Transportation in Japan is modern and developed. Japan's transport sector stands out for its energy efficiency: it uses less energy per person compared to other countries, thanks to a high share of rail transport and low overall travel distances. Transport in Japan is very expensive in international comparison, reflecting high tolls and taxes on automobile transport. Japan's spending on roads has been large; the 1.2 million kilometres of paved road are the main means of transport. Japan has left-hand traffic. A single network of high-speed, limited-access toll roads connects major cities, which are operated by toll-collecting enterprises. Dozens of Japanese railway companies compete in local passenger transport markets. Strategies of these enterprises contain real estate or department stores next to stations; some 250 high-speed Shinkansen trains connect major cities. All trains are known for punctuality. There are 176 airports, the largest domestic airport, Haneda Airport, is Asia's busiest airport.
The largest international gateways are Narita International Airport, Kansai International Airport, Chūbu Centrair International Airport. The largest ports include Nagoya Port. In Japan, railways are a major means of passenger transport for mass and high-speed transport between major cities and for commuter transport in metropolitan areas. Seven Japan Railways Group companies, state-owned until 1987, cover most parts of Japan. There are railway services operated by private rail companies, regional governments, companies funded by both regional governments and private companies. Total railways of 27,182 km include several track gauges, the most common of, 1,067 mm narrow gauge, with 22,301 km of track of which 15,222 km is electrified. Fukuoka, Kyoto, Osaka, Sendai and Yokohama have subway systems. Most Japanese people travelled on foot until the part of the 19th century; the first railway was built between Tokyo's Shimbashi Station and Yokohama's former Yokohama Station in 1872. Many more railways developed soon afterward.
Japan, as we know it today, is home to one of the world's most developed transport networks. Mass transport is well developed in Japan, but the road system lags behind and is inadequate for the number of cars owned in Japan; this is attributed to the fact that road construction is difficult in Japan because of its uniquely high population density, the limited amount of available usable land for road construction. The Shinkansen, or "bullet trains", as they are known, are the high-speed rail trains that run across Japan; the 2,387 km of 8 Shinkansen lines run on separate lines from their commuting train counterparts, with a few exceptions. Shinkansen take up a large portion of the long distance travel in Japan, with the whole system carrying over 10 billion passengers in its lifetime. 1,114 journeys are made daily, with the fastest train being the JR East E5 and E6 series trains, which operate at a maximum speed of 320 km/h. Shinkansen trains are known to be safe, with no accident-related deaths or injuries from passengers in its 50-plus year history.
Shinkansen trains are known to be punctual, following suit with all other Japanese transport. Japan has been trying to sell its Shinkansen technology overseas, has struck deals to help build systems in India and the United States; the first Shinkansen line opened between Tokyo and Osaka in 1964, trains can now make the journey in 2 hours and 25 minutes. Additional Shinkansen lines connect Tokyo to Aomori, Niigata and Hakodate and Osaka to Fukuoka and Kagoshima, with new lines under construction to Tsuruga and Nagasaki. Japan has been developing maglev technology trains, broke the world maglev speed record in April 2015 with a train travelling at the speed of 603 km/h; the Chūō Shinkansen, a commercial maglev service, is under construction from Tokyo to Nagoya and Osaka, when completed in 2045 will cover the distance in 67 minutes, half the time of the current Shinkansen. According to Japan Statistical Yearbook 2015, Japan in April 2012 had 1,215,000 km of roads made up of 1,022,000 km of city and village roads, 129,000 km of prefectural roads, 55,000 km of general national highways and 8,050 km of national expressways.
The Foreign Press Center/Japan cites a total length of expressways at 7,641 km. A single network of high-speed, limited-access toll roads connects major cities on Honshu and Kyushu. Hokkaido has a separate network, Okinawa Island has a highway of this type. In the year 2005, the toll collecting companies Japan Highway Public Corporation, have been transformed into private companies in public ownership, there are plans to sell parts of them; the aim of this policy is to encourage decrease tolls. Road passenger and freight transport expanded during the 1980s as private ownership of motor vehicles increased along with the quality and extent of the nation's roads. Bus companies including the JR Bus companies operate long-distance bus services on the nation's expanding expressway network. In addition to low fares and deluxe seating, the buses are well utilised because they continue service during the night, when air and train services are limited; the cargo sector grew in the 1980s, recording 274.2 billion tonne-kilometres in 1990.
The freight handled by motor vehicles, mainly
Air France Flight 66 was a scheduled international passenger flight from Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport to Los Angeles International Airport, operated by Air France and using an Airbus A380-861. On 30 September 2017, the aircraft suffered an uncontained engine failure and made an emergency landing at Goose Bay Airport, Canada; the outboard right-side Engine Alliance GP7000 engine failed and its fan hub and intake separated 150 kilometres southeast of Paamiut, while the aircraft was in cruise. This was the second uncontained engine failure suffered by an Airbus A380, following that of a Rolls-Royce Trent 900 engine on Qantas Flight 32 in 2010; the aircraft diverted to CFB Goose Bay, a military air base used for civilian flights, landed at 15:42 UTC after suffering an uncontained failure on its number 4 engine while flying 150 kilometres southeast of Paamiut, Greenland. The engine had operated 3,527 cycles since new. There were no reported fatalities among the 497 passengers and 24 crew on board.
Passengers were not allowed to disembark from the A380 until another Air France aircraft and a chartered aircraft arrived the next morning, because the airport is not equipped to accommodate a large number of passengers from commercial aircraft. The Air France aircraft landed at Atlanta, requiring a wait for its passengers to board another flight while the chartered Boeing 737 aircraft took passengers directly to Los Angeles with a refuelling stopover at Winnipeg. Pictures and video of the damaged engine were posted to social media by passengers; the aircraft involved was an Airbus A380-861, registration F-HPJE, powered by four Engine Alliance GP7000 turbofan engines, delivered to Air France on 17 May 2011. Air France issued a press release stating that an investigation was underway to determine the cause of the engine failure, including representatives of the Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile and Air France; the Transportation Safety Board of Canada is responsible for investigating aviation accidents in Canada and planned to send investigators.
However, since the incident occurred over Greenland, the Danish Accident Investigation Board has jurisdiction over the investigation. On 3 October 2017 the Danish aviation authorities delegated the investigation to the BEA. Investigators from Denmark, the US and Canada joined the investigation. Advisors from Airbus, Air France and Engine Alliance flew to Goose Bay; the first observation was that the engine's fan hub had detached during the flight and dragged the air inlet with it. Some six days debris from the aircraft's engine was recovered in Greenland; the BEA stated that "the recovery of the missing parts of the fan hub fragments, was the key to supporting the investigation" and initiated a large search operation including synthetic-aperture radar overflights on a Dassault Falcon 20, but failed to locate the crucial components in 2018, before returning in 2019. In July 2019, another missing piece of the engine, weighing 150 kg, was located in Greenland and recovered. On 12 October 2017, the American Federal Aviation Administration issued an Emergency Airworthiness Directive affecting all Engine Alliance GP7270, GP7272 and GP7277 engines.
The EAD required a visual inspection of the fan hub within a timescale of two to eight weeks, depending on the number of cycles an engine had operated since new. In June 2018 the FAA issued another Airworthiness Directive, requiring eddy-current testing of the fan hubs of GP7000 engines, to check for cracks in the slots in the hub that serve to attach the fan blades. In August 2019, the BEA announced that a part from the fan hub recovered from Greenland had been examined by the manufacturer Engine Alliance under BEA supervision. Metallurgical examination of the recovered titanium fan hub fragment identified a subsurface fatigue crack origin; the fracture was initiated in a microtextured area in the middle of the slot bottom. Examination of the fracture was ongoing. Meanwhile, Engine Alliance announced to the affected A380 operators that an engine inspection campaign would be launched soon. Air France announced plans to ferry the aircraft back to Europe for repair, with an inoperable replacement engine installed, for reasons of weight and balance.
Such a flight requires special operating procedures, thus rehearsal by the crew in a simulator. That plan was revised and the aircraft was subsequently ferried back from Goose Bay Airport to Charles de Gaulle Airport on 6 December 2017 using three operational engines and an Air France crew; the replacement engine was delivered, the damaged engine flown to East Midlands Airport in the United Kingdom for examination by General Electric during the period 23–25 November 2017. The aircraft returned to service on 15 January 2018. Recovery of the fan hub from the Greenland ice sheet took place on 29–30 June 2019 after 20 months and four phases of complex aerial and ground search operations to locate the various elements from the engine. Qantas Flight 32 Southwest Airlines Flight 1380
La Voix is the French Canadian version of The Voice. Season 3 of La Voix was broadcast from 18 January 2015 to 12 April 2015 on TVA and is hosted for a third consecutive season by Charles Lafortune. Éric Lapointe, Marc Dupré and Isabelle Boulay season 2 judges all returned, whereas second season judge Louis-Jean Cormier was replaced by Pierre Lapointe. Kevin Bazinet of Team Marc Dupré won the title for the season. Color key Date of broadcast: 18 January 2015 Group performance: The coaches - "Le Blues du businessman" Date of broadcast: 25 January 2015 Date of broadcast: 1 February 2015 1. Composed of Nadia Marie Ricci and Alessandra Tropeano Date of broadcast: 8 February 2015 Date of broadcast: 15 February 2015 Again for this season, the coaches were assisted by mentors in the battle round, they were Philippe B in Team Pierre Lapointe, Linda Lemay in Team Éric Lapointe, Vincent Vallières in Team Isabelle Boulay and Alex Nevsky in Team Marc Dupré. Date of broadcast: 22 February 2015 The contestant was safe The contestant was eliminated The contestant lost the duel, but was stolen by another coach Date of broadcast: 1 March 2015 The contestant was safe The contestant was eliminated The contestant lost the duel, but was stolen by another coach Date of broadcast: 8 March 2015 The contestant was safe The contestant was eliminated The contestant lost the duel, but was stolen by another coach Date of broadcast: 15 March 2015 The contestant was safe The contestant was eliminatedSongs outside competition Date of broadcast: 22 March 2015 Opening performance: Si tu reviens - Louis-Jean Cormier with coaches and Contestantsin La Voix Contestant saved Contestant eliminated Date of broadcast: 29 March 2015 Opening performance: Ariane Moffatt with Contestants of La Voix Je veux tout, with Karine Sainte-Marie, Émie Champagne, Céleste Lévis and Mathieu Holubowski.
Contestant saved Contestant eliminated Date of broadcast: 5 April 2015 Contestant saved Contestant eliminated Date of broadcast: 12 April 2015 Winner Finalists Taylor Sonier appeared in Idol maritime with other Contestants, Sonier won the contest. Alicia Moffet took part in The Next Star in Season 6 of the show in 2013 and was the winner for the season. Simon Morin competed again in season 7 of the French version of the Voice in 2018, he got selected at the Blind Auditions stage, but was eliminated in the show
Oracle State Park is a state park of Arizona, USA, preserving 3,948 acres in the northeastern foothills of the Santa Catalina Mountains. The park is named after the nearby town of Oracle. Oracle State Park serves as a wildlife refuge, is open every day from 9am - 5pm. In October 2011 Arizona State Parks agreed to reopen Oracle on a limited basis with a $40,000 budget if the park's Friends group can raise $21,000 in additional funds; the park has more than 15 miles including 7 miles of the Arizona Trail. For 75 years a ranching family owned the property; the family gave the property to the Defenders of Wildlife organization in 1976, ten years the land was donated to the state of Arizona to create a preserve. The most common plants in Oracle State Park are prickly pear and cholla cactus, scrub oak, many wildflowers, the occasional piñon and juniper. A solitary saguaro cactus is located in the park; the original ranch house, converted to be the park headquarters, has some cypress trees nearby. Bird species include red-tailed hawks, golden eagles, prairie falcons, black-throated sparrows, Gambel's quail, cactus wrens, northern mockingbirds, northern flickers, common poorwills, northern cardinals, great horned owls.
Many mammals inhabit the park, such as ringtails, cougars, rock squirrels, desert cottontails, black-tailed jackrabbits, mule deer, white-tailed deer. Reptiles and amphibians found in the area include the western box turtles, Arizona alligator lizards, Colorado River toads, bull snakes, western diamondback rattlesnakes; the Kannally Ranch House is a historic house museum with historic photos. The four-level adobe home was constructed between 1929 and 1933, features Mediterranean and Moorish architectural influences and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the purpose of the park is to "protect the designated wildlife refuge and act as an environmental learning center." Before closure the park offered natural history and environmental education programs for school and adult groups, including trail walks, workshops and special events. Oracle State Park Friends of Oracle State Park
António da Mota was a Portuguese trader and explorer, who in 1543 became one of the first Europeans to set foot in Japan. While traveling to Ningbo on a Chinese junk in 1543, Mota and the rest of the crew were swept off course from a bad storm. Among the crew were around one hundred East Asians, several Portuguese; the Portuguese included were Francisco Zeimoto, António Peixoto, Mota himself. Fernão Mendes Pinto claimed that he was on the voyage as well, but this claim is unlikely due to the fact that he claims he was in Burma at the same time. Driven from the storm, the ship lands on the island of Tanegashima on 25 August 1543. António Mota and Francisco Zeimoto are the first Europeans on Japanese soil. António Peixoto is not recorded that he landed, died at sea prior to the landing. Mota and Zeimoto introduced handheld guns to Japan. From on the Japanese would have a mass production on firearms in the decades that followed; the ship was soon repaired and António Mota departed from Japan. The rest of his life is unknown.
Japan-Portugal relations Nanban trade Portuguese discoveries Tanegashima
The Curtiss T-32 Condor II was a 1930s American biplane airliner and bomber aircraft built by the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company. It was used by the United States Army Air Corps as an executive transport; the Condor II was a 1933 two-bay biplane of mixed construction with a single vertical stabilizer and rudder, retractable landing gear. It was powered by two Wright Cyclone radial engines; the first aircraft was flown on 30 January 1933 and a production batch of 21 aircraft was built. The production aircraft were fitted out as 12-passenger luxury night sleeper transports, they entered service with Eastern Air Transport and American Airways, forerunners of Eastern Air Lines and American Airlines on regular night services for the next three years. The June 15, 1934 American Airlines system timetable marketed its Condors as being "The World's First Complete Sleeper-Planes" with these 12-passenger aircraft being equipped with sleeper berths and being capable of cruising at 190 miles per hour.
An example of the Condor services operated by American were daily overnight flights between Dallas and Los Angeles during the mid 1930s with a routing of Dallas – Ft. Worth – Abilene – Big Spring, TX – El Paso – Douglas, AZ – Tucson – Phoenix – Los Angeles; the Colombian Air Force operated three BT-32 equipped with floats in the Colombia-Peru War in 1933. Two modified T-32s were bought by the United States Army Air Corps for use as executive transports. One Condor was converted with extra fuel tanks and used by the 1939–1941 United States Antarctic Service Expedition, unique for a Condor, had a fixed undercarriage to allow use on floats or skis; some aircraft were modified to AT-32 standard with variable-pitch propellers and improved engine nacelles. The AT-32D variant could be converted from sleeper configuration to daytime use with 15 seats. Four T-32s operating in the United Kingdom were pressed into service with the Royal Air Force at the outbreak of World War II. Eight bomber variants were built with manually operated machine gun turrets in the nose and above the rear fuselage.
All these aircraft were exported. A military cargo version was built for Argentina, it had a large loading door on the starboard side of the fuselage. T-32 Production luxury night sleeper, 21 built including two as YC-30s T-32C Ten T-32s modified to AT-32 standard. AT-32A Variant with variable-pitch propellers and 710 hp Wright SGR-1820-F3 Cyclone engines, three built. AT-32B An AT-32 variant with 720 hp Wright SGR-1820-F2 Cyclone engines, three built. AT-32C An AT-32 variant, one built for Swissair. AT-32D An AT-32 variant with 720 hp Wright SGR-1820-F3 Cyclone engines, one built. AT-32E AT-32 variant for the United States Navy as two built. BT-32 Bomber variant, eight built. CT-32 Military cargo variant with large cargo door, three built. YC-30 United States Army Air Corps designation for two T-32s. R4C-1 United States Navy designation for two AT-32Es both to the United States Antarctic Survey. ChileLAN-Chile operated three former American Airlines aircraft ChinaChina National Aviation Corporation operated six AT-32E freighters SwitzerlandSwissair United KingdomInternational Air Freight, Croydon operated four T-32s.
United StatesAmerican Airways Eastern Air Transport ArgentinaArgentine Naval Aviation operated three aircraft of the CT-32 variant, one as a crew trainer and two as freighters. ChinaChinese Nationalist Air Force operated BT-32 variant. ColombiaColombian Air Force operated three BT-32 variants on floats. HondurasHonduran Air Force PeruPeruvian Air Force operated BT-32 variant. United KingdomRoyal Air Force – Four T-32 variants impressed from International Air Freight. Not used in service and scrapped at No 30 Maintenance Unit. RAF Sealand. United StatesUnited States Army Air Corps operated two YC-30 aircraft. United States Marine Corps received one R4C-1 aircraft. United States Navy received one R4C-1 aircraft. Data from Curtiss Aircraft 1907–1947General characteristics Crew: 2 flight crew + 1 cabin attendant Capacity: 15 passengers Length: 48 ft 7 in Wingspan: 82 ft 0 in Height: 16 ft 4 in Wing area: 1,208 sq ft Airfoil: NACA 2412 Empty weight: 12,235 lb Gross weight: 17,500 lb Powerplant: 2 × Wright SGR-1820-F2 Cyclone 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines, 720 hp each at 4,000 ft Propellers: 3-bladed controllable-pitch propellersPerformance Maximum speed: 190 mph Cruise speed: 167 mph Range: 716 mi Service ceiling: 23,000 ft Rate of climb: 1,200 ft/min On 27 July 1934, Swissair Condor CH-170 broke up in mid-air and crashed at Tuttlingen, Germany killing all 12 passengers and crew.
Related lists List of military aircraft of the United States List of military aircraft of the United States Andrade, John M. U. S. Military Aircraft Designations and Serials since 1909. Earl Shilton, Leicester, UK: Midland Counties Publications, 1979. ISBN 0-904597-22-9. Bowers, Peter M. Curtiss Aircraft 1907–1947. London: Putnam & CompanyLtd. 1979. ISBN 0-370-10029-8. Taylor, H. A. "The Uncompetitive Condor" AirEnthusiast Six, March–June 1978. Bromley, Kent, UK: Pilot Press Ltd. 1978. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. Orbis Publishing, 1985. USAF Museum C-30 factsheet USAF Museum YC-30 factsheet History of the Argentine Naval Aviation CT-32s