Mbabane is the capital and largest city in Eswatini. With an estimated population of 94,874, it is located on the Mbabane River and its tributary the Polinjane River in the Mdzimba Mountains, it is located in the Hhohho Region, of which it is the capital. The average elevation of the city is 1243 meters, it lies on the MR3 road. The town grew after the nation's administrative centre moved from Bremersdorp in 1902, it derives its name from a Chief, Mbabane Kunene, who lived in the area when British settlers arrived. Mbabane was founded in 1887 by Mickey Wells, on the spot where the Transvaal-to-Mozambique route crossed the Mbabane river, it was declared the capital of the new Protectorate of Swaziland in 1902. During this time, Mbabane consisted of a few shops and schools founded by white settlers. Black Africans had to reside in nearby rural districts. By the 1930s, Mbabane had running water, telephone connection and a hospital. Prior to the Second World War, most Swazis lived in rural districts and worked outside Eswatini, which prevented the town from growing.
After the war, the creation of trade schools in the city, the arrival of the railway connecting Maputo to the mines in South Africa, foreign investment resources within Eswatini all contributed to the city's growth. Mbabane became the central hub for development in the Hhohho district. In the years following independence, governmental buildings such as the British Consulate were built in Mbabane. Further growth has been achieved through the growth of the tourism industry in Eswatini, of which Mbabane has become the centre. Mbabane today is home to many hotels and recreational sites such as clubs and golf courses tending to tourists. Mbabane's closest border crossing to South Africa is Ngwenya-Oshoek, though Swazi is the primary language, English is widespread. Mbabane, Eswatini itself, depend on tourism and sugar exports, it is a commercial hub for the surrounding region, while tin and iron were mined nearby. The city has two sites for light industries. Mbabane is the home of the Waterford-Kamhlaba United World College of Southern Africa, as well as one of the three campuses of the University of Swaziland.
Limkokwing University of Creative Technology is a private international university that lies by the South African-Eswatini border with several university candidates from Eswatini. Indingilizi Gallery is an art gallery in Mbabane, established in 1982 and showcases a range of Swazi art, including sculptures, batiks, ethnic jewellery and pottery. Mbabane is located in the district of Hhohho, of which it is the capital, lies on the Mbabane River and its tributary the Polinjane River in the Mdimba Mountains; the average elevation of the city is 1243 metres. Neighbourhoods and suburbs include Mbangweni, Kent Rock, Westridge Park, New Checkers and Vukutentele. Due to its altitude, Mbabane features a moderate subtropical highland climate; the city has a mild climate and snow is a rare event, which has occurred only three times since 1900. The city averages only four days of frost a year; the average temperature is 22 °C in January. The thermal range is low. Most of the precipitation is concentrated in the summer.
The difference in the driest month and the wettest is 210 mm. Mbabane is twinned with: Fort Worth, Texas, USA Taipei, Taiwan Mersing, Malaysia Melilla, Spain Haifa, Israel Maputo, Mozambique Paul Tiyambe Zeleza. "Mbabane, Swaziland". Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century African History. Routledge. ISBN 0415234794. Media related to Mbabane at Wikimedia Commons
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas. There are 49 such countries, including five recognised states; as a rule, being landlocked creates political and economic handicaps that access to the high seas avoids. For this reason, states large and small across history have striven to gain access to open waters at great expense in wealth and political capital; the economic disadvantages of being landlocked can be alleviated or aggravated depending on degree of development, language barriers, other considerations. Some landlocked countries are quite affluent, such as Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Austria, all of which employ neutrality to their political advantage; the majority, are classified as Landlocked Developing Countries. Nine of the twelve countries with the lowest Human Development Indices are landlocked. Being landlocked has been disadvantageous to a country's development, it cuts a nation off from important sea resources such as fishing, impedes or prevents direct access to seaborne trade, a crucial component of economic and social advance.
As such, coastal regions tended to be wealthier and more populated than inland ones. Paul Collier in his book The Bottom Billion argues that being landlocked in a poor geographic neighborhood is one of four major development "traps" by which a country can be held back. In general, he found that when a neighboring country experiences better growth, it tends to spill over into favorable development for the country itself. For landlocked countries, the effect is strong, as they are limited in their trading activity with the rest of the world, he states, ``, you serve the world. Others have argued that being landlocked may be a blessing as it creates a "natural tariff barrier" which protects the country from cheap imports. In some instances, this has led to more robust local food systems. Landlocked developing countries have higher costs of international cargo transportation compared to coastal developing countries. Countries thus have made particular efforts to avoid being landlocked, by acquiring land that reaches the sea: As result of a 2005 territorial exchange with Ukraine, Moldova received a 600 m-long bank of the Danube River, subsequently building its Port of Giurgiulești there.
The International Congo Society, which owned the territory now constituting the Democratic Republic of the Congo, was awarded a narrow piece of land cutting through Angola to connect it to the sea by the Conference of Berlin in 1885. The Republic of Ragusa once gave the town of Neum to the Ottoman Empire because it did not want to have a land border with Venice. Since Bosnia and Herzegovina is a new country and ports have not been built for its need. There is no freight port along its short coastline at Neum, making it landlocked, although there are plans to change this. Instead the port of Ploče in Croatia is used. After World War I, in the Treaty of Versailles, a part of Germany designated "the Polish corridor" was given to the new Second Polish Republic, for access to the Baltic Sea; this without a large harbour. This was the pretext for making Danzig with its harbour the Free City of Danzig, to which Poland was given free access. However, the Germans placed obstacles to this free access when it came to military material.
In response, the small fishing harbour of Gdynia was soon enlarged. Until the dissolution of Austria–Hungary in 1918 at the end of World War I, Austrians and that empire's other nationalities had served in that country's navy, but since Austria and Hungary have both been landlocked countries. Countries can make agreements on getting free transport of goods through neighbor countries: The Treaty of Versailles required Germany to offer Czechoslovakia a lease for 99 years of parts of the ports in Hamburg and Stettin, allowing Czechoslovakia sea trade via the Elbe and Oder rivers. Stettin was annexed by Poland after World War II, but Hamburg continued the contract so that part of the port may still be used for sea trade by a successor of Czechoslovakia, the Czech Republic; the Danube is an international waterway, thus landlocked Austria, Moldova and Slovakia have secure access to the Black Sea. However, oceangoing ships cannot use the Danube, so cargo must be transloaded anyway, many overseas imports into Austria and Hungary use land transport from Atlantic and Mediterranean ports.
A similar situation exists for the Rhine river where Switzerland has boat access, but not oceangoing ships. Luxembourg has such through the Moselle, but Liechtenstein has no boat access though it is located along the Rhine, as the Rhine is not navigable that far upstream; the Mekong is an international waterway. However, it is not navigable above the Khone Phapheng Falls. Free ports allow transshipment to short-distance ships or river vessels; the TIR Treaty allows sealed road transport without customs checks and charges in Europe. Losing access to the sea is a great blow to a nation, politically and economically; the following ar
Eswatini the Kingdom of Eswatini and known as Swaziland, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. It is bordered by Mozambique to its northeast and South Africa to its north and south. At no more than 200 kilometres north to south and 130 kilometres east to west, Eswatini is one of the smallest countries in Africa; the population is ethnic Swazis. The language is Swazi; the Swazis established their kingdom in the mid-18th century under the leadership of Ngwane III. The country and the Swazi take their names from Mswati II, the 19th-century king under whose rule Swazi territory was expanded and unified. After the Second Boer War, the kingdom, under the name of Swaziland, was a British protectorate from 1903 until it regained its independence on 6 September 1968. In April 2018 the official name was changed from Kingdom of Swaziland to Kingdom of Eswatini, mirroring the name used in Swazi; the government is an absolute diarchy, ruled jointly by Ngwenyama Mswati III and Ndlovukati Ntfombi Tfwala since 1986.
The former is the administrative head of state and appoints the country's prime ministers and a number of representatives of both chambers in the country's parliament, while the latter is the national head of state, serving as keeper of the ritual fetishes of the nation and presiding during the annual Umhlanga rite. Elections are held every five years to determine the House of the Senate majority; the current constitution was adopted in 2005. Umhlanga, held in August/September, incwala, the kingship dance held in December/January, are the nation's most important events. Eswatini is a developing country with a small economy. With a GDP per capita of $9,714, it is classified as a country with a lower-middle income; as a member of the Southern African Customs Union and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, its main local trading partner is South Africa. Eswatini's major overseas trading partners are the European Union; the majority of the country's employment is provided by manufacturing sectors.
Eswatini is a member of the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations. The Swazi population faces major health issues: HIV/AIDS and, to a lesser extent, tuberculosis are widespread, it is estimated. As of 2018, Eswatini has the 12th lowest life expectancy at 58 years; the population of Eswatini is young, with a median age of 20.5 years and people aged 14 years or younger constituting 37.5% of the country's total population. The present population growth rate is 1.2%. Artifacts indicating human activity dating back to the early Stone Age, around 200,000 years ago, have been found in Eswatini. Prehistoric rock art paintings dating from as far back as c. 27,000 years ago, to as recent as the 19th century, can be found in various places around the country. The earliest known inhabitants of the region were Khoisan hunter-gatherers, they were replaced by the Nguni during the great Bantu migrations. These peoples originated from the Great Lakes regions of central Africa.
Evidence of agriculture and iron use dates from about the 4th century. People speaking languages ancestral to the current Sotho and Nguni languages began settling no than the 11th century; the Swazi settlers known as the Ngwane before entering Eswatini, had been settled on the banks of the Pongola River. Before that, they were settled in the area of the Tembe River near Mozambique. Continuing conflict with the Ndwandwe people pushed them further north, with Ngwane III establishing his capital at Shiselweni at the foot of the Mhlosheni hills. Under Sobhuza I, the Ngwane people established their capital at Zombodze in the heartland of present-day Eswatini. In this process, they conquered and incorporated the long-established clans of the country known to the Swazi as Emakhandzambili. Eswatini derives its name from a king named Mswati II. KaNgwane, named for Ngwane III, is an alternative name for Eswatini the surname of whose royal house remains Nkhosi Dlamini. Nkhosi means "king". Mswati II was the greatest of the fighting kings of Eswatini, he extended the area of the country to twice its current size.
The Emakhandzambili clans were incorporated into the kingdom with wide autonomy including grants of special ritual and political status. The extent of their autonomy, was drastically curtailed by Mswati, who attacked and subdued some of them in the 1850s. With his power, Mswati reduced the influence of the Emakhandzambili while incorporating more people into his kingdom either through conquest or by giving them refuge; these arrivals became known to the Swazis as Emafikamuva. The clans who accompanied the Dlamini kings were known as the true Swazi; the autonomy of the Swazi nation was influenced by British and Dutch rule of southern Africa in the 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1881 the British government signed a convention recognizing Swazi independence despite the Scramble for Africa, taking place at the time; this independence was recognized in the convention of 1884. Because of controversial land/mineral rights and ot
King Mswati III International Airport
King Mswati III International Airport named Sikhuphe International Airport, is an airport in Eswatini. It replaced Matsapha Airport as the only international airport in Eswatini accepting commercial flights in 2014, it is designed to handle 360,000 passengers per year. Construction began in 2003 on this $150m project; the Taiwanese government contributed USD 22m to the project. It is part of King Mswati III's $1bn millennium project investment initiative to enhance Eswatini's position as a tourist destination, serving as a tourism gateway to Eswatini's game parks, either domestic or nearby located ones, such as Victoria Falls, the Kruger National Park and KwaZulu-Natal game reserves. However, it has been on the drawing board since 1980, since Kruger Mpumalanga International Airport has opened and Maputo and Durban airports have been upgraded. There are environmental concerns since Sikhupe is near Hlane game park, may put rare species of eagles and vultures at risk. King Mswati III International Airport was planned to replace Matsapha airport by 2010, with the latter being taken over by the army.
King Mswati III International Airport was inaugurated on 7 March 2014, despite not yet having an IATA license to operate. Service began 30 September 2014. Plans include a 3,600m CAT 1 runway, capacity for 300,000 passengers per year, it would be able to handle Boeing 747 aircraft, service flights to any destination in the world. Media related to King Mswati III International Airport at Wikimedia Commons OpenStreetMap - Sikhuphe International Airport King Mswati-III International Airport website Accident history for FDSK at Aviation Safety Network
Matsapha Airport is an airport located near Manzini, a city in Manzini District of Eswatini. It serves flights of mercy flights. Although a new airport for Manzini, King Mswati III International Airport, was inaugurated in March 2014, Airlink chose to continue flying to Mastapha. However, the Eswatini Civil Aviation Authority required the airline to end flights to Matsapha on 29 September 2014 and switch to King Mswati III Airport the following day; the airport is at an elevation of 2,075 feet above mean sea level, the runway elevation is 2,075 feet. It has one runway designated 07/25 with an asphalt surface measuring 2,600 by 45 metres; the Matsapha non-directional beacon is located off the approach threshold of Runway 25. The Matsapha VOR-DME is located on the field. List of airports in Eswatini Transport in Eswatini OpenStreetMap - Matsapha Airport Everything about Matsapha/Manzini International Airport – History, recent statistics, planespotting and car rental Current weather for Manzini/Matsapa Airport, Swaziland at NOAA/NWS Accident history for Manzini – Matsapha International Airport at Aviation Safety Network
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Ngwenya is a town in western Eswatini, lying near the border with South Africa, north west of Mbabane, on the MR3 road. The South African town opposite Ngwenya is Oshoek in Mpumalanga province, it is known for its glass artwork. The Malolotja Nature Reserve lies near the town