the indigenous peoples; the reducciones flourished in eastern Paraguay for about 150 years, until the expulsion of the Jesuits by the Spanish Crown in 1767.
The ruins of two 18th-century Jesuit Missions of La Santísima Trinidad de Paraná and Jesús de Tavarangue have been designated as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. In western Paraguay Spanish settlement and Christianity were resisted by the nomadic Guaycuru and other nomads from the 16th century onward. Most of these peoples were absorbed into the mestizo population in the 19th centuries. Paraguay overthrew the local Spanish administration on 14 May 1811. Paraguay's first dictator was José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia who ruled Paraguay from 1814 until his death in 1840, with little outside contact or influence, he intended to create a utopian society based on the French theorist Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Social Contract. Rodríguez de Francia established new laws that reduced the powers of the Catholic church and the cabinet, forbade colonial citizens from marrying one another and allowed them to marry only blacks, mulattoes or natives, in order to break the power of colonial-era elites and to create a mixed-race or mestizo society.
He cut off the rest of South America. Because of Francia's restrictions of freedom, Fulgencio Yegros and several other Independence-era