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Transport in Haiti

All of the major transportation systems in Haiti are located near or run through the capital, Port-au-Prince. Haiti's network of roads consists of National Roads, Department Roads, county roads; the hub of the road network is located at the old airport. From this intersection, Route Nationale #1 and Route Nationale #2 commence. Route Nationale #1 heads north, passing through Saint-Marc and Gonaïves to its terminus at Rue 22 in Cap-Haïtien. Route Nationale #2 is known as “Boulevard Jean-Jacques Dessalines” within Port-au-Prince and as “Route du Sud” outside the capital region. After heading south through downtown Port-au-Prince, it travels west through the capital's western boroughs and through Petit-Goâve and Aquin to its terminus at Avenue des Quatre Chemins in Les Cayes. Route Nationale #3 begins where RN1 heads northwest from Bon Repos, not far north of the road network's hub. RN3 travels northeast, traversing the Plateau Centrale via Mirebalais and Hinche before re-joining RN1 in Cap-Haïtien.

Route Nationale #4 branches off from RN2 at Carrefour du Fort Léogâne, not far south of Léogâne. Known as “Route de l’Amitié”, RN4 climbs and descends the Chaîne de la Selle mountain range on its meandering southward course to its terminus in the centre of Jacmel. Route Nationale #5 breaks off from RN1 on the northeast edge of Gonaïves, heading north and northwest through Gros Morne before terminating near the airport outside Port-de-Paix. Route Nationale # 6 branches off from RN3. RN6 heads southeast toward the Dominican border through Terrier Rouge en route to Ouanaminthe, its terminus is the bridge over the Massacre River. Route Nationale #7 commences from the aforementioned Avenue des Quatre Chemins in Les Cayes, going northwest across Haiti's southern arm to the outskirts of Jérémie. Route Nationale #8 is by far the shortest of the National Roads, it breaks off RN1 at Carrefour Shada in Croix-des-Missions. Heading east, it passes through Croix-des-Bouquets, skirts the southern shore of Étang Saumâtre, terminates at the Malpasse border crossing with the Dominican Republic.

Maintenance for RN1 and RN2 lapsed after the 1991 coup, prompting the World Bank to loan US$50 million, designated for road repairs. The project was cancelled in January 1999; the World Bank, who reasoned that the cancellation of those projects would ruin Haiti's road infrastructure progress created the FER in 2003. This was a way to cut down corruption, get local companies involved, in restraining any stopping of these projects because of political instability or protests. President Rene Preval, on his campaign for his second term, vowed on his Maillages Routiers to rebuild the majority of these roads that had disintegrated and build new ones that would enable the country to move forward; when he wasn't able to get the funds from the World Bank, he pleaded to the international donors for assistance, criticized by many politicians in the media, but was embraced by a population desperate to see road infrastructure development come to their towns. Therefore, the European Union pledged to help build RN6 RN3.

In the meantime, the World Bank loaned Haiti US$200 Million to rebuild RN2, from River Froide, the starting point of RN2, all the way to Aquin and repair RN1 from Titanyen to Cap-Haïtien. The hurricane season of 2008 was a major setback in development, since many bridges in multiple areas had either collapse or suffered extensive damage and was in immediate need of repair. Most of those work on RN1 and RN2, that were halted, suffered a major setback during the earthquake of January 12, 2010. For the construction of RN7, Canada pledged US$75 million and the IDB US$31 million for the construction of RN7, which started in 2009. It, suffered major setbacks because of the January 12 earthquake. Total highways: 6,045 km Paved highways: 2,971 km Unpaved highways: 3,071 km (2011 est The public transportation is privately owned in Haiti it was an individual business, with the new generation of entrepreneurs, it is association; the most common form of public transportation in Haiti is the use of brightly painted pickup trucks as taxis called "tap-taps".

They are named this because when a passenger needs to be let off they use their coin money to tap the side of the vehicle and the driver stops. Most tap-taps are priced at around 10-15 gourdes per ride within a city; the catch to the price is that the driver will fill a truck to maximum capacity, nearly 20-30 people. The Government in an effort to structure the public transportation has attempted several time to bring BUS, in around 1979, It was the BUS called CONATRA a contract between the government and association of driver which failed because of sabotage from different factor and poor maintenance. In 1998 another attempt was made with Dignite for student and teacher. Sabotage, poor maintenance and the overthrow of Aristide in 2004 had undermined the effort, in 2006 at the return of Preval in power another effort was made to recover the majority of the bus left, a Gift of 300 new bus from Taiwan an effort to bring back Service Plus in association of the drivers. Mini-vans are used to cover towns close to Port-au-Prince, such as Pétion-Ville, Jacmel and others.

Today throughout the island, motorcycles are used as a form of taxi. The port at Port-au-Prince, Port international de Port-au-Prince, has more registered shipping than any of the ov

Malanga (film)

Malanga is a 1986 Pakistani Punjabi-language action and musical film directed by Rasheed Dogar. It was produced by M. Hussain Dogar with Shah Productions and stars Anjuman, Sultan Rahi, Mustafa Qureshi, Afzaal Ahmad and the duo; this movie was written by Muhammad Ashiq Ali. The protagonist, Rahi Sahib, receives money from several large investors and the movie follows the story of Jagirdar extending his oppression; the film's release created a record for a Punjabi film. It became the highest-grossing film in Pakistani history, it ran for three and a half years in various cinemas. Anjuman got her breakthrough from this film. Sultan Rahi - Anjuman Mustafa Qureshi - Isaac Gayman Paneerselvam- Afzaal Ahmad Nazli Tanzeem Hassan Shagufta - Zahir Shah Tariq Shah Altaf Khan Nasrullah Butt Seema Begum Nannha Ilyas Kashmiri - Talish - Bahar Habib - Haq Nawaz Ali Nasir Saleem Hassan Raseela - Sajjad Kishwar Munir Zareer The film score was composed by Wajahat Attre and written by Nasir Adib. Malanga at Complete Index to World Film

Topaz (Erik Friedlander album)

Topaz is a 1999 album by cellist Erik Friedlander, released on the Siam label and features the quartet that became known as Topaz. The Allmusic review by Alex Henderson awarded the album 4 stars stating "Topaz, like a lot of avant-garde jazz, isn't easy to absorb on the first listen, but the more times you listen, the more you realize how much this left-of-center CD has going for it". All compositions by Erik Friedlander except as indicated "Verdine" - 5:37 "November" - 4:20 "Shining" - 6:10 "Straw Dogs" - 7:29 "Topaz" - 2:49 "Three Desperate Men" - 3:31 "Tout de Suite" - 8:29 "Hat and Beard" - 4:45 "Something Sweet, Something Tender / Cienega" - 6:59 "Agon" - 5:56 Erik Friedlander – cello Andy Laster - alto saxophone Stomu Takeishi - bass Satoshi Takeishi - percussion

Denis Kalinin

Denis Sergeevich Kalinin, known as the Salesman Maniac, is a Russian robber and serial killer. Between September and October 2005, using his salesman job as a ruse, he killed 14 pensioners in Pskov and most notably the Rostov Oblast, stealing their belongings afterwards. Denis Kalinin was born in Pskov in 1980. Unemployed at age 24, he supported himself through minor thefts, wasting it on slot machines and drugs. At some point, he decided to kill pensioners during the robberies, he committed his first murder in his hometown of Pskov, on September 20th, killing a 93-year-old woman, before moving to Rostov-on-Don. Denis got a job as a salesman to commit his crimes, choosing lonely elderly people as victims, as their children and grandchildren lived far away, he managed to sell a wide variety of electrical household appliances to the pensioners, for the most part, were unnecessary. To the first victim, he sold an electric kettle for 1,500 rubles, to another man, 100 years old, he gave an electric massager.

Kalinin, on the other hand managed to gain trust of the naive pensioners. Moreover, it was rather important for him to communicate with them, as they willingly gave the young man money for the unnecessary house appliaces, they agreed to the purchase when they were told by Denis that he would drop by again, in case they needed assistance with the product or couldn't understand the instructions properly. Those repeated visits by Kalinin ended in murder. To confuse law enforcement, he operated in different cities: starting in Pskov, he committed additional murders in Cheboksary, Rostov-on-Don, Tsimlyansk, Aksay and Zimovniki. After killing an elderly man in Morozovsk, where everyone knew each other, it became clear that a killer was operating in the area, penetrating through the houses of the elderly. However, there were no signs of forced entry, indicating that the pensioners themselves let the killer into their homes; the killings stopped abruptly, but a female pensioner in the Rostov Oblast became an accidental victim of a drunken row - for which, the cold case of the "Salesman Maniac" was reopened, just in case.

At the end of 2012, it turned out that there were enough fingerprints left, that they could be used to track down the killer. It turned out to be an average-looking man named Denis Kalinin, serving an 8-year sentence for robbery, he admitted everything, explaining how and why he killed the pensioners. Denis confided that he drank before each murder to calm down his nerves, he gave the following reasoning as a motive:I robbed them because they could not resist. They had money, they saved for a rainy day. An employee of the company which Kalinin worked at recalled one interesting conversation with him:He appeared to be an ordinary person, inconspicuous, but once he said something like: "The old man annoys me. Shuffling, gray hair. You need to live up to 45, a maximum of 50, why? It's necessary to concede life to the young". On March 14, 2014, for the murders of the 14 pensioners, Kalinin was sentenced by the Morozovsk Court of the Rostov Oblast to 19 years imprisonment. Convicted serial killer of pensioners near Rostov

Keiler (mine flail)

Keiler mine flail is a mine-clearing vehicle developed by Rheinmetall in Germany to meet German Army requirements. It is a conversion of the M48 Patton medium tank chassis in combination with a German MTU MB 871 Ka 501 liquid-cooled turbocharged Diesel engine; the main role of the Keiler vehicle is clear a lane through minefields to let soldiers and vehicles pass safely. A deployable mine flail system has been fixed to the front of the vehicle, being used to clear both anti-tank and anti-personnel mines. 24 Vehicles of this kind were produced between 1997-1998 for the German Army. Keiler is built on the M48 Patton medium tank hull. Developers removed the turret of the Patton and fitted the vehicle with a heavy-duty rotor-powered mine flail, a rotating cylinder mounted between two arms in front of the vehicle consisting of two shafts with 24 chains terminating in large metal "feet". In traveling mode the mine flail folds over the vehicle. In common with other mine flails, the spinning cylinder swings the chains around, bringing the feet into contact with the ground, thus simulating the force exerted by a person or vehicle passing over the ground.

If a flail strikes the ground above a buried mine, the impact will cause the mine to safely detonate. The vehicle can clear a lane 4.7 metres wide and 120 metres long in 10 minutes. An automatic system fixed on the rear of the hull marks the cleared lane; the Keiler has no defensive weapons except its smoke grenade dischargers. The vehicle is operated by a crew of two. Original engine of the M48 Patton has been replaced with a more powerful, German MTU MB 871 Ka 501 liquid-cooled turbocharged Diesel engine; this develops 986 horsepower in traveling mode, 1,092 horsepower when driving the mine flail. A Renk HSWL 284 M transmission was fitted; the Keiler uses the same Torsion bar suspension as the M48 Patton tank, has 6 wheels on each side

Jorge Illueca

Jorge Enrique Illueca Sibauste was a Panamanian politician and diplomat who served as President of Panama in 1984. Illueca was born in Panama, he attended the University of Harvard University and the University of Chicago. He became one of the most important lawyers in his country, taught as a professor at the University of Panama, by the 1970s had begun his diplomatic career, at first working at the United Nations on international law issues, he served as Ambassador of Panama to the United Nations from 1976 to 1981, as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Panama from 1981 to 1983. In 1982 he was elected Vice President of Panama, served as President for a few months in 1984 following the president's resignation until new elections in which he did not run. During this time, he was president of the UN General Assembly from 1983 to 1984, he served as a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague from 1974-1990 and as a member of the United Nations International Law Commission three times.

He continued to work for the United Nations on environmental issues. He was known to be an outspoken opponent of the US Army's School of the Americas, which he called "the biggest base for destabilization in Latin America.” During the remarkable life of Dr. Illueca, time was made for his family, his first daughter, had one son through her first marriage. She remarried and adopted 2 of her grandchildren, his eldest son Jorge Jr had 3 children from his first marriage And on five more came along from his second marriage