Bank of Greece
The Bank of Greece is the central bank of Greece. Its headquarters is located in Athens on Panepistimiou Street, but it has several branches across the country, it was founded in 1927 and its operations started in 1928. The building that houses its headquarters was completed ten years in 1938; the Bank of Greece is listed on the Athens Exchange. The Bank of Greece, a member of the European System of Central Banks, is the national central bank of Greece and was established by Law 3424/7 December 1927; the shares of the Bank of Greece are registered and have been listed on the Athens Exchange since June 12, 1930. It is a state owned S. A. share company with special privileges, special restrictions, duties. It cannot operate as a commercial bank and the percentage of shares that can be under Greek state ownership cannot exceed 35%, it has a staff of more than 3,000 employees. The primary objective of the Bank of Greece is to ensure price stability in Greece, it supervises the private banks and acts as a treasurer and fiscal agent for the Greek government.
Since law 3867/2010 was passed the Bank of Greece is responsible for supervising private insurance companies, merging with the Committee for the Supervision of Insurance Companies established by law 3229/2004. Its Euro banknotes printer identification code is Y; the Bank of Greece sells gold sovereigns. The chief officer of the Bank of Greece is a governmental appointee. A During the Axis occupation of Greece, Governor Kyriakos Varvaresos followed the Greek government in exile to London; the collaborationist governments in Greece fired Varvaresos in 1941 and appointed first Miltiadis Negrepontis as Governing Counsellor and Dimitrios Santis and Theodoros Tourkovasilis as Governors. After the liberation all dismissals and appointments by occupation-era governments concerning members of the administration of the Bank of Greece were declared null and void; the deputy governor is the Bank's second-in-line officer. Traditionally the Deputy Governors' main remit is administration, whereas Governors supervise monetary policy at large.
Emmanouil Tsouderos: April 21, 1928 – October 31, 1931 Emmanouil Kamaras: November 25, 1931 – May 30, 1932 Kyriakos Varvaresos: March 1, 1933 – August 4, 1939 Georgios Mantzavinos: September 28, 1936 – February 11, 1946 Ioannis Arvanitis: August 4, 1939 – April 26, 1941 Stylianos Gregoriou: March 28, 1945 – February 2, 1955 Vasileios Kyriakopoulos: February 5, 1955 – December 24, 1955 Dimitrios Galanis: December 31, 1955 – August 7, 1967 Ioannis Pesmazoglou: February 11, 1960 – August 5, 1967 Konstantinos Thanos: January 5, 1968 – September 10, 1969 Efstathios Panas: September 11, 1969 – August 9, 1974 Nikolaos Kyriazidis: August 9, 1974 – January 5, 1977 Nikolaos Charisopoulos: October 21, 1975 – November 6, 1981 Evangelos Devletoglou: December 23, 1977 – November 8, 1978 Georgios Drakos: November 24, 1978 – October 20, 1981 Dimitrios Chalikias: November 16, 1981 – February 6, 1984 Evangelos Kourakos: July 10, 1982 – February 11, 1986 Panagiotis Korliras: February 20, 1984 – August 30, 1985 Efstathios Papageorgiou: September 17, 1985 – September 17, 1989 George Provopoulos: October 1, 1990 – November 29, 1993 Vasileios Antonioudakis: October 1, 1990 – December 19, 1991 Panagiotis Pavlopoulos: February 21, 1992 – November 29, 1993 Evangelos Kourakos: December 1, 1993 – September 4, 1996 Lucas Papademos: December 1, 1993 – October 26, 1994 Panagiotis Thomopoulos: October 26, 1994 – February 26, 2009 Nikolaos Garganas: September 5, 1996 – June 13, 2002 Nikolaos Palaiokrassas: June 14, 2002 – June 14, 2008 Eleni Dendrinou Louri: June 20, 2008 – June 20, 2014 Iannis Mourmouras: September, 2014 - Theodoros Mitrakos: March 2015 -: During the Axis occupation of Greece, Deputy Governor Georgios Mantzavinos followed the Greek government in exile to London.
The collaborationist governments in Greece fired Mantzavinos in 1941 and appointed Andreas Papadimitriou and Spyridon Hatzikyriakos as Deputy Governors. After the liberation all dismissals and appointments by occupation-era governments concerning members of the administration of the Bank of Greece were declared null and void. Banking in Greece List of banks in GreeceGeneral: Economy of Greece European System of Central Banks Hellenic Parliament June 2015 Page 22 Bank of Greece official site Governor report on the balance sheet of 31st December 1928
Line 1 (Athens Metro)
Line 1 is the oldest of the three Athens Metro lines, running from Kifisia to Piraeus, via Omonoia and Monastiraki. The Athens & Piraeus Railway Company first opened the line, between Piraeus and Thiseio, on 27 January 1869, but it did not merge into the Athens Metro network until 10 June 2011, under Chairman and CEO Kostas Vassiliadis, a former Chief Engineer and CEO of Athens -Piraeus Electric Railways. Line 1 connects the port of Piraeus with the northern suburb of Kifissia; as it was designed for steam traction, the line runs above ground. However, there are no level crossings, it is built to 1,435 mm standard gauge and is electrified using the 750 V DC, third rail, top contact system used by Athens Metro Lines 2 and 3. From Piraeus the line runs eastwards to Neo Faliro and north to Thision parallel to the main road connecting Athens and Piraeus. Between Monastiraki and Attiki the line runs underground. At Monastiraki passengers can change to Metro line 3 and at Omonoia and Attiki to Metro line 2.
From Attiki the line continues north, following the alignment of the old "Attica Railways" through Patissia, the suburbs of Nea Ionia, Irakleio and terminates at Kifissia. At Nerantziotissa passengers can change to the suburban line serving Athens International Airport. Line 1 has a physical connection to Line 2 at Attiki station. Since 2008, ISAP S. A. and subsequently STASY S. A. proposed a two-phase northern extension of Line 1 from Kifisia to Agios Stefanos, via Ethniki Odos near Ekali, bringing the Dionysos municipality into the Athens Metro catchment area. The first phase includes new stations at AOK, Nea Erithrea and Ethniki Odos, but requires the reconstruction of Kifisia into an underground station; the second phase would be sub-surface, with new stations at Anixi and Agios Stefanos. The project was dropped by the company late in 2011 due to lack of funding and incomplete feasibility data. In 2012, Attiko Metro S. A. included the western extension from Piraeus to Amfiali in the Athens Regulatory Plan.
In 2012, Attiko Metro S. A. included Kaminia metro station in the Athens Regulatory Plan. The new station will be sited near Kerani Square, between Neo Faliro. In 2012, Attiko Metro S. A. included Psalidi metro station in the Athens Regulatory Plan. The new station will be sited between Eirini. Athens Metro official website
Thessaloniki International Fair
The Thessaloniki International Fair, abbreviated TIF, is an annual international exhibition event held in Thessaloniki, Greece's second-largest city. It has been held in the first week of September since 1926, its opening is traditionally marked by a series of programmatical statements by the Prime Minister of Greece; the United States were chosen as the honoured country for the 83rd Fair, opened on 8 September 2018 and India will be the honoured country for the 84th TIF in 2019. The International Exhibition & Congress Centre of TIF HELEXPO is located in downtown Thessaloniki, with easy access from any location in the city and using any means of transportation. With trade fairs and consumer exhibitions held throughout the year at exhibition premises of European Specifications, his is the most important exhibition organisation agency in Greece. At the heart of the city's history, adjacent to the Byzantine Museum and the Archaeological Museum, the International Exhibition Centres of TIF HELEXPO attract a wealth of conference events.
The TIF HELEXPO Exhibition Centre covers a total area of 180,000 sq.m. of which 62,000 sq.m. are indoor exhibition areas, distributed into a complex of 17 pavilions that are functionally designed and interconnected to serve the needs of each event. The exhibition facilities are complemented by conference centres, parking areas and recreational facilities, catering areas, citizen service centres, museums and developmental agency offices; this way, Thessaloniki International Exhibition Centre functions as a hub providing services that meet the requirements of exhibitions and cultural events. Similar trade fairs of the city have occurred since the Byzantine era, attracting traders from all over the Balkans, it has been customary for the country's prime minister to set out his government's policies for each coming year in a speech at the annual Thessaloniki International Trade Fair, for this reason the event has political significance in addition to its commercial importance. HELEXPO
750 mm gauge railways
750 mm narrow-gauge railways are similar to 760 mm and 2 ft 6 in gauge. 750 mm gauge rolling stock is compatible with 760 and 762 mm railways. List of track gauges
Rail transport in Greece
Rail transport in Greece has a history which began in 1869, with the completion of the Athens & Piraeus Railway, with parts of it becoming the second-oldest underground metro system in the world. The running of the Greek railways is split between the Hellenic Railways Organisation, which owns and maintains the infrastructure, TrainOSE, which runs the trains on the network. Greece is a member of the International Union of Railways; the UIC Country Code for Greece is 73. The Diolkos was a paved trackway near Corinth in Ancient Greece which enabled boats to be moved overland across the Isthmus of Corinth; the shortcut allowed ancient vessels to avoid the dangerous circumnavigation of the Peloponnese peninsula. It is regarded by some as the first railway to be constructed. Greek independence in 1832 coincided with the start of the railway era. By 1835 plans were being put to the Greek state to construct a railway line from Athens to the port of Piraeus. Twenty-two years in 1857, a contract for its construction was signed and the work commenced.
It took four different companies a further twelve years to lay the 8.8 kilometres of track, the work being completed in 1869. Greece towards the end of the 19th century was a collection of small agricultural towns acting as marketplaces and economic centres for the villages that surrounded them. Greece had little industry and few roads, which made the government think about the development of a railway system that would go towards addressing the lack of internal and external communication that existed. In 1881 the Prime Minister, Alexandros Koumoundouros signed four contracts for the laying of 1,435 mm standard gauge lines, with the intention of making Greece a pivotal point on the journey between Europe and Asia. In the following year, 1882, Koumoundouros was replaced by Charilaos Trikoupis as Prime Minister, who cancelled the contracts, replacing them with four of his own, he had a different political vision for the railways, seeing them as a way of stimulating the internal growth of Greece and proposed a 417 kilometres narrow-gauge system encircling the northern Peloponnese, with a separate system in Thessaly.
There was a line of 76 kilometres to be laid from Athens to Lavrio, on the peninsula of Eastern Attica. Trikoupis preferred narrow gauge over standard gauge due to cheaper initial construction costs, although the line linking Athens to Larissa, planned to join with the European system, was constructed to 1,435 mm standard gauge; the network took 25 years to complete, 20 years longer than the 5 anticipated by Trikoupis. By 1909, 1,606 kilometres of track had been laid, including the main standard-gauge line to the Greek-Turkish border at Papapouli, past the Tempi valley; the first trains to run the full 506 kilometres from Athens to Thessaloniki on standard-gauge track marked the completion of the line in 1918, which by was running on Greek territory. The Hellenic Railways Organisation was founded in 1971, taking over from the Hellenic State Railways. Since the network of Greece's railways has been extensively modernised and parts of it have been electrified, notably between the cities of Thessaloniki and Larissa.
Piraeus–Monastiraki–Iraklio–Lavrio–Kifissia The first railway line that operated in Greece was the one connecting Athens and Piraeus, which opened in 1869. It ran for a distance of 8 km from the port of Piraeus to Thissio in Athens, it was extended to Omonoia Square in 1895 and electrified in 1904, with the 600 V DC third rail system. From 1911 it was possible to run through freight trains on the Piraeus Harbour Tramway using dual system electric locomotives. Another company, Attica Railways in 1885, ran a metre-gauge suburban line from Lavrio Square to the north of Omonoia Square and to Iraklio, it involved a section of street running, along the present 3 September Street, from Lavrio Square to Attiki Square, beyond which it ran on a dedicated trackbed. At Iraklio, the line forked to form two suburban branches. One went further north via Maroussi to Kifissia and Strofyli, with a freight only extension to Dionyssos marble quaries; the other branch ran eastwards to Vrilissia and southwards to the villages Peania, Marcopoulo, Keratea and its terminus at the mining town of Lavrio.
In 1926, the Hellenic Electric Railways S. A. a new company, created by the co-operation of Attica Railways S. A. and the English "Power Group", took over operation of the two lines Piraeus-Athens and Omonia and Attiki-Kifissia-Strofyli. In 1929 SPAP took over the Iraklio - Lavrio branch line; the Athens terminal for Lavrio was moved from Lavrio Square to Athens Peloponnese Station. To join the Lavrio line to its network, SPAP built a connection between Agioi Iraklio; the Lavrio line was closed in 1957, due to political pressures from the road lobby. The line from Attiki Square to Kifissia operated as a steam locomotive hauled railway with numerous level crossings until 1938; the line was subsequently rebuilt in electrified dual track standard gauge without level crossings, connected to the electrified Athens-Piraeus line at Omonoia, reopened to Kifissia in 1957. The extension to Strofyli was abandoned. A number of railway lines were constructed by mining ope
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
Hellenic Railways Organisation
The Hellenic Railways Organisation or OSE is the Greek national railway company which owns and operates all railway infrastructure in Greece with the exception of Athens' rapid transit lines. Train services on these lines are run by TrainOSE S. A. a former OSE subsidiary. In addition OSE owns and maintains the rolling stock used by TrainOSE and maintains preserved special rolling stock, withdrawn locomotives and railcars. OSE was founded in 1971, taking over from the Hellenic State Railways, founded in 1920; as in most European Union countries, administration of the railway infrastructure is separate from the railway operating companies using the network to provide passenger and freight transportation services. Up until November 2010, company EDISY S. A. was the actual manager of the Greek national railway infrastructure until it became a subsidiary of OSE. On 29 November 2010 EDISY S. A. was merged back into the parent company OSE S. A., today the manager of the rail infrastructure of Greece. The major lines of the Greek railway network consist of the electrified standard gauge double track line from Piraeus-Athens to northern Greece-Thessaloniki, a single track electrified line from Thessaloniki to Idomeni and the mixed-gauge line from Athens to Peloponnese.
All other lines link directly with these two lines. The main line of the Greek Railway System from Athens to Thessaloniki, covers a distance of 520 kilometres. According to the 2007 Network Statement, the total length of the standard gauge lines was 1,665 kilometres, while the length of the metre gauge lines is about 725 km. In addition, about 150 km of new standard gauge lines towards Athens Airport and to replace metre gauge lines, became operational in July 2007. Piraeus is served by two terminals. One at Piraeus Harbour, which up until 2006 was used by some standard gauge trains for Chalkis and Alexandroupolis; the short line to Agios Ioannis Rentis is closed and as of 2009 being renovated. The heavy rolling stock repair works are located at Lefka, next to Ergostasio halt, are accessible from this line; the other Piraeus mainline station was used by the Peloponesse metric line trains until 2005, when it was converted to standard gauge, reopening in 2007 and today serving the Proastiakos rail service.
The two lines from Piraeus meet just outside Agios Ioannis Rentis marshalling yard. Next to the marshalling yard lies the major rolling stock depot and maintenance facility of OSE. North of AIR, the line crosses Kifissos River and passes through the freight and parcels handling station of Rouf. At a siding of Rouf station, there is a "railway theatre" in disused rolling stock and a disused SEK class Μα "2-10-2" steam locomotive made by Breda; the line between Rouf and Athens Central is single track and non-electrified. There is considerable traffic on this stretch as it serves the busy Proastiakos commuter rail service and regional rail service to Thessaloniki and Halkida. In 1916 the railway from Athens to Platy was completed, linking Athens with the European railway network; the line passes through Thebes and Larissa, offers connections to several other cities through branch lines. At Platy the line joins with the line from Thessaloniki to Amyntaio and Florina; the line continues across flatland until the suburbs of Thessaloniki are reached at Sindos.
Larissa and Thessaloniki have substantial marshalling yards for both goods and passenger trains. There are daily InterCity trains from Athens to Thessaloniki and one night train; the InterCity rail service takes 5 hours and 23 minutes.. The new Corinth line branches off at SKA and runs west into Elefsis and the Megara Plains; the line passes through impressive tunnels and bridges in the "Kakia Skala" area, north of Agioi Theodoroi. The line extends to the town of Kiato, where passengers can change to a TrainOSE bus services to Patras or to the metre gauge network. There is work in progress to extend the line to Xylokastro and Aigio, while plans exist to extend the line to Patras; this is a single track electrified line, connecting Thessaloniki with Idomeni, near the border with the Republic of Macedonia. It is used by international freight; this line was opened in 1894, connects Thessaloniki with the city Bitola, in the southern part of the Republic of Macedonia. It passes through Platy, Edessa and Florina.
At Amyntaio the Kozani–Amyntaio railway branches off. The section between Thessaloniki and Platy is part of the important connection towards Athens and southern Greece; the part across the border with Macedonia is not used anymore, passenger traffic has been suspended west of Edessa. This railway line, 620 km long, joins Thessaloniki via the Port of Alexandroupoli to Svilengrad in Bulgaria, passing through or near most major cities of East Macedonia and Thrace. At Strymon, the line connects with a northbound line along Strymon River Valley to Promachonas, which joins with the Bulgarian network at Kulata; the line section from Stavroupoli to Toxotes runs along Nestos River Valley and is part of a preserved area, not accessible by road