Juan Manuel Gálvez International Airport
Juan Manuel Gálvez International Airport is an international airport located on the island of Roatán, in the Caribbean Sea 50 kilometres off the northern coast of Honduras. Roatán is in the Bay Islands Department of Honduras; the airport serves national and international air traffic of the island, the nearby cities and for the region. The airport is named for Juan Manuel Gálvez, the former president of the Republic of Honduras in 1949-1952, it was known as Roatán International Airport. The airport is located on the western end of Roatán, next to Coxen Hole. Distances: Coxen Hole 2 km, French Harbour 9.5 km, Jonesville 22 km, Big Bight 11 km, Oak Ridge 25 km, West Bay 17 km and West End 12 km Duty shop, coffee shop and two cafe/bars, one each in the check-in and transit area. Several rental companies resides at the airport, like Dollar, Hertz, Alamo, Budget and National. Taxi service is available. In 2013, InterAirports completed an upgrade of the airport facilities; the expansion included a larger check-in area with coffee shop and cafe, larger waiting area with sitting area and cafe, expansion of the customs and security areas, renovation of buildings and outdoor areas.
The next phase of the project will be an expansion of the airport's car parks and pick-up and drop-off locations, rental area, shopping area. In January 2019, the runway extension work will begin, so the airport can pass 3 million passengers per year and accept intercontinental flights; the airport resides at an elevation of 20 feet above mean sea level. It has one runway designated 07/25 with an asphalt surface measuring 2,090 by 45 metres. Runway length does not include an additional 150 metres displaced threshold on Runway 07; the runway parallels the shoreline. There is rising terrain to the open water to the south; the Bonito VOR-DME is located 40.0 nautical miles south-southwest of the airport. The Roatan VOR-DME and non-directional beacon are located on the field. On 18 March 1990, Douglas DC-3A HR-SAZ of SAHSA overran the runway on landing and ended up in the sea; the aircraft, performing a domestic scheduled passenger service, was damaged beyond repair but all 32 people on board escaped.
Transport in Honduras List of airports in Honduras Media related to Juan Manuel Gálvez International Airport at Wikimedia Commons OpenStreetMap - Roatan SkyVector - Juan Manuel Galvez International Airport Current weather for MHRO at NOAA/NWS Accident history for RTB at Aviation Safety Network
Roatán is an island in the Caribbean, about 65 kilometres off the northern coast of Honduras. It is located between the islands of Útila and Guanaja, is the largest of the Bay Islands of Honduras; the island was known as Ruatan and Rattan. It is 77 kilometres long, less than 8 kilometres across at its widest point; the island consists of two municipalities: José Santos Guardiola in the east and Roatán, including the Cayos Cochinos, further south in the west. The island rests on an exposed ancient coral reef, rising to about 270 metres above sea level. Offshore reefs offer opportunities for diving. Most habitation is in the western half of the island; the most populous town of the island is Coxen Hole, capital of Roatán municipality, located in the southwest. West of Coxen Hole are the settlements of Gravel Bay, Flowers Bay and Pensacola on the south coast, Sandy Bay, West End and West Bay on the north coast. To the east of Coxen Hole are the settlements of Mount Pleasant, French Harbour, Parrot Tree and Oakridge on the south coast, Punta Gorda on the north coast.
The easternmost quarter of the island is separated by a channel through the mangroves, 15 metres wide on average. This section is called Santa Elena in Spanish. Satellite islands at the eastern end are Morat and Pigeon Cay. Further west between French Harbour and Coxen Hole are several cays, including Stamp Cay and Barefoot Cay. Located near the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, the largest barrier reef in the Caribbean Sea, Roatán has become an important cruise ship, scuba diving and eco-tourism destination in Honduras. Tourism is its most important economic sector, though fishing is an important source of income for islanders. Roatán is located within 40 miles of La Ceiba; the island is served by the Juan Manuel Gálvez Roatán International Airport and the Galaxy Wave Ferry service twice a day. The Indians of the Bay Islands are believed to have been related to either the Paya, the Maya, the Lenca or the Jicaque, which were the tribes present on the mainland. Christopher Columbus on his fourth voyage came to the islands as he visited the neighbouring Bay Island of Guanaja.
Soon after the Spanish began trading in the islands for slave labour. More devastating for the local Indians was exposure to Eurasian infectious diseases to which they had no immunity, such as smallpox and measles. No indigenous people survived the consequent epidemics. Throughout European colonial times, the Bay of Honduras attracted an array of individual settlers, pirates and military forces. Various economic activities were engaged in and political struggles played out between the European powers, chiefly Britain and Spain. Sea travellers stopped over at Roatán and the other islands as resting points. On several occasions, the islands were subject to military occupation. In contesting with the Spanish for colonisation of the Caribbean, the English occupied the Bay Islands on and off between 1550 and 1700. During this time, buccaneers found the vacated unprotected islands a haven for safe harbour and transport. English and Dutch pirates established settlements on the islands, they raided the Spanish treasure ships, cargo vessels carrying gold and silver from the New World to Spain.
During the War of the Austrian Succession, a detachment of the British Army under Lt. Col John Caulfeild garrisoned the island from 1742 to 1749; the garrison was found from two companies of Gooch's Virginia Regiment, but these were amalgamated into Trelawney's 49th Foot. In 1797, the British defeated the Black Carib, supported by the French, in a battle for control of the Windward Caribbean island of St. Vincent. Weary of their resistance to British plans for sugar plantations, the British rounded up the St. Vincent Black Carib and deported them to Roatán; the majority of Black Carib migrated to Trujillo on mainland Honduras, but a portion remained to found the community of Punta Gorda on the northern coast of Roatán. The Black Carib, whose ancestry includes Arawak and African Maroons, remained in Punta Gorda, becoming the Bay Island's first permanent post-Columbian settlers, they migrated from there to parts of the northern coast of Central America, becoming the foundation of the modern-day Garífuna culture in Honduras and Guatemala.
The majority permanent population of Roatán originated from the Cayman Islands near Jamaica. They arrived in the 1830s shortly after Britain's abolition of slavery in 1838; the changes in the labour system disrupted the economic structure of the Caymans. The islands had had a seafaring culture. Former slaveholders from the Cayman Islands were among the first to settle in the seaside locations throughout western Roatán. During the late 1830s and 1840s, former slaves migrated from the Cayman Islands, in larger number than planters. Altogether, the former Cayman peoples became the largest cultural group on the island. For a brief period in the 1850s, Britain declared the Bay Islands its colony. Within a decade, the Crown ceded the territory formally back to Honduras. British colonists were sent to compete for control, they asked American William Walker, a freebooter with a private army, to help end the crisis in 1860 by invading Honduras. In the latter half of the 19th century, the island populations grew and established new settlements all over Roatán and the other islands.
Toncontín International Airport
Toncontín International Airport or Teniente Coronel Hernán Acosta Mejía Airport is a civil and military airport located 6 km from the centre of Tegucigalpa, Honduras. The History Channel programme Most Extreme Airports ranks it as the second most extreme airport in the world; the approach to the airport is considered to be one of the most difficult in the world to all aircraft in inclement weather conditions. Since the 19th century, the plains south of Tegucigalpa became known as the "Potrero Los Llanos", part of a farm adjoining the farm Loarque. In these areas, some political events took place. José Santos Guardiola defeated General José Trinidad Cabañas. "El Llano" as it was known, is to the south end of Comayagüela. On a road to the south is the field that served for the takeoff and landing of aircraft; this forms the Hernán Acosta Mejía Air Force base. The first landing was in 1921 when a single-engine plane from the Bristol Aeroplane Company landed with Captain Dean Ivan Lamb in command, he was received by President Rafael López Gutiérrez who broke a bottle of champagne on one of the aircraft's propellers.
The origin of the name Toncontín is unknown, but experts say that it is a word derived from the Nahuatl word "Tocotín", the name of an ancient and sacred dance of Yucatán in Mexico. Aviator Luigi Venditti conducted several flights using the natural floodplain from Toncontín. Jose Villa, an Italian national, was another precursor of Honduran aviation who conducted flights from Toncontín; the civil war in 1924 caused President Tiburcio Carías Andino to realise that aviation had a great future in Honduras, providing an ideal transport solution for the mountainous country. For these reasons and with the growth of commercial aviation and the emergence of the Honduran Air Force, General Tiburcio Carías, acquired the land, to become Toncontín Airport in 1933. On January 5, 1934, the airport was inaugurated with the landing of a Douglas DC-3 from Pan American World Airways. Months TACA opened "Hotel Toncontín" to accommodate passengers in transit, Pan-Am built a hangar. During the Football War of 1969, Toncontín was a major target for the Salvadoran Air Force, was bombed on several occasions.
The airport received much notoriety as being one of the most dangerous in the world due to its proximity to mountainous terrain, its short runway, its difficult approach to runway 02. For years efforts have been made to replace it with Soto Cano airport in Comayagua an airbase. Toncontín has, been improved by the work of the Airport Corporation of Tegucigalpa and InterAirports, a company contracted by the Honduran government to administer the country's four major airports; the airport has a single asphalt runway, situated at an elevation of 1,005 m AMSL. Until May 2009, the runway was only 6,112 ft in length. In 2007, the approach to runway 02 was made easier by work which systematically bulldozed a large portion of the hillside before the threshold. Following this work, in May 2009, the southern end of the runway received a 984 ft extension, lengthening it to 7,096 ft; as of 2011 the runway is listed as being 2,021 m × 45 m Boeing 737-800s operated by Copa Airlines are the largest aircraft that land at Toncontín.
With its recent runway extension, Toncontín's runway is still shorter than that of most international airports. Larger aircraft have landed at Toncontín, such as a Douglas DC-8 on a mission with Orbis International in 1987 a C-17 Globemaster in 2008, 2009 and 2011, Boeing 757s operated by American Airlines, which in 2015 replaced them with Airbus A319s. In the 1980s and early 1990s, SAHSA operated Boeing 727s and Boeing 737s from its hub at Toncontín. Toncontín International Airport has 4 gates, a post office, a bank and bureau de change, many restaurants, several airline lounges, as well as a duty-free shop, car rental services, a first-aid room; the old terminal is undergoing renovation, will be used for domestic flights in the future. The new terminal is now used for international flights. Toncontín is the home of the Aeroclub de Honduras. On May 30, 2008, the tragedy of TACA Flight 390 prompted the announcement by Honduran President Manuel Zelaya that all large aircraft operations would move to the Soto Cano Air Base.
This move would move all international traffic from Toncontín, limiting its use to only domestic flights and small aircraft. The International Civil Aviation Organization completed a review of Toncontín and made safety recommendations regarding the airport. On June 25, 2008, President Zelaya reiterated his position of restricting international traffic to and from Toncontín and announced his intention to form a commission that would oversee implementing the safety recommendations of the ICAO report. On July 8, 2008, President Zelaya announced the reopening of Toncontín airport at a news conference following a three-hour meeting with businessmen, who had demanded commercial flights resume at Toncontín due to Soto Cano Air Base being too far from Tegucigalpa. Zelaya reiterated that all commercial flights would use the new airport at Soto Cano Air Base from 2009; this however, was canceled after Zelaya was removed from office on June 28, 2009, in the 2009 Honduran coup d'état. International flights continue to operate to Toncontín.
In 2009 TACA airlines could not operate to Toncontín and the rest of the country's airports because of a st
Puerto Castilla, Honduras
Puerto Castilla is a village in the Colón Department of Honduras located 20 kilometres north of Trujillo. This port city on the Caribbean Sea was the one-time site of the United Fruit Company's Castilla Division which specialized in the growth and shipments of the Gros Michel banana; this division was closed in the late 1930s as a result of'Panama disease', a blight on the roots of the banana. The port city, its population were moved east on the peninsula in the 1940s when a small naval base was established there for a PBY Catalina seaplane base. During World War II the seaplane base supported military operations including surveillance and security in conjunction with Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, it was believed that German naval forces planned an attack on the Panama Canal causing bases like Puerto Castilla and many others along the coast toward Panama to be on high alert. Puerto Castilla is now a native fishing village of about six hundred residents. West of the village the site of a Honduran naval base, as well as the site of a container port for Dole fresh fruit products.
Vast African Oil Palm plantations now dot the area. Puerto Castilla lies on the south side of a peninsula sheltering Trujillo Bay, it is a deep-water port which has future possibility for development of a major port for the republic. An original hospital building and an old barracks are the last remaining evidence of the abandoned United Fruit presence. A fence with guarded entrance now restricts casual traffic into the Port area, controlled by the Honduran Port Authority—ENP-Empresa Nacional Portuaria. Leigh Richardson, a leading figure in the early Belizean independence movement, was born in Puerto Castilla in 1924
La Ceiba is a port city on the northern coast of Honduras in Central America. It is located on the southern edge of the Caribbean, forming part of the south eastern boundary of the Gulf of Honduras. With an estimated population of over 200,000 living in 170 residential areas, it is the third largest city in the country and the capital of the Honduran department of Atlántida. La Ceiba was founded on 23 August 1877; the city was named after a giant ceiba tree. The dock itself fell into the sea in late 2007; the city has been proclaimed the "Eco-Tourism Capital of Honduras" as well as the "Entertainment Capital of Honduras". Every year, on the third or fourth Saturday of May, the city holds its famous carnival to commemorate Isidore the Laborer. During this time, the city is host to 500,000 tourists. In 1872 Manuel Hernández built a small shack under the Ceiba tree, at one point by the old docks. Over time and more people from all over present-day Honduras, from around the world settled in La Ceiba.
These people were attracted by the cultivation of bananas. In the late 19th century, the banana business caught the attention of big North American banana companies such as the Vaccaro Brothers' Standard Fruit Company from New Orleans; this new economic activity attracted international immigrants to La Ceiba. The current neighbourhood known as Barrio Inglés was the first recognised neighbourhood in the city and was named so because of the number of English speaking people living in the barrio. At that point the main thoroughfare of La Ceiba was present-day Avenida La Republica, where the train tracks were set; these train tracks were built by the Standard Fruit Company. This company was responsible for the early growth of the city. La Ceiba was declared a municipality on 23 August 1877. At that time Marco Aurelio Soto was the Honduras President. La Ceiba was the centre of banana and pineapple business and the regional economy depended on it; this led to the birth of newer and larger national companies such as: Cervecería Hondureña, the national brewing company and holder of the Coca-Cola licence in Honduras.
Founded in 1918 Fábrica de Manteca y Jabón Atlántida, known as La Blanquita, at one point, the largest producer of consumer goods in Honduras, now defunct. Banco Atlántida, oldest Bank in the country, founded in 1913 Mazapan School, the first bilingual school of the nation, the oldest high school and second oldest elementary school in the city; the first municipal building or city hall was located in the corner of 2da Calle and Avenida Atlántida, where the present day Ferretería Kawas warehouse was. The building was made of wood and in 1903 it was burnt down due to vandalism from people wanting to get rid of private property ownership records in La Ceiba; the municipal building was again set on fire on 7 March 1914. The Municipal Corporation moved the offices more south of the city where it was again set on fire in 1924, it was shortly built in a piece of land donated by Manuel Mejía. La Ceiba features a trade-wind tropical rainforest climate, with substantial rainfall throughout the course of the year, though due to the northerly aspect there is a peak between October and February when the trade winds are strongest and extreme orographic rainfalls occur.
The average annual rainfall is about 3,200 millimetres, making it one of the wettest cities in Central America, second only to Colón, Panama among urbanised areas with more than 100,000 people. Among Honduran cities, La Ceiba is the second most important port town after Puerto Cortés, its economy is made up of commerce and agriculture. Pineapple is the city's major export, its largest producer is the Standard Fruit Company, a subsidiary of the Dole Food Company, which operates throughout northern Honduras and is based in La Ceiba. Tourism plays a large role in the city's economy. Since its development in the late 20th century, the La Ceiba seaport has played an ever-increasing role in the economy of the city; this port represents a vital economic artery to La Ceiba's growing tourist industry. Additionally, the La Ceiba sea port is home to one of the finest boatyards in the north west Caribbean. Known as the La Ceiba Shipyard, this company offers a complete group of marine services for all types of seagoing vessels.
La Ceiba is home to many public schools, among the largest is Escuela Francisco Morazán along Avenida San Isidro, considered the main street of the city. Instituto Manuel Bonilla is the largest public High School in the City with over 5,000 registered students. There are many private schools in La Ceiba, it is home to many other private bilingual education schools, which offer education in both Spanish and English. Most of these offer a Honduran Bachillerato Diploma, while Mazapan School offers a US accredited High School diploma as well; these schools offer grades 1 – 11/12 with some offering pre-school education. The first university in the city was the Centro Universitario Regional del Litoral Atlántico, a Public university run by the larger Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras; the first private university to open in the city was Universidad Tecnológica de Honduras, which opened in 1995. At the time the college only offered night classes, using the classrooms in a local private high school.
In 2002 the college b
Roll-on/roll-off ships are vessels designed to carry wheeled cargo, such as cars, semi-trailer trucks and railroad cars, that are driven on and off the ship on their own wheels or using a platform vehicle, such as a self-propelled modular transporter. This is in contrast to lift-on/lift-off vessels, which use a crane to unload cargo. RORO vessels have either built-in or shore-based ramps that allow the cargo to be efficiently rolled on and off the vessel when in port. While smaller ferries that operate across rivers and other short distances have built-in ramps, the term RORO is reserved for large oceangoing vessels; the ramps and doors may be any combination thereof. At first, wheeled vehicles carried. Automobiles had their fuel tanks emptied and their batteries disconnected before being hoisted into the ship's hold, where they were chocked and secured; this process was tedious and difficult, vehicles were subject to damage and could not be used for routine travel. An early roll-on/roll-off service was a train ferry, started in 1833 by the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway, which operated a wagon ferry on the Forth and Clyde Canal in Scotland.
The first modern train ferry was Leviathan, built in 1849. The Edinburgh and Newhaven Railway was formed in 1842 and the company wished to extend the East Coast Main Line further north to Dundee and Aberdeen; as bridge technology was not yet capable enough to provide adequate support for the crossing over the Firth of Forth, five miles across, a different solution had to be found for the transport of goods, where efficiency was key. The company hired the up-and-coming civil engineer Thomas Bouch who argued for a train ferry with an efficient roll-on/roll-off mechanism to maximise the efficiency of the system. Custom-built ferries were to be built, with railway lines and matching harbour facilities at both ends to allow the rolling stock to drive on and off the boat. To compensate for the changing tides, adjustable ramps were positioned at the harbours and the gantry structure height was varied by moving it along the slipway; the wagons were loaded off with the use of stationary steam engines.
Although others had had similar ideas, it was Bouch who first put them into effect, did so with an attention to detail which led a subsequent President of the Institution of Civil Engineers to settle any dispute over priority of invention with the observation that "there was little merit in a simple conception of this kind, compared with a work carried out in all its details, brought to perfection."The company was persuaded to install this train ferry service for the transportation of goods wagons across the Firth of Forth from Burntisland in Fife to Granton. The ferry itself was built by a partner of the firm Grainger and Miller; the service commenced on 3 February 1850. It was called "The Floating Railway" and intended as a temporary measure until the railway could build a bridge, but this was not opened until 1890, its construction delayed in part by repercussions from the catastrophic failure of Thomas Bouch's Tay Rail Bridge. Train-ferry services were used extensively during World War I.
From 10 February 1918, high volumes of railway rolling stock and supplies for the Front were shipped to France from the "secret port" of Richborough, near Sandwich on the South Coast of England. This involved three train-ferries to be built, each with four sets of railway line on the main deck to allow for up to 54 railway wagons to be shunted directly on and off the ferry; these train-ferries could be used to transport motor vehicles along with railway rolling stock. That month a second train-ferry was established from the Port of Southampton on the South East Coast. In the first month of operations at Richborough, 5,000 tons were transported across the Channel, by the end of 1918 it was nearly 261,000 tons. There were many advantages of the use of train-ferries over conventional shipping in World War I, it was much easier to move the large, heavy artillery and tanks that this kind of modern warfare required using train-ferries as opposed to repeated loading and unloading of cargo. By manufacturers loading tanks and other heavy items for shipping to the front directly on to railway wagons, which could be shunted on to a train-ferry in England and shunted directly on to the French Railway Network, with direct connections to the Front Lines, many man hours of unnecessary labour were avoided.
An analysis done at the time found that to transport 1,000 tons of war material from the point of manufacture to the front by conventional means involved the use of 1,500 labourers, whereas when using train-ferries that number decreased to around 100 labourers. This was of utmost importance, as by 1918, the British Railway companies were experiencing a severe shortage of labour with hundreds of thousands of skilled and unskilled labourers away fighting at the front; the increase of heavy traffic because of the war effort meant that economies and efficiency in transport had to be made wherever possible. After the signing of the Armistice on 11 November 1918, train ferries were used extensively for the return of material from the Front. Indeed, according to war office statistics, a greater tonnage of material was transported by train ferry from Richborough in 1919 than in 1918; as the train ferries had space for motor transport as well as railway rolling stock, thousands of lorries, motor cars and "B Type" buses used these ferries to return to England.
During World War II, landing ships were the first purpose-built seagoing ships enabling road vehicles to roll directl