Transport in Argentina
Transport in Argentina is based on a complex network of routes, crossed by inexpensive long-distance buses and by cargo trucks. The country has a number of national and international airports; the importance of the long-distance train is minor today, though in the past it was used and is now regaining momentum after the re-nationalisation of the country's commuter and freight networks. Fluvial transport is used for cargo. Within the urban areas, the main transportation system is by the colectivo. Buenos Aires additionally has an underground, the only one in the country, Greater Buenos Aires is serviced by a system of suburban trains. A majority of people employ public transport rather than personal cars to move around in the cities in common business hours, since parking can be both difficult and expensive. Cycling is becoming common big cities as a result of a growing network of cycling lanes in Cities like Buenos Aires and Rosario; the Colectivo cover the cities with numerous lines. Fares might be fixed for the whole city.
Colectivos cross municipal borders into the corresponding metropolitan areas. In some cases there are diferenciales which are faster, notably more expensive. Bus lines in a given city might be run by different private companies and/or by the municipal state, they might be painted in different colours for easier identification; the city of Buenos Aires has in recent years been expanding its Metrobus BRT system to compliment its existing Underground network and it is estimated that, along with other measures, it will increase the city's use of public transport by 30 percent. Taxis are common and accessible price-wise, they have different colours and fares in different cities, though a contrasted black-and-yellow design is common to the largest conurbations. Call-taxi companies are common, while the remisse is another form of hired transport: they are much like call-taxis, but do not share a common design, trip fares are agreed beforehand instead of using the meter. Although, there are fixed prices for common destinations.
Suburban trains connect Buenos Aires city with the Greater Buenos Aires area. Every weekday, more than 1.4 million people commute to the Argentine capital for work and other business. These suburban trains work between 4 AM and 1 AM; the busiest lines are electric, several are diesel powered, while some of these are being electrified, while the rolling stock is being replaced across the city. Until Trenes de Buenos Aires, UGOFE, Ferrovías and Metrovías were some of the private companies which provided suburban passenger services in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. However, with the modernisation and re-nationalisation of these services, many of these companies have had their contracts terminated or have been absorbed into Trenes Argentinos, though as of 2015 some private operators such as Metrovías do remain. Other cities in Argentina with a system of suburban trains include Resistencia, Paraná and Mendoza, home to the Metrotranvía Mendoza - an urban light rail network. A commuter rail network for Córdoba is planned to complement the existing Tren de las Sierras which runs through the city and to nearby towns and villages.
As of 2015, Buenos Aires is the only Argentine city with an underground metro system, nonetheless there is a project to build a system in the city of Córdoba making it the second underground system in Argentina. The Buenos Aires Underground has six lines, each labelled with a letter from A to H, though 3 more lines are planned. A modern tram line line E2 works as a feeder to Underground Line E at their outer terminus as well as the Urquiza Line for Underground Line B in Chacarita. Daily ridership is 1.3 million and on the increase. Most of the lines of the Buenos Aires Undergrounds connect the city centre with areas in the outskirts of the city proper, though none go outside the city limits to Greater Buenos Aires. In recent years, the Underground has seen a gradual expansion, with lines H, B and A seeing extensions; as of 2015, the extension of lines E and H are under construction, with work commenced on the new line F and two additional lines planned. The rolling stock has been replaced in recent years and there are further plans to modernise.
Trams, once common, were retired as public transportation in the 1960s but are now in the stages of a slow comeback. In 1987 a modern tram line was opened as a feeder for the underground system. A modern light rail line between the Bartolomé Mitre suburban railway station and Tigre inaugurated in 1996 operates in the northern suburbs. A 2-kilometre tram known as the Tranvía del Este was inaugurated 2007 in the Puerto Madero district of Buenos Aires using loaned French Citadis trams, but plans for its extension never came to fruition, declining patronage led the line's closure in 2012. Trams were once common in Buenos Aires, with the city having a large 875 km tramway network and the largest tramway-to-population ratio the world, which gained it notoriety as "the city of trams" across the world; the first trams began operating in the 1860s, however by the 1960s the network was dismantled and replaced by buses. There is a Heritage Tramway maintained by enthusiasts that operates a large collection of vintage trams on weekends, nea
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay. A large bay is called a gulf, sound, or bight. A cove is a type of smaller bay with narrow entrance. A fjord is a steep bay shaped by glacial activity. A bay can be the estuary of a river, such as the Chesapeake Bay, an estuary of the Susquehanna River. Bays may be nested within each other; some large bays, such as the Bay of Bengal and Hudson Bay, have varied marine geology. The land surrounding a bay reduces the strength of winds and blocks waves. Bays were significant in the history of human settlement because they provided safe places for fishing, they were important in the development of sea trade as the safe anchorage they provide encouraged their selection as ports. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea called the Law of the Sea, defines a bay as a well-marked indentation whose penetration is in such proportion to the width of its mouth as to contain land-locked waters and constitute more than a mere curvature of the coast.
An indentation shall not, however, be regarded as a bay unless its area is as large as, or larger than, that of the semi-circle whose diameter is a line drawn across the mouth of that indentation. There are various ways; the largest bays have developed through plate tectonics. As the super-continent Pangaea broke up along curved and indented fault lines, the continents moved apart and left large bays. Bays form through coastal erosion by rivers and glaciers. A bay formed by a glacier is a fjord. Rias are characterised by more gradual slopes. Deposits of softer rocks erode more forming bays, while harder rocks erode less leaving headlands. Bay platform Great capes Headlands and bays
Transport in Bermuda
Bermuda consists of several islands with an area of 53.2 km2 with 447 km of paved roads — 225 km of which are public roads and 222 km are private paved roads. A former railway track has been converted into a walking trail. There are two marine ports, an airport, the L. F. Wade International Airport, located at the former U. S. Naval Air Station. A causeway links Hamilton Bermuda to St. George's and the airport. Traffic drives on the left. Bermuda's Ministry of Tourism and Transport manages the public ferry service, "SeaExpress", the public bus system. Bermuda is serviced by a bus system. From the main bus terminal in Hamilton eleven bus routes spread out in all directions of the island; as the island is narrow and in most sections has a northern and southern route that are serviced, access to the system is within a short distance. The MAN buses stop at pink or blue markers. Fares are based on sections traveled, transfers are available. SeaExpress operates four routes for ferries and boats that originate from the ferry terminal in Hamilton.
The "Blue Route" services the West End and the Dockyard of Sandys, the "Orange Route" links to the Dockyard and St. George's, the "Green Route" travels to Rockaway of Southampton, the "Pink Route" brings passengers to points in Paget and Warwick. Fare for travelling by ferry is inexpensive, allow travel for frequent travel at most hours. In 2003, high-speed catamaran ferry service was introduced. Cars were not allowed in Bermuda until 1946. Today, Bermuda has a large number of private cars one for every two inhabitants; this is because, with close to 300,000 visitors a year, allowing car rental on one of the world's most densely populated islands would bring traffic to a standstill, as well as bankrupt the island's taxi industry. Car prices are much higher than in the United States and Europe, due to heavy import duties, residents are limited to one car per household; the size of cars is restricted, meaning that many models popular in the United States and Europe are not available in Bermuda.
Only the Governor and Premier are exempt from these restrictions. There is no car hire; the highest speed limit anywhere on the island is 35 km/h, it is lower in built-up and other congested areas. Between 1931 and 1948, Bermuda Railway provided rail passenger and freight services between St George's and Somerset in Sandys Parish, via Hamilton; the railway was replaced by a bus service and the line dismantled in 1948. Much of the old railway right-of-way has been converted to the "Bermuda Railway Trail" for hiking and biking; as at 2007, Bermuda had 447 km of paved roads — of which 225 km were public roads and 222 km were private paved roads. There are ports in Hamilton, St George's, Dockyard. During summer months, large cruise ships dock at the Dockyard at the northwestern end of the island; the only airport in Bermuda is L. F. Wade International Airport located in the parish of St. George's, 11 km northeast of Hamilton. In 2006, the airport handled about 900,000 passengers, it has one passenger terminal, one cargo terminal, eight aircraft stands and can support all aircraft sizes up to the Airbus A380.
As at 2006, seven airlines operated seasonal or year-round scheduled services to Bermuda from Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. It has a 3,048 m paved runway; the airport is served by taxis. There is no car hire in Bermuda. Bermuda is a flag of convenience, with 160 vessels on its registry as at 2016. Much of the material in this article is adapted from the CIA World Factbook 2009. Travel: Transport on Bermuda - Discover Bermuda, Official Site of the Bermuda Department of Tourism
A merchant navy or merchant marine or mercantile marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a specific country. On merchant vessels, seafarers of various ranks and sometimes members of maritime trade unions are required by the International Convention on Standards of Training and Watchkeeping for Seafarers to carry Merchant Mariner's Documents. King George V bestowed the title of the "Merchant Navy" on the British merchant shipping fleets following their service in the First World War; the following is a partial list of the merchant navies or merchant marines of various countries. In many countries the fleet's proper name is the capitalized version of the common noun; the British Merchant Navy comprises the British merchant ships that transport cargo and people during time of peace and war. For much of its history, the merchant navy was the largest merchant fleet in the world, but with the decline of the British Empire in the mid-20th century it slipped down the rankings.
In 1939, the merchant navy was the largest in the world with 33% of total tonnage. By 2012, the merchant navy—still remaining one of the largest in the world—held only 3% of total tonnage; as of the year ending 2012, British Merchant Marine interests consists of 1,504 ships of 100 GT or over. This includes parent owned or managed by a British company; this amounts to: 59,413,000 GT or alternatively 75,265,000 DWT. This is according to the annual maritime shipping statistics provided by the British government and the Department for Transport. British shipping is globally by the UK Chamber of Shipping. Canada, like several other Commonwealth nations, created its own merchant navy in a large-scale effort in World War II. Established in 1939, the Canadian Merchant Navy played a major role in the Battle of the Atlantic bolstering the Allies' merchant fleet due to high losses in the British Merchant Navy. Thousands of Canadians served in the merchant navy aboard hundreds of Canadian merchant ships, notably the "Park Ship", the Canadian equivalent of the American "Liberty Ship".
A school at St. Margarets Bay, Nova Scotia, trained Canadian merchant mariners. "Manning pools", merchant navy barracks, were built in Canadian ports. The Greek maritime fleet is today engaged in commerce and transportation of goods and services universally, it consists of the merchant vessels owned by Greek civilians, flying either the Greek flag or a flag of convenience. Greece is a maritime nation by tradition, as shipping is arguably the oldest form of occupation of the Greeks and a key element of Greek economic activity since ancient times. In 2015, the Greek Merchant Navy controlled the world's largest merchant fleet in terms of tonnage with a total DWT of 334,649,089 tons and a fleet of 5,226 Greek owned vessels, according to Lloyd's List. Greece is ranked regarding all types of ships, including first for tankers and bulk carriers; the birth of the modern Indian Merchant Navy occurred before independence from the United Kingdom, when in 1919 SS Loyalty sailed from India to Britain. Today, India ranks 15th in the world in terms of total DWT.
India supplies around 12.8% of officers and around 14.5% of ratings to the world seafaring community. This is one of the highest of any country. India trains its officers similar to coast guards with all equipment including combat training, they are trained to protect their vessels at all cost from pirates. In December 1939, 3,000 seafarers were employed and 186 merchant vessels were on the New Zealand Registry; some foreign vessels were impressed, including Pamir. New Zealand, like several other Commonwealth nations, created a merchant navy. However, the "wartime Merchant Navy was neither a military force nor a single coherent body", instead it was a "a diverse collection of private companies and ships". Although some ships were involved in the Atlantic and North Pacific trade this involved domestic and South Pacific cargos. New Zealand-owned ships were involved in trade with the United Kingdom and the majority of New Zealand seamen had served with the British Merchant Navy. Over the course of the war, 64 ships were sunk by enemy action on the New Zealand–UK route, 140 merchant seafarers lost their lives.
The Pakistan Merchant Navy was formed in 1947. The Ministry of Port and Shipping, Mercantile Marine Department and Shipping Office established by the Government of Pakistan were authorized to flag the ships and ensured that the vessels were sea worthy. All of the private shipping companies merged and formed the National Shipping Corporation and the Pakistan Shipping Corporation and as a result they had a common flag. Among these companies were the Muhammadi Steamship Company Limited and the East & West Steamship Company. In the Indo-Pak war of 1971 Pakistan suffered a great loss of its merchant vessels at the hands of Indians. On 1 January 1974, President of Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto nationalized the National Shipping Corporation and Pakistan Shipping Corporation, formed the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation with the intent of reestablishing the Pakistan Merchant Navy; the company was incorporated under the provisions of the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation Ordinance of 1979 and the Companies Ordinance of 1984.
Today, the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation is the national flag carrier. The corporation's head office is located in Karachi. A regional office based in Lahore caters for
Grenada is a country in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain. Grenada consists of the island of Grenada itself plus six smaller islands which lie to the north of the main island, it is located northwest of Trinidad and Tobago, northeast of Venezuela and southwest of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Its size is 348.5 square kilometres, it had an estimated population of 107,317 in 2016. Its capital is St. George's. Grenada is known as the "Island of Spice" due to its production of nutmeg and mace crops, of which it is one of the world's largest exporters; the national bird of Grenada is the critically endangered Grenada dove. Before the arrival of Europeans in the Americas, Grenada was inhabited by the indigenous Arawaks and by the Island Caribs. Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada in 1498 during his third voyage to the Americas. Although it was deemed the property of the King of Spain, there are no records to suggest the Spanish landed or settled on the island.
Following several unsuccessful attempts by Europeans to colonise the island due to resistance from the Island Caribs, French settlement and colonisation began in 1650 and continued for the next century. On 10 February 1763, Grenada was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris. British rule continued until 1974. From 1958 to 1962, Grenada was part of the Federation of the West Indies, a short-lived federation of British West Indian colonies. On 3 March 1967, Grenada was granted full autonomy over its internal affairs as an Associated State. Herbert Blaize was the first Premier of the Associated State of Grenada from March to August 1967. Eric Gairy served as Premier from August 1967 until February 1974. Independence was granted on 7 February 1974, without breaking formal ties with the Commonwealth, under the leadership of Eric Gairy, who became the first Prime Minister of Grenada, with Queen Elizabeth as Head of State. In March 1979, the Marxist–Leninist New Jewel Movement overthrew Gairy's government in a coup d'état and established the People's Revolutionary Government, headed by Maurice Bishop as Prime Minister.
On 19 October 1983, hard-line Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard and his wife Phyllis, backed by the Grenadian Army, led a coup against the government of Maurice Bishop and placed Bishop under house arrest. Bishop was freed by popular demonstration and attempted to resume power, but he was captured and executed by soldiers, replaced with a military council chaired by Hudson Austin. On 25 October 1983, forces from the United States and the Barbados-based Regional Security System invaded Grenada in a U. S.-led operation code-named Operation Urgent Fury. The invasion was criticised by the governments of Britain and Tobago and Canada, along with the United Nations General Assembly. Elections were held in December 1984 and were won by the Grenada National Party under Herbert Blaize, who served as Prime Minister until his death in December 1989; the origin of the name "Grenada" is obscure, but it is that Spanish sailors renamed the island for the city of Granada. By the beginning of the 18th century, the name "Grenada", or "la Grenade" in French, was in common use.
On his third voyage to the region in 1498, Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada and named it "La Concepción" in honour of the Virgin Mary. It is said that he may have named it "Assumpción", but it is uncertain, as he is said to have sighted what are now Grenada and Tobago from a distance and named them both at the same time. However, history has accepted that it was Tobago he named "Assumpción" and Grenada he named "La Concepción". In 1499, the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci travelled through the region with the Spanish explorer Alonso de Ojeda and mapmaker Juan de la Cosa. Vespucci is reported to have renamed the island "Mayo", how it appeared on maps for around the next 20 years. In the 1520s, the Spanish named the islands to the north of Mayo as Los Granadillos after the mainland Spanish town. Shortly after this, Mayo disappeared from Spanish maps and an island called "Granada" took its place. Although it was deemed the property of the King of Spain, there are no records to suggest the Spanish landed or settled on the island.
After French settlement and colonisation in 1652, the French named their colony "La Grenade". On 10 February 1763, the island of La Grenade was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris; the British renamed it "Grenada", one of many place name anglicisations they carried out on the island during this time. About 2 million years ago, Grenada was formed as an underwater volcano. Grenada was inhabited by Arawaks and, Island Caribs before it was invaded and colonized by Europeans. Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada in 1498 during his third voyage to the new world. In 1649 a French expedition of 203 men from Martinique led by Jacques du Parquet founded a permanent settlement on Grenada. Within months this led to conflict with the local islanders which lasted until 1654 when the island was subjugated by the French; the indigenous islanders who survived either left for neighbouring islands or retreated to remoter parts of Grenada where they were marginalised—the last distinct communities disappeared during the 1700s.
Warfare continued during the 1600s between the French on Grenada and the Caribs of present-day Dominica and St. Vincent and the Grenadines; the French named their new colony La Grenade, the economy was based on sugar cane and indigo. The French established a capital known as Fort Royal. To shelter from hurricanes the French navy would take refuge in the capital's natural harbour, as no nearby Fren
Transport in Costa Rica
There are many modes of transport in Costa Rica but the country's infrastructure has suffered from a lack of maintenance and new investment. There is an extensive road system of more than 30,000 kilometers, although much of it is in disrepair. According to a 2016 U. S. government report, investment from China which attempted to improve the infrastructure found the "projects stalled by bureaucratic and legal concerns". Most parts of the country are accessible by road; the main highland cities in the country's Central Valley are connected by paved all-weather roads with the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and by the Pan American Highway with Nicaragua and Panama, the neighboring countries to the North and the South. Costa Rica's ports are struggling to keep pace with growing trade, they have insufficient capacity, their equipment is in poor condition. The railroad didn't function for several years, until recent government effort to reactivate it for city transportation. An August 2016 OECD report provided this summary: "The road network is extensive but of poor quality, railways are in disrepair and only being reactivated after having been shut down in the 1990s, seaports quality and capacity are deficient.
Internal transportation overly relies on private road vehicles as the public transport system railways, is inadequate." Total: 278 km narrow gauge: 278 km of 3 ft 6 in gauge The road system in Costa Rica is not as developed as it might be expected for such a country. However, there are some two-lane trunk roads with restricted access under development. Total: 35,330 km paved: 8,621 km unpaved: 26,709 km The Ministry of Public Works and Transportation, along with the National Road Council, are the government organizations in charge of national road nomenclature and maintenance. There are three level of nationwide roads: These are trunk roads devised to connect important cities, most of the national roads are connected to the capital city, San José. Numbered from 1 to 39. Route 1, part of the Pan-American Highway. Connects San José, Palmares San Ramón, Esparza, Cañas, Liberia and La Cruz. There are two toll booths, in Naranjo, it consists of the following named segments: Autopista General Cañas: San José to Juan Santamaría International Airport.
Autopista Bernardo Soto: From Juan Santamaría International Airport to San Ramón. Interamericana Norte: San Ramón to Peñas Blancas. Route 2, part of the Pan-American Highway. Connected cities include San José, San Pedro, Tres RíosCartago, Tejar del Guarco San Isidro de El General, Buenos Aires, Palmar Norte, Paso Canoas. There is one toll booth in Tres Ríos de La Unión, it consists of the following named segments: Autopista Florencio del Castillo: San José to Cartago. Interamericana Sur: Cartago to Paso Canoas. Route 27, is operated by Autopistas del Sol, it connects San José, Santa Ana, Ciudad Colón, Atenas and Puntarenas. There are four toll booths at San Rafael de Escazú, San Rafael de Alajuela and Orotina, it consists of the following named segments: Autopista Próspero Fernández: San José to Santa Ana. Autopista José María Castro Madriz: Santa Ana to Caldera. Route 32 Connects San José, Tibás, Guápiles, Guácimo, Limón. One toll booth in San Isidro, Heredia, it consists of the following named segments: Autopista Braulio Carrillo, San José to San Juan de Tibás.
Carretera Braulio Carrillo, San Juan de Tibás to Siquirres. Carretera José Joaquin Trejos Fernández, Siquirres to Limón. Route 34, Pacífica Fernández. Algunas ciudades que comunica: Pozón - Tárcoles - Herradura - Jacó - Parrita - Quepos - Dominical- Puerto Cortés - Palmar Norte Route 39, Paseo de la Segunda República, is an incomplete ring road that distributes traffic around the eastern and western areas of the capital city, it connects to Route 1, Route 27 and Route 2. There are many elevated access roads, some roundabouts, it has as much as 6 lanes but most of the road is only 4 lanes wide. There is a pending work in progress to complete the north section of the ring road, which will enable the Route 32 to be connected directly as well, as of the moment, drivers must go to downtown San José to connect to the Route 39; these are roads. Numbered from 100 a 255; these roads connect main cities to villages or residential areas, numbered from 301 to 935. 730 km, seasonally navigable by small craft refined products 242 km In 2016, the government pledged ₡93 million for a new cruise ship terminal for Puerto Limón.
Moín Puerto Limón Golfito Puerto Quepos Puntarenas Port of Caldera total: 2 ships 2,308 GT/743 tonnes deadweight ships by type: passenger/cargo ships 2 Total: 161 total: 47 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 27 under 914 metres: 16 total: 114 914 to 1,523 m: 18 under 914 metres: 96 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html
Transport in Martinique
As of 2000, Martinique had 2,105 km of paved highways. There is a part of the N5 road, upgraded as a motorway, running from the capital Fort-de-France through Lamentin and Rivière Salée until Les Coteaux. Martininique has now only one railway line in operation: The little-known 2.5 km long Le Train des Plantations is a heritage railway that runs from the Rhum Museum in Sainte-Marie through some sugarcane and banana plantations over two Bailey bridges to the Banana Museum. In former times several narrow gauge sugarcane railways existed. Saint-Pierre had horse-drawn trams. At least two steam locomotives are preserved in an optically refurbished condition, but not operational. There are harbours at Fort-de-France and La Trinité, it has the main one being Martinique Aimé Césaire International Airport. See List of Airports in Martinique