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Transport in Burundi

There are a number of systems of transport in Burundi, including road and water-based infrastructure, the latter of which makes use of Lake Tanganyika. Furthermore, there are some airports in Burundi. A great hindrance to Burundi's economic development is lack of adequate transportation; the country has limited ferry services on Lake Tanganyika, few road connections to neighboring countries, no rail connections, only one airport with a paved runway. Public transport is limited and private bus companies operate buses on the route to Kigali but not to Tanzania or the Democratic Republic of Congo. Roads total 12,322 kilometres as of 2004, only about 7 percent of them are paved and remain open in all weather. In 2003, there were 23,500 commercial vehicles. On paper there are 90 public buses in the country but few of these are operational. Transport is limited and private bus companies operate buses on the route to Kigali but not to Tanzania or the Democratic Republic of Congo. Lake Tanganyika is used with the major port on the lake being Bujumbura.

Most freight is transported down waterways. As of May 2015, MV Mwongozo, a passenger and cargo ferry, connects Bujumbura with Kigoma in Tanzania. Burundi possesses eight airports, of which one has paved runways, whose length exceeds 3,047m. Bujumbura International Airport is the country's primary airport and the country's only airport with a paved runway. There are a number of helicopter landing strips; as of May 2015 the airlines serving Burundi are: Brussels Airlines, Ethiopian Airlines, Kenya Airways and RwandAir. Kigali is the city with the most daily departures. Burundi does not possess any railway infrastructure, although there are proposals to connect Burundi to its neighbours via railway. At a meeting in August 2006 with members of the Rwanda Patriotic Front, Wu Guanzheng, of the Communist Party of China, confirmed the intention of the People's Republic of China to fund a study into the feasibility of constructing a railway connecting at Isaka with the existing Tanzanian railway network, running via Kigali in Rwanda through to Burundi.

Tanzanian railways use 1,000 mm metre gauge, although TAZARA and other neighbouring countries, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo use the 3 ft 6 in gauge, leading to some potential difficulties. Another project was launched in the same year, which aims to link Burundi and Rwanda to the DRC and Zambia, therefore to the rest of Southern Africa. At a meeting to inaugurate the Northern Corridor Transit and Transport Coordination Authority, the governments of Uganda and Burundi backed the proposed new railway from the Ugandan western railhead at Kasese into the DRC. Additionally, Burundi has been added to a planned railway project to connect Rwanda. A project started in November 2013 to build a Standard Gauge line from Mombassa, Kenya, to Burundi, via Rwanda and Uganda; the main line from Mombasa will feature branches in other directions, including Ethiopia and DR Congo. East African Railway Master Plan UN Map of Burundi Map of railways in southern Africa This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website

Kalinda Ashton

Kalinda Ashton is an Australian writer and academic based in Melbourne, Victoria. She has a doctorate from RMIT University and is the author of the 2009 novel, The Danger Game, praised by notable Australian authors such as Christos Tsiolkas and Amanda Lohrey; the novel was published in the UK in 2011. The Danger Game was joint winner of the Sydney Morning Herald best young novelist award and, in 2012, a Betty Trask award in the UK, she has been called a "post-Grunge lit" author, due to the perceived of influence of grunge lit author Christos Tsiolkas on her work. Ashton appeared as a guest at the 2013 Adelaide Writers Week. Ashton was a member of the Trotskyist organisation, Socialist Alternative, is now an associate editor of the literary journal, Overland, she has taught literature and creative writing at various universities in Australia including RMIT and Flinders University. Ashton is a vegetarian, her short stories have been published in Meanjin, Sleepers Almanac, Kill Your Darlings and other journals and anthologies.

The Danger Game was long listed for the 2010 International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award in 2010, joint winner of the Sydney Morning Herald best young novelist award. In 2010 Ashton received an Australia Council Literature Board Grant for Developing Writers. In 2011, the novel won a Betty Trask Award

El Salvador national rugby league team

The El Salvador national rugby league team, nicknamed El Trueno Azul, represents El Salvador in rugby league. They had their first international 9's tournament in 2015 in Australia along with Chile in Latin America at the Cabramatta International Nines. Rugby league Has yet to be played on El Salvador soil but efforts are in place to bring rugby league to Central and South America through the Latin Heat Rugby League. In the first full Latino team 4 Salvadorans were included. After the Latin Heat fielded enough Salvadoran players to make up a Rugby league nines team they entered into the Cabramatta International Nines tournament in 2015. On October 17, 2015 The El Salvador national rugby league team competed in the first Latino Rugby League Sevens Tournament on 17 October 2015, they finished with one loss. The El Salvador national rugby league team entered the 2016 Cabramatta International Nines on the 30th of January with a 15-man squad, their pool consisted of DV Koori and Malta. On June 11, 2016 The Trueno Azul made their full 13-a-side debut playing latino rivals Chile at Henson Park, Sydney.

El Salvador lost 58 - 20. The El Salvador national team squad selected for the 2016 Cabramatta International Nines tournament. Below is table of the representative rugby league nines matches played by El Salvador up until 12 October 2015: The following is a table of full 13-a-side test matches. Chile national rugby league team Rugby league in the Americas Official Website of the Latin Heat Official Facebook page of the El Salvador Rugby League Official Twitter of the El Salvador Rugby League

Sir Charles Ross, 9th Baronet

Sir Charles Henry Augustus Frederick Lockhart Ross, 9th Baronet was a Scottish inventor and commercial entrepreneur who invented the innovative and controversial straight-pull actioned Ross rifle. Ross was born at Balnagown Castle, the son of Sir Charles William Frederick Augustus Lockhart-Ross, 8th Baronet and his second wife, Rebecca Sophia Barnes of Tufnell Park, he inherited the Baronetcy on the death of his father in 1883 when he was aged 11. He was educated at Eton College and while he was there his mother's indulgences on him included "a magnificent ocean-going steam yacht, a large sailing yacht, the most superbly appointed and biggest steam launch for river use on the Thames, a coach and four"; when he came of age he instituted a lawsuit against his mother for having, during his minority, spent more of the revenues of his estates than she was entitled to by law or by the terms of the will. He was at Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1894 he rowed in the Cambridge boat in the Boat Race, he was known as big game hunter.

Ross became a lieutenant in the 3rd Battalion, the Seaforth Highlanders and served in the Second Anglo-Boer War. He designed the Ross rifle, used by his own Machine Gun Battery during the Boer War, he was a captain in Lovat Scouts Yeomanry from 1904 to 1913. He was an advisor on small arms to the Canadian Government and he designed and built the plant of the West Kootenay Power and Light Co. on the Kootenay River at Bonnington Falls. During World War I his Ross rifle was mass-produced for the Canadian army. Sporting rifles bearing the Ross name were popular for a time after the First World War, as was the.280 Ross sporting rifle cartridge. Ross was said to have been Britain's largest landowner, possessing Scottish lands extending to an estimated 366,000 acres, with 3,000 tenants. At one point, in an attempt to evade United Kingdom taxation on the income from his arms manufacturing, Ross declared his Easter Ross, Scotland estate of Balnagown to be a territory of the United States of America, which led to his being branded an outlaw for a time by the British Government.

Ross married thrice: first to Winifred Berens. On Ross's death aged 70 in St. Petersburg, Dorothy inherited Balnagown Castle. Balnagown Castle, not far from the north shore of the Cromarty Firth near Invergordon, adjacent parts of the once-extensive Ross estate of Balnagown have been owned since 1972 by billionaire businessman and former Harrods owner Mohamed Al-Fayed, who has restored the castle. List of Cambridge University Boat Race crews von der Schulenburg, Fritz. Balnagown: Ancestral Home of the Clan Ross – A Scottish Castle Through Five Centuries. Brompton Press. ISBN 978-1-900055-07-9. Photograph

Hugel & Fils

Hugel & Fils is a winery in Riquewihr, France. Hugel & Fils is one of the major producers of Alsace wine, has been an important force in the Alsace wine industry in its developments during the second half of the 20th century. Hugel & Fils produces its high-end wines from its own vineyards, operates a négociant business, which sources additional grapes under long-term contract from various growers. Hugel is export-oriented, with 80 percent of the wines produced being exported; the Hugel family are members of the Primum Familiae Vini. The company was founded in Riquewihr in 1639 by Hans Ulrich Hugel, a Swiss national who left his home country during the Thirty Years' War, it has remained in the hands of the Hugel family since then. As a logotype, they use a family crest, carved in 1672, to decorate the doorway of a house built in Riquewihr by one of Hans Ulrich's sons In 1902, Hugel & Fils, managed by Frédéric Emile Hugel, moved to its present location in the centre of Riquewihr. In the second half of the 20th century, Jean Hugel played a leading role in Hugel & Fils as well as in the Alsace wine industry in general.

Jean Hugel and Hugel & Fils pioneered the reintroduction of late harvest wines in Alsace. The 1984 wine regulations setting down the requirements for Vendange Tardive and Sélection de Grains Nobles wines is referred to as "Hugel's Law". Wines in this style were produced by Hugel before these designations had been invented, some earlier versions were marketed using designations from the German wine classification, such as Beerenauslese. Hugel & Fils hold over 25 hectares, all located around Riquewihr and half in vineyards allowed the Alsace Grand Cru designation. In addition, grapes from over 100 hectares of Alsace vineyards are bought in for the négociant business. For the top wines, Riesling is grown in the Schoenenbourg vineyard, Gewürztraminer in Sporen, Pinot gris and Pinot noir in Pflostig. Hugel & Fils does not use the Alsace Grand Cru designation for any of their wines, although most of their top wines come from Grand Cru vineyards. Instead, Hugel uses its own quality designations. Although Hugel was a pioneer in sweet Alsace wines, only wines marked as late harvest wines or special cuvées have noticeable residual sugar.

For wines at the Tradition level and above, Hugel releases the wines when they are judged to be ready for sale. Thus, at a given time, different vintages may be in distribution for wines of different grape varieties, the sweet wines are sold with several years of bottle age. Hugel's range of wines consist of the following levels: Dry wines Hugel Classic - basic level wines produced from bought grapes. Includes most Alsace varieties and some blends. Hugel Tradition - intermediate level wines, from the four "noble" white grapes. Hugel Jubilée - top level dry wines from Hugel's own vineyards. Wines with residual sugar Hommage Jean Hugel - semi-sweet wines with less concentration and sweetness than the Vendange Tardive range; this range was introduced with the 1997 vintage to commemorate the companies 50th vintage under Jean Hugel. This level has been used sparingly. Vendange Tardive - late harvest wines. Sélection de Grains Nobles - wines from botrytised grapes. Official website Hugel profiled by The Wine Doctor

Johan Cohen Gosschalk

Johan Henri Gustaaf Cohen, known as Johan Cohen Gosschalk was a Dutch jurist, graphic artist and painter of Jewish ancestry. His sister, Meta Cohen Gosschalk became a well known painter, his father, was a dealer in dairy products. He studied law. Between 1897 and 1900, he took private painting lessons from Jan Veth in Bussum. In 1902, he received permission, by Royal decree. Most of his works were landscapes, he was a member of the Kunstenaarsvereniging Sint Lucas. In addition to painting, he was an art critic and wrote articles for De Kroniek, Elsevier's Geïllustreerd Maandschrift and Onze Kunst. In 1901, he married Johanna Bonger, the widow of Theo van Gogh, who had died in 1891, they built a villa, named "Eikenhof", in Bussum, but lived there only a short time before moving to Amsterdam. In 1905, he helped to organize an exhibition of the works of Vincent van Gogh at the Stedelijk Museum, wrote the introduction for the catalogue. After that, he continued his efforts to make Van Gogh's work more known.

Always in poor health, his condition worsened after 1910 and he spent much of his time bedridden or in a sanatorium. When he died, Johanna held a retrospective exhibition of his work, she resumed calling herself Van Gogh-Bonger. In 1913, his mother, established a fund for the "Cohen-Gosschalk Prize". Media related to Johan Cohen Gosschalk at Wikimedia Commons Biography @ Vereniging Vrieden