Salvadoran Civil War
The Salvadoran Civil War was a conflict between the military-led government of El Salvador and the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front, a coalition or "umbrella organization" of left-wing groups. A coup on October 15, 1979 was followed by killings of anti-coup protesters by the government and of anti-disorder protesters by the guerrillas, is seen as the tipping point toward civil war; the fully-fledged civil war lasted for more than 12 years and included the deliberate terrorizing and targeting of civilians by death squads, the recruitment of child soldiers and other human rights violations by the military. An unknown number of people disappeared while the UN reports that the war killed more than 75,000 people between 1980 and 1992. In 2016, the El Salvador Supreme Court ruled that the 1993 amnesty law was unconstitutional and that the El Salvador government could prosecute war criminals; the United States contributed to the conflict by providing military aid of $1–2 million per day to the government of El Salvador during the Carter and Reagan administrations.
The Salvadoran government was considered "friendly" and allies by the U. S. in the context of the Cold War. By May 1983, US officers took over positions in the top levels of the Salvadoran military, were making critical decisions and running the war; the United Nations has estimated that the FMLN guerrillas were responsible for 5% of the murders of civilians during the civil war, while 85% were committed by the Salvadoran armed forces and death squads. In 1990 the UN began peace negotiations and on January 16, 1992, a final agreement, The Chapultepec Peace Accords, was signed by the combatants in Mexico City, formally ending the conflict. El Salvador has been characterized by marked socioeconomic inequality. In the late 19th century coffee became a major cash crop for El Salvador, bringing in about 95% of the country's income. However, this income was restricted to only 2% of the population, exacerbating a divide between a small but powerful land owning elite and an impoverished majority; this divide grew through the 1920s and was compounded by a drop in coffee prices following the stock-market crash of 1929.
In 1932 the Central American Socialist Party was formed and led an uprising of peasants and indigenous people against the government. The rebellion was brutally suppressed in the 1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre. La Matanza,'the slaughter' in Spanish, as it came to be known, allowed a military led government to maintain power and reinforced the animosity of many Salvadorans towards the government and landed elite; that tension grew throughout the 20th century. The Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front, a leftist group that formed in the 1970s, took its name from one of the rebellion's communist leaders. On July 14, 1969, an armed conflict erupted between El Salvador and Honduras over immigration disputes caused by Honduran land reform laws; the conflict had major long-term effects for Salvadoran society. Trade was disrupted between El Salvador and Honduras, causing tremendous economic damage to both nations. An estimated 300,000 Salvadorans were displaced due to battle, many of whom were exiled from Honduras.
The Football War strengthened the power of the military in El Salvador, leading to heightened corruption. In the years following the war, the government expanded its purchases of arms from sources such as Israel, West Germany and the United States; the 1972 Salvadoran presidential election was marred by massive electoral fraud, which favored the military-backed National Conciliation Party, whose candidate Arturo Armando Molina was a Colonel in the Salvadoran Army. Opposition to the Molina government was strong on the left. In 1972, the Marxist-Leninist Fuerzas Populares de Liberación Farabundo Martí -established in 1970 as an offshoot of the Communist Party of El Salvador- began conducting guerrilla operations in El Salvador. Other organizations such as the People's Revolutionary Army began to develop; the growth of left-wing insurgency in El Salvador occurred against a backdrop of rising food prices and decreased agricultural output exacerbated by the 1973 oil crisis. This worsened the existent socioeconomic inequality in the country.
In response, President Arturo Armando Molina enacted a series of land reform measures, calling for large landholdings to be redistributed among the peasant population. The reforms failed, thanks to opposition from the landed elite, reinforcing the widespread discontent with the government. On 20 February 1977, the PCN defeated the National Opposing Union in the presidential elections; as was the case in the 1972, the results of the 1977 election were again fraudulent and favored a military candidate, General Carlos Humberto Romero. State sponsored paramilitary forces – such as the infamous ORDEN – strong armed peasants into voting for the military candidate by threatening them with machetes; the period between the election and the formal inauguration of President Romero on 1 July 1977 was characterized by massive protests from the popular movement, which were met by state repression. On 28 February 1977 a crowd of political demonstrators gathered in downtown San Salvador to protest the electoral fraud.
Security forces arrived on the scene and opened fire, resulting in a massacre as they indiscriminately killed demonstrators and bystanders alike. Estimates of the number of civilians killed range between 200 and 1,500. President Molina blamed the protests on "foreign Communists" and exiled a number of top UNO party members from the country. Repression continued after the inauguration of President
Antiguo Cuscatlán, is a municipality in the La Libertad department of El Salvador, its eastern tip lays in San Salvador Department part of the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, southwest of San Salvador and southeast of Santa Tecla. The population was 48,027 at the 2010 census. Antiguo Cuscatlán can be translated as Old Jeweled City: Antiguo means ancient or old in Spanish, Cuscatlán means jeweled city in Nahuat; the city used to be the capital of the Pipil or Cuzcatecs, before the Spanish conquest of the New World. The historic downtown sits on the foothills of La Cordillera del Bálsamo, the city extends towards the Cordillera del Bálsamo on the south and on the foothills of the San Salvador Volcano on the north; the estimated per capita income for the city was $22,783 in 2013, 5.9 times higher than the national per capita. According to Pipil texts Antiguo Cuscatlán was founded as Cuzcatlan in 1054 by Topiltzin Atzil, the last king of Tula of Anahuac, it was a city populated by ten thousand, with an additional twelve thousand people who lived in xacal, straw huts distributed at the edge of a maar which housed the sacred lake of Cuscatlan.
In the contemporary Native language, Cuscatlán means Jewel City. On Saturday June 17, 1524, led by Pedro de Alvarado, the Spanish conquistadors found the doors of Cuscatlan, capital of the Lordship of Cuscatlan; the company consisted of one hundred fifty units of infantry and one hundred other slaves, prepared to attack the kingdom and take over the regional capital. Despite the resistance, the Spanish were victorious and incorporated the municipality into the domains of the Iberian metropolis; the place was less relevant thereafter, as the town was caught in the dynamics of the rest of the country, which exploited its resources ending the colony. After the independence of Central America, San Salvador surpassed Antiguo Cuscatlan in importance, relegating it to a mere local capital. In the present day, Antiguo Cuscatlan has gained an important edge, hosting major institutions, corporative headquarters and the biggest U. S Embassy of the region; the majority of the population in the municipality live in the urban center, it is by far the most urbanized municipality in the country, but there are still a couple of people that live in the rural areas in the municipality on the southern area were the Cordillera del Balsamo passes through.
It has three industrial zones: Plan de La Laguna and Merliot. There are food, metal and chemicals factories. Tourist sites are the Botanical Garden of Plan de la Laguna. One of the largest business centers in the country, in Central America was opened during the mid 2010, this building reflects the boom of modern architecture in country, the productive development of the country. South of the city is The Industrial Zone “Plan de La Laguna”, home to many industrial companies. Among these companies are: Confectionery, Plastic Industry, made of flour for human consumption, Concentrated Animal, among many others, the last two founded by the German landowner and businessman Walter Thilo Deinninger; the companies are united through the Association of Residents of the Industrial La Laguna. The Industrial Zone is the most functional and organized one within any capital of Central America. In order to maintain the city, ecology safe the southern Side of the Industrial Zone is bordered by, Plan de La Laguna Botanical Garden.
The Botanical garden has a plant nursery, it home to thousand of different plant species Milagros Navas, a member of the Nationalist Republican Alliance party, has served as mayor since 1991. She has won seven consecutive elections. Various infrastructure improvement projects and institutional restructuring and renewal of the tax system have been attributed by some to Ms. Navas' administration; as far as health is concerned, they only have a health unit in the area of Merliot, eight health clinics, not counting hospitals within the municipality. The municipal government manages a health care clinic, serving low-income residents, on the other hand, the Salvadoran Social Security Institute operates a community clinic. Most People living in Antiguo attend to Hospital Diagnostico in San Salvador, just about 15 minutes from Antiguo Cuscatlan. Diagnostico is considered to be the top hospital in the country, most priced. Within the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, in the country, Antiguo Cuscatlan is the safest city.
Low Criminal Rates, no gang traffic any reports of homicides or attempts of homicides. Despite having low crime rates, there has been a slight rise in attacks on homes and, which has led to the privatization of many roads and areas, by closing an entrance to a neighborhood with a gate, security to allow one to go in; the patrols of the National Civil Police are sporadic patrols in conjunction with municipal police body Home to three private universities in the country: Albert Einstein University, Universidad Dr. José Matías Delgado and Universidad Centroamericana Jose Simeon Cañas, besides having several private schools, including the German School and San Francisco School, six public elementary schools basic and a National Institute of Secondary Education. Has the campus graduate of the University Don Bosco; as for public schools there is only one located in the historic center of Antiguo, most children attend to bilingual private schools in San Salvador. On the Santa Elena Neighborhood the European Union opened an institute to learn the official European Union languages.
Santa Elena is the main neighborhood of A
RN-5 (Autopista Comalapa)
The RN-5 serves as one of the main highways in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador. The highway connects the metropolitan area with the El Salvador International Airport, located in San Luis Talpa, La Paz, a municipality that borders with the San Salvador Department; the highway was built to replace the old Carretera al Aeropuerto, a small road that runs on the side of a mountain range, parallel to the Autopista Comalapa. This road has been turned into a scenic road, it overlooks the southern hills of the San Salvador Department. The total length of the highway is 40.7 kilometres. It is the only highway that connects to the airport coming from the metropolitan area. Other highways connect with the RN-5 to provide connection to the other departments in the country; the construction of the first Carretera a Comalapa was made in 1980. The construction of the highway began in 2001 and it was completed and inaugurated on November 22, 2002; the part of the highway known as Boulevard de Los Proceres runs through the southern side of the city of San Salvador.
The highway is a vital area in the city. It connects with various restaurants, business centers, other dealerships; the first RN-5 is now a scenic parkway. It was built in the 1980s to connect the metropolitan area with the southern municipalities and with the new El Salvador International Airport; the El Salvador airport is the only one in Central America, built outside any urban area in order to have flat land for runway construction and enough space for future expansion without disturbing urban life. Francisco Flores, the president of El Salvador, inaugurated the remodeled RN-5 that stretches from the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador all the way down to the EL Salvador International Airport in San Luis Talpa; the cost of reconstruction of the RN-5 was US$25,000,000. The project will benefit the lives of about 700,000 people living in the surrounding areas, plus everyone in the metropolitan area that uses the International Airport. About 11.23 kilometres of the RN-5 has a total of six lanes.
As it exits the urban area, the highway has four lanes. Today the highway is carries 100,000 vehicles per week, it is the main artery that connects the metropolitan area with the airport, with the CA-2, the highway that runs on the Salvadoran Coast
Quezaltepeque, La Libertad
Quezaltepeque is a municipality in the La Libertad department of El Salvador. It is located about 15 km from San Salvador. Quezaltepeque is a modern city that has a little bit of everything, from shops, restaurants to swimming spots; the word Quezaltepeque is a Nahuatl word meaning "hills of quetzal." A quetzal is a bird. High levels of deforestation made the bird migrate to other areas. Alfonso Quijada Urías Poet Salvador Sánchez Cerén incumbent President of El Salvador since 2014 The local football club is named Juventud Alegre F. C. and it plays in the Salvadoran Third Division
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers in area, this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined; the centers of both the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean. The equator subdivides it into the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific, its mean depth is 4,000 meters. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 meters; the western Pacific has many peripheral seas. Though the peoples of Asia and Oceania have traveled the Pacific Ocean since prehistoric times, the eastern Pacific was first sighted by Europeans in the early 16th century when Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and discovered the great "southern sea" which he named Mar del Sur.
The ocean's current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favorable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means "peaceful sea". Important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. About 3000 BC, the Austronesian peoples on the island of Taiwan mastered the art of long-distance canoe travel and spread themselves and their languages south to the Philippines and maritime Southeast Asia. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan. Trade, therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of this trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims. In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality. From 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean; the first contact of European navigators with the western edge of the Pacific Ocean was made by the Portuguese expeditions of António de Abreu and Francisco Serrão, via the Lesser Sunda Islands, to the Maluku Islands, in 1512, with Jorge Álvares's expedition to southern China in 1513, both ordered by Afonso de Albuquerque from Malacca.
The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached a new ocean. He named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. In 1519, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Spanish expedition to the Spice Islands that would result in the first world circumnavigation. Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters; the ocean was called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century. Although Magellan himself died in the Philippines in 1521, Spanish Basque navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano led the remains of the expedition back to Spain across the Indian Ocean and round the Cape of Good Hope, completing the first world circumnavigation in a single expedition in 1522. Sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, Papua New Guinea.
In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan. In 1564, five Spanish ships carrying 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands. For the remainder of the 16th century, Spanish influence was paramount, with ships sailing from Mexico and Peru across the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines via Guam, establishing the Spanish East Indies; the Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries, linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history. Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the quest for Terra Australis, Spanish explorations in the 17th century, such as the expedition led by the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, discovered the Pitcairn and Vanuatu archipelagos, sailed the Torres Strait between Australia and New Guinea, named after navigator Luís Vaz de Torres. Dutch explorers, sailing around southern Africa engaged in discovery and trade.
In the 16th and 17th centuries Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers. As the only known entrance from the Atlantic, the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western side of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines; the 18th cen
Geography of El Salvador
El Salvador borders the North Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, with Guatemala to the north-northwest and Honduras to the north-northeast. In the southeast, the Golfo de Fonseca separates it from Nicaragua. El Salvador is the smallest Central American country and is the only one without a coastline on the Caribbean sea. El Salvador, along with the rest of Central America, is one of the most seismologically active regions on earth, situated atop three of the large tectonic plates that constitute the Earth's surface; the motion of these plates causes the area's earthquake and volcanic activity. Most of Central America and the Caribbean Basin rests on the motionless Caribbean Plate; the Pacific Ocean floor, however, is being carried northeast by the underlying motion of the Cocos Plate. Ocean floor material is composed of basalt, dense; the subduction of the Cocos Plate accounts for the frequency of earthquakes near the coast. As the rocks constituting the ocean floor are forced down, they melt, the molten material pours up through weaknesses in the surface rock, producing volcanoes and geysers.
North of El Salvador and most of Guatemala are riding on the westward-moving North American Plate that butts against the northern edge of the stationary Caribbean Plate in southern Guatemala. The grinding action of these two plates creates a fault that runs the length of the valley of the Rio Motagua in Guatemala. Motion along this fault is the source of earthquakes in northernmost El Salvador. El Salvador has a long history of volcanic eruptions. San Salvador was destroyed in 1756 and 1854, suffered heavy damage in the 1919, 1982, 1986 tremors; the country has over twenty volcanoes, although only two, San Miguel and Izalco, have been active in recent years. From the early nineteenth century to the mid-1950s, Izalco erupted with a regularity that earned it the name "Lighthouse of the Pacific." Its brilliant flares were visible for great distances at sea, at night its glowing lava turned it into a brilliant luminous cone. Two parallel mountain ranges cross El Salvador to the west with a central plateau between them and a narrow coastal plain hugging the Pacific.
These physical features divide the country into two physiographic regions. The mountain ranges and central plateau, covering 85 percent of the land, comprise the interior highlands; the remaining coastal plains are referred to as the Pacific lowlands. The northern range of mountains, the Sierra Madre, form a continuous chain along the border with Honduras. Elevations in this region range from 1,600 to 2,700 meters; the area was once forested, but overexploitation led to extensive erosion, it has become semibarren. As a result, it is the country's most sparsely populated zone, with little farming or other development; the southern range of mountains is a discontinuous chain of more than twenty volcanoes, clustered into five groups. The westernmost group, near the Guatemalan border, contains Izalco and Santa Ana, which at 2,365 meters is the highest volcano in El Salvador. Between the cones lie alluvial basins and rolling hills eroded from ash deposits; the volcanic soil is rich, much of El Salvador's coffee is planted on these slopes.
The central plateau constitutes only 25 percent of the land area but contains the heaviest concentration of population and the country's largest cities. This plain has an average elevation of 600 meters. Terrain here is rolling, with occasional escarpments, lava fields, geysers. A narrow plain extends from the coastal volcanic range to the Pacific Ocean; this region has a width ranging from one to thirty-two kilometers with the widest section in the east, adjacent to the Golfo de Fonseca. Near La Libertad, the mass of the mountains push the lowlands out. Surfaces in the Pacific lowlands are flat or rolling and result from the alluvial deposits of nearby slopes. El Salvador has over 300 rivers, the most important of, the Rio Lempa. Originating in Guatemala, the Rio Lempa cuts across the northern range of mountains, flows along much of the central plateau, cuts through the southern volcanic range to empty into the Pacific, it is El Salvador's only navigable it and its tributaries drain about half the country.
Other rivers are short and drain the Pacific lowlands or flow from the central plateau through gaps in the southern mountain range to the Pacific. Numerous lakes of volcanic origin are found in the interior highlands; the largest lake, the Lago de Ilopango, lies just to the east of the capital. Other large lakes include the Lago de Coatepeque in the west and the Lago de Güija on the Guatemalan border; the Cerron Grande Dam on the Rio Lempa has created a large reservoir, the Embalse Cerron Grande, in northern El Salvador. Izalco has erupted at least 51 times since 1770, it earned the nickname "Lighthouse of the Pacific" because it was the most active volcano in Central America. El Salvador has a tropical climate with pronounced dry seasons. Temperatures vary with elevation and show little seasonal change; the Pacific lowlands are uniformly humid. The rainy season, known locally as invierno, or winter, extends from May to October. All the annual rainfall and the highest humidity occurs during this time, yea
San Salvador is the capital and the most populous city of El Salvador and its eponymous department. It is the country's political, cultural and financial center; the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador which comprises the capital itself and 13 of its municipalities has a population of 2,404,097. As a "beta" global city, San Salvador is an important financial hub of Central America; the city is home to the Concejo de Ministros de El Salvador, La Asamblea Legislativa, the Corte Suprema de Justicia, other governmental institutions, as well as the official residence of the president of the Republic. San Salvador is located in the Salvadoran highlands, surrounded by volcanoes and prone to earthquakes; the city is home to the Catholic Archdiocese, as well as many Protestant branches of Christianity, including Evangelicals, Latter-day Saints and Pentecostals. San Salvador has the second largest Jewish community in Central America and a small Muslim community. San Salvador has been the host city for various regional and international sporting and social events.
It hosted the Central American and Caribbean Games in 1935 and 2002, the Central American Games in 1977 and 1994, as well as the Miss Universe 1975 pageant. San Salvador was the host city of the 18th Ibero-American Summit, held October 29–31, 2008, the most important sociopolitical event in the Spanish and Portuguese sphere; the Central American Integration System has its headquarters in San Salvador. The Central American Bank for Economic Integration has its headquarters in San Salvador. Before the Spanish conquest, the Pipil people established their capital, near the current location of San Salvador. Not much is known about Cuzcatlan, as it was abandoned by its inhabitants in an effort to avoid Spanish rule. Under the orders of conquistador Pedro de Alvarado, his associates Gonzalo de Alvarado and Diego de Holguín occupied the empty settlement and began to develop it. Diego de Holguín became the first mayor of San Salvador after the town was founded on April 1, 1525; the town changed location twice, in 1528 and 1545.
Established in what is now the archaeological site of Ciudad Vieja, north of the present-day city, it was moved to the Valle de Las Hamacas, so named for the intense seismic activity that characterizes it. The new site was chosen because it had more space and more fertile land, thanks to the Acelhuate River; the population of the city remained small until the early 20th century. In January 1885, during the presidency of Dr. Rafael Zaldivar, a group of businessmen and the president's family contributed funds for building the Sara Zaldivar Asylum for Indigents and the Elderly. In 1902, the Hospital Rosales was built, named after its benefactor, Dr. Jose Rosales, a banker who gave his fortune to the hospital and to the orphanage; the hospital's construction was begun by president Carlos Ezeta and finished during the presidency of Tomás Regalado. In 1905 president Pedro José Escalón initiated construction of the National Palace, funded by coffee exportation taxes; the Monumento a los Próceres de 1811, located in the Plaza Libertad, the Teatro Nacional were built in 1911 during Dr. Manuel Enrique Araujo's presidency.
In 1917, an earthquake during an eruption of the nearby San Salvador volcano damaged the city, but it escaped additional damage because the lava flowed down the back side of the volcano. On December 2, 1931, president Arturo Araujo was ousted by a military coup d'état and replaced by a military directorate; the directorate named vice-president Maximiliano Hernández Martínez as president and Araujo went into exile. The Martínez regime lasted from December 4, 1931 to May 6, 1944. In 1964, the Christian Democratic Party candidate, José Napoleon Duarte, an engineer, was elected mayor. During his term he ordered construction of the Pancho Lara park in the Vista Hermosa neighborhood, renewed the electrical grid, set up a system of schools for adult education; the 1960s to the 1980s were the golden age of San Salvador in all aspects of security, quality of life, modernization. Today the tallest building in the country is 110 meters high. With the commencement of the Salvadoran Civil War in the 1980s, many modernization projects were halted.
Examples of suspended projects include a 40-story government building 160 meters in height, the Sheraton Hotel Tower, a 26-story building with a rotating restaurant on top. In 1969, celebrations in the Cuscatlán stadium were held in honor of the returning troops from the Football War with Honduras; the Boulevard de los Héroes was named after the Salvadoran soldiers. The 1986 San Salvador earthquake destroyed many government buildings and other important structures and killing hundreds. Thousands of people were displaced by the disaster and many struggled to find shelter in the ruins. In 1986, Mayor Morales Ehrlich closed streets in the downtown of the city to create a large pedestrian mall, which has resulted in chronic traffic congestion. Since 2009, Mayor Norman Quijano has worked for the redevelopment of parks and historic buildings in the Rescate del Centro Histórico, which involves the removal of street vendors; this has led to several riots in the area, but he has managed to place the vendors in new markets where they can operate their own stalls.
The Chapultepec Peace Accords were signed on January 1992, ending 12 years of civil war. The signing is celebrated as a national holiday with people flooding downtown San Salvador in the Plaza Gerardo Barrios and in L