Transport in Nicaragua
Transport in Nicaragua revolves around road and water transport modalities. The road infrastructure is well spread across the Pacific side, while the Atlantic side has less infrastructure; as of 2009, from a total of 19,137 km 2,033 km are paved and 17,104 km are unpaved. Public transport in Nicaragua is served by buses on both short and wide range distances. There are five different types, based on the size of the vehicle, target group, frequency of stops and distance. Urban buses can be found in Managua, Estelí, León, Chinandega and Bluefields. In most cases, passengers have to pay for each ride on a bus, with the need to pay again when switching to another; the costs differ from 2.50 C$ in Managua to 10 C$ in Bluefields. An urban bus in Nicaragua takes the same road multiple times per day, following a more or less strict schedule; the organization of the buses in different towns differs as every town is organizing it on their own behave. In Estelí every bus driver is assisted by two persons helping them.
Bus drivers in Managua have to manage their job on their own. Another fact that differs are the vehicles used in the different cities. In Managua urban buses sponsored by Russia are used, in Estelí former school buses from the United States, in Bluefields japanese light commercial vans and in León pickup trucks that got extended with seats and a roof; the quality of bus stops heavily differs. In the center of Managua many proper bus stops exist with roofs or at least signs, in other areas there isn't any indication of a bus stop. Buses serve a network of established stops with common names known by bus assistants. Passengers need to ask where and when which bus stops. To improve the accessibility of public transport, in 2016 the OpenStreetMap group in Nicaragua MapaNica crowdsourced with the help of more than 150 citizens of Managua the first bus transit map in whole Central America. In 2018, they made this data machine-accessible, serving it today in different apps on several platforms. Suburban buses connect larger cities with communities in outer areas.
They only stop a few times inside the city nearly everywhere where passengers request to get off. Like with urban buses, a team serves a route several times per day and the service is organized by the local government. Prices can vary depending on the distance. Connecting two or more cities, Ruteados are the biggest part of bus services in Nicaragua. Express buses connect, like Ruteados and share taxis, two or more cities, but with less stops, resulting in a faster travel time. Share taxis are called Interlocales in Nicaragua and connect two or more cities, like Ruteados and express buses, with the main difference that they depart from the bus station once they are filled either or with passengers. Like express buses, they nearly don't stop between destination. Several airports are serving both international flights; as of 2013, 147 airports exist in Nicaragua. Nicaragua's main international airport is Managua International Airport. In total, there are 12 airports with paved runways with the following lengths: 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 4 In total, there are 135 airports with unpaved runways with the following lengths: 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 15 under 914 m: 119 Nicaragua offers 2,220 km of water transport roads, including the two large lakes Lake Nicaragua and Lake Managua.
A Nicaragua Canal was planned but canceled on 21 February 2018. Bluefields El Bluff Puerto Cabezas Corinto Puerto Sandino San Juan del Sur El Rama Since September 2001, all rail transport has been suspended in Nicaragua. FERISTSA German article "Yesterday and Today: Public Transport in Nicaragua" Transportation in Nicaragua
Transport in El Salvador
El Salvador has transport links by road, rail and air. El Salvador has over 10,000 km of roads, one passenger rail service. There are several seaports on the Pacific Ocean, two international airports. A weekday passenger service links a journey of 40 minutes. Of a total of 602 km narrow gauge rail, much is abandoned. In November 2013 the government rail agency FENADESAL announced plans for development of four electrified railways serving San Salvador, Sitio del Niño, El Salvador International Airport, La Unión, the Honduran frontier. Guatemala - 3 ft gauge both countries closed. Honduras - none A new railway to be known as FERISTSA was proposed in 2005 to connect Mexico with Panama, passing through El Salvador. Total: 10,029 km paved: 1,986 km unpaved: 8,043 km The RN-21 is the first freeway to be built in El Salvador and in Central America; the freeway passes the northern area of the city of La Libertad. It has a small portion serving Antiguo Cuscatlan, La Libertad, merges with the RN-5 in San Salvador.
The total length of the RN-21 is 9.95 kilometres and is working as a traffic reliever in the metropolitan area. The RN-21 was named in honor of Monseñor Romero; the first phase of the highway was completed in 2009, the second phase in November 2012. Acajutla Puerto Cutuco La Libertad La Unión Puerto El Triunfo none 75 total: 4 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 2 total: 71 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 14 under 914 m: 56 1 El Salvador International Airport Ilopango International Airport El Tamarindo
Transport in Brazil
Transport infrastructure in Brazil is characterized by strong regional differences and lack of development of the national rail network. Brazil's fast-growing economy, the growth in exports, will place increasing demands on the transport networks. However, sizeable new investments that are expected to address some of the issues are either planned or in progress. Total actual network: 29,303 kmBroad gauge: 4,932 km 1,600 mm gauge Narrow gauge: 23,773 km 1,000 mm gauge Dual gauge: 396 km 1000 mm and 1600 mm gauges Standard gauge: 202.4 km 1,435 mm gauge Estrada de Ferro do Amapá in the middle of the Amazon Rainforest used standard gauge. A 12 km section of the former 2 ft 6 in gauge Estrada de Ferro Oeste de Minas is retained as a heritage railway. International rail links exist between Brazil and Argentina and Uruguay. Brazil had a hundred tramway systems. There are vintage tramways operating in Belém, Campos do Jordão, Rio de Janeiro and Santos. A high-speed rail connecting São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro is under development.
Brazil has 1,751,868 kilometers of roads, 96,353 km of them paved and 1,655,515 km unpaved. That means that 94.5 % are unpaved. The most important highway of the country is BR-116 and the second is BR-101; the country has a low rate of car ownership of 140 per 1000 population, however in comparison to the other developing economies of the BRIC group Brazil exceeds India and China. 50,000 km navigable condensate/gas 62 km natural gas 9,892 km liquid petroleum gas 353 km crude oil 4,517 km refined products 4,465 km Belém Manaus Santarém Corumbá total: 136 ships totaling 3,964,808 GT/6,403,284 tonnes deadweight ships by type: Most international flights must go to São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport or Rio de Janeiro–Galeão International Airport. Belo Horizonte is the main international airport outside Rio de São Paulo. A few go to Brasília, Recife and just Fortaleza has accepted international flights. With South American integration, more airports can be expected to open to international flights.
In 2013 Brazil had the sixth largest passenger air market in the world. Total: 734 over 3,047 m: 7 2,438 to 3,047 m: 26 1,524 to 2,437 m: 169 914 to 1,523 m: 476 under 914 m: 56 total: 3,442 1,524 to 2,437 m: 85 914 to 1,523 m: 1,541 under 914 m: 1,816 Azul Linhas Aéreas Brasileiras Gol Transportes Aéreos Avianca TAM Airlines 16 13 Rail transport by country CIA - The World Factbook - Brazil - Transportation
Transport in Colombia
Transport in Colombia is regulated by the Ministry of Transport. Road travel is the main means of transport; the indigenous peoples in Colombia used and some continue to use the water ways as the way of transportation using rafts and canoes. With the arrival of the Europeans the Spaniards brought the horses and donkey used by them in ranching duties in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Horses contributed to the transport of the Spanish conquerors and colonizers, they introduced the wheel, brought wooden carts and carriages to facilitate their transport. The Spaniards developed the first roads and most of these in the Caribbean region. Due to the rough terrain of Colombia communications between regions was difficult and affected the effectiveness of the central government creating isolation in some regions. Maritime navigation developed locally after Spain lifted its restrictions on ports within the Spanish Empire inducing mercantilism. Spanish transported African slaves and forcedly migrated many indigenous tribes throughout Colombia.
With the independence and the influences of the European Industrial Revolution the main way of transport in Colombia became the navigation through the Magdalena River which connected Honda in inland Colombia, with Barranquilla by the Caribbean sea to the trade with the United States and Europe. This brought a large wave of immigrants from European and Middle Eastern countries; the industrialization process and transportation in Colombia were affected by the internal civil wars that surged after the independence from Spain and that continued throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. During the late 19th century European and American companies introduced railways to carry to the ports the local production of raw materials intended for exports and imports from Europe. Steam ships began carrying Colombians and goods from Europe and the United States over the Magdalena River; the Ministry of Transport was created in 1905 during the Presidency of Rafael Reyes under the name of Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Transporte or Ministry of Public Works and Transport with the main function of taking care of national assets issues, including mines, oil and trade marks, roads, national buildings and land without landowners.
In the early 20th century roads and highways maintenance and construction regulations were established. Rivers were cleaned and channeled and the navigational industry was organized; the Public works districts, as well as the Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Colombia. Among other major projects developed were the aqueduct of Bogotá, La Regadera Dam and the Vitelma Water Treatment Plant; the Ministry created the National Institute of Transit, under the Transport and tariffs Directorate and was in charge of designing the first National roads plan with the support of many foreign multinational construction companies. Aviation was born in Barranquilla with the creation of SCADTA in 1919 a joint venture between Colombians and Germans that delivered mail to the main cities of Colombia which merged with SACO to form Avianca. Colombia has 3,034 kilometers of rail lines, 150 kilometers of which are 1,435 mm gauge and 3,154 kilometers of which are 914 mm gauge. However, only 2,611 kilometers of lines are still in use.
Rail transport in Colombia remains underdeveloped. The national railroad system, once the country's main mode of transport for freight, has been neglected in favor of road development and now accounts for only about a quarter of freight transport. Passenger-rail use was suspended in 1992 resumed at the end of the 1990s, as of 2017 it is considered abandoned. Fewer than 165,000 passenger journeys were made in 1999, as compared with more than 5 million in 1972, the figure was only 160,130 in 2005; the two still-functioning passenger trains are: one between Puerto Berrío and García Cadena, another one between Bogotá and Zipaquirá. Short sections of railroad the Bogotá-Atlantic rim, are used to haul goods coal, to the Caribbean and Pacific ports. In 2005 a total of 27.5 million metric tons of cargo were transported by rail. Although the nation's rail network links seven of the country's 10 major cities little of it has been used because of security concerns, lack of maintenance, the power of the road transport union.
During 2004–6 2,000 kilometers of the country's rail lines underwent refurbishment. This upgrade involved two main projects: the 1,484-kilometer line linking Bogotá to the Caribbean Coast and the 499-kilometer Pacific coastal network that links the industrial city of Cali and the surrounding coffee-growing region to the port of Buenaventura; the three main north-south highways are the Caribbean and Central Trunk Highways. Estimates of the length of Colombia's road system in 2004 ranged from 115,000 kilometers to 145,000 kilometers, of which fewer than 15 percent were paved. However, according to 2005 data reported by the Colombian government, the road network totaled 163,000 kilometers, 68 percent of which were paved and in good condition; the increase may reflect some newly built roads. President Uribe has vowed to pave more than 2,500 kilometers of roads during his administration, about 5,000 kilometers of new secondary roads were being built in the 2003–6 period. Despite serious terrain obstacles three-quarters of all cross-border dry
Fort-de-France is the capital of France's Caribbean overseas department of Martinique. It is one of the major cities in the Caribbean. Exports include sugar, tinned fruit, cacao. In 1638, Jacques Dyel du Parquet, nephew of Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc and first governor of Martinique, decided to have Fort Saint Louis built to protect the city against enemy attacks; the fort was soon destroyed, rebuilt in 1669, when Louis XIV appointed the Marquis of Baas as governor general. Under his orders and those of his successors the Count of Blénac, the fort was built with a Vauban design. Named Fort-Royal, the administrative capital of Martinique was over-shadowed by Saint-Pierre, the oldest city in the island, renowned for its commercial and cultural vibrancy as "The Paris of the Caribbean"; the name of Fort-Royal was changed to a short-lived "Fort-La-Republique" during the French Revolution, settled as Fort-de-France sometime in the 19th century. The old name of Fort-Royal is still used today familiarly in its Creole language form of "Foyal", with the inhabitants of the city being "Foyalais".
The city had its share of disasters, being captured by a British expedition in 1762 destroyed by an earthquake in 1839 and devastated by fire in 1890. At the turn of the 20th century, Fort-de-France became economically important after the volcanic eruption of Mount Pelée destroyed the town of Saint-Pierre in 1902; until 1918, when its commercial growth began, Fort-de-France had an inadequate water supply, was surrounded by swamps, was notorious for yellow fever. Now the swamps are drained to make room for extensive suburbs. Fort-de-France known as the Fort of France, lies on Martinique's west coast at the northern entrance to the large Fort-de-France Bay, at the mouth of the Madame River; the city occupies a narrow plain between the hills and the sea but is accessible by road from all parts of the island. Fort-de-France has a tropical rainforest climate, characterised by warm to hot and humid weather year-round; the wettest months are from July to November when hurricanes are a frequent threat, although substantial rainfall occurs in all months.
Fort Saint Louis in Fort-de-France is a French naval base. In addition to Fort Saint Louis, there are three other forts: Fort Desaix Fort Tartenson Fort GerbaultOther sites of interest include: Place de la Savane Schoelcher Library Jardin de Balata, a botanical garden Sacré-Cœur de Balata Church, a replica of the parisian Montmartre Church lodged on a cliff surrounded by tropical forest Fort-de-France CathedralA statue commemorating Martinique-born Empress Josephine, the wife of Napoleon, is in the gardens of La Savane, it was vandalized in the 1990s by individuals who blamed her for supporting the reestablishment of slavery on the island. They splashed the body with red paint. Martinique Aimé Césaire International Airport is located in a suburb outside Fort-de-France and is accessible via the A1 autoroute. Communes of the Martinique department Official website Mérimée database – Cultural heritage "Fort Royal"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879
Transport in Bermuda
Bermuda consists of several islands with an area of 53.2 km2 with 447 km of paved roads — 225 km of which are public roads and 222 km are private paved roads. A former railway track has been converted into a walking trail. There are two marine ports, an airport, the L. F. Wade International Airport, located at the former U. S. Naval Air Station. A causeway links Hamilton Bermuda to St. George's and the airport. Traffic drives on the left. Bermuda's Ministry of Tourism and Transport manages the public ferry service, "SeaExpress", the public bus system. Bermuda is serviced by a bus system. From the main bus terminal in Hamilton eleven bus routes spread out in all directions of the island; as the island is narrow and in most sections has a northern and southern route that are serviced, access to the system is within a short distance. The MAN buses stop at pink or blue markers. Fares are based on sections traveled, transfers are available. SeaExpress operates four routes for ferries and boats that originate from the ferry terminal in Hamilton.
The "Blue Route" services the West End and the Dockyard of Sandys, the "Orange Route" links to the Dockyard and St. George's, the "Green Route" travels to Rockaway of Southampton, the "Pink Route" brings passengers to points in Paget and Warwick. Fare for travelling by ferry is inexpensive, allow travel for frequent travel at most hours. In 2003, high-speed catamaran ferry service was introduced. Cars were not allowed in Bermuda until 1946. Today, Bermuda has a large number of private cars one for every two inhabitants; this is because, with close to 300,000 visitors a year, allowing car rental on one of the world's most densely populated islands would bring traffic to a standstill, as well as bankrupt the island's taxi industry. Car prices are much higher than in the United States and Europe, due to heavy import duties, residents are limited to one car per household; the size of cars is restricted, meaning that many models popular in the United States and Europe are not available in Bermuda.
Only the Governor and Premier are exempt from these restrictions. There is no car hire; the highest speed limit anywhere on the island is 35 km/h, it is lower in built-up and other congested areas. Between 1931 and 1948, Bermuda Railway provided rail passenger and freight services between St George's and Somerset in Sandys Parish, via Hamilton; the railway was replaced by a bus service and the line dismantled in 1948. Much of the old railway right-of-way has been converted to the "Bermuda Railway Trail" for hiking and biking; as at 2007, Bermuda had 447 km of paved roads — of which 225 km were public roads and 222 km were private paved roads. There are ports in Hamilton, St George's, Dockyard. During summer months, large cruise ships dock at the Dockyard at the northwestern end of the island; the only airport in Bermuda is L. F. Wade International Airport located in the parish of St. George's, 11 km northeast of Hamilton. In 2006, the airport handled about 900,000 passengers, it has one passenger terminal, one cargo terminal, eight aircraft stands and can support all aircraft sizes up to the Airbus A380.
As at 2006, seven airlines operated seasonal or year-round scheduled services to Bermuda from Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. It has a 3,048 m paved runway; the airport is served by taxis. There is no car hire in Bermuda. Bermuda is a flag of convenience, with 160 vessels on its registry as at 2016. Much of the material in this article is adapted from the CIA World Factbook 2009. Travel: Transport on Bermuda - Discover Bermuda, Official Site of the Bermuda Department of Tourism
Transport in Barbados
Barbados is an up-and-coming tourist country that provides reliable and safe transportation for natives and visitors alike. The country is small with a length of 21 miles and a width of 14 miles. Barbados has 1,600 kilometres of public paved roads, two active marine ports in, remnants of a railway system, one airport; as a former British colony, Barbados was influenced by the English culture and customs, which carried over into the infrastructure of Barbados. Similar to the driving habits in the United Kingdom, people in Barbados drive on the left side of the road. Barbados has a dependable highway system of main roads that stem from the country's capital, Bridgetown; the highways are identified by the numbers one to seven. H1 signifies the first highway; the numbering continues sequentially in a clockwise direction. The most popular highway throughout the island is the A. B. C. Highway. Throughout the Barbados roadways, the most prominent traffic junctions are the two lane roundabouts. Like roundabouts seen in the United States vehicles in the inner most lane of the roundabout have the right of way, however, in Barbados the traffic moves in clockwise direction.
The speed limit on all roads is 60 km/h. The speed limit on the ABC Highway and the Spring Garden Highway is 80 km/h. In 2010, an assessment released by the Economist Intelligence Unit of the United Kingdom, ranked Barbados 6th in the world, the top spot in the Western Hemisphere for road network density. In terms of traffic and accidents, the 2010 EIU report found that Barbados had 63.1 vehicles per kilometre of road on the island. A rank that placed Barbados as 23rd globally for number of vehicles, by the total surface area of roads. For accident totals, Barbados placed 12th globally for road victims per 100,000 people; the Ministry of Transport & Works of Barbados oversees the affairs of the nation's roads and the public transport system. Public transport services in Barbados include buses, share taxis, car rentals; some services run on a direct route to their destinations however, most public transport services require a connection through Bridgetown. The ZRs, are owned mini-vans that run on specific predetermined routes.
They are recognized by their white maroon stripe down the side. ZRs have a fixed fare of two dollars per person for one way. According to travel agencies, ZRs are not only the most reliable form of public transportation, but they provide entertainment to its customers. ZRs move and stop to pick up the maximum number of paying passengers in the shortest amount of time. Therefore, ZRs cramped spacing. Taxi services are available to natives and guests of the island. Taxis to the United States, provide transportation at a predetermined government rate; the bus services in Barbados are a mode of transportation that are available to all, natives are the predominant group that use the public buses. The Barbados Transport Board is a government organization, responsible for bus transportation; the board started as an organization on 24 August 1955 and has operated since. There are three hundred and four buses in use around the island. There are two types of large blue buses and yellow buses; the larger blue buses, are government-operated by the Barbados Transport Board and charge the same fee as the other services.
Adults have to pay the fee, but the public bus is free for all children in school uniforms, students with an institution ID that are under the age of eighteen and senior citizens. Unlike other transportation, Public government buses run on an exact fare system and are unable to give change. There are privately operated Mini- and Midibuses that are yellow with a blue stripe, they operate on the west and south coastline. The most popular routes are Bridgetown -- Bridgetown -- Sam Lord's Castle, they are able to give change. Car rental in Barbados is provided through any of several vehicle rental agencies, they offer a wide variety of vehicles from luxury cars to vans, smaller open top cars. Foreign drivers driving in Barbados require a temporary driver's licence in addition to an international licence. A proposal for a railway system in Barbados was first made in 1845 by Britain, it was not until 1881 that construction began on the new 3 ft 6 in narrow-gauge Barbados Railway by an independent country for the purpose of transporting sugar cane across the island to the seaport of Bridgetown.
It was converted to 2 ft 6 in narrow gauge by Everard Calthrop. From the early 20th century on, the railway system carried produce to and from factories to the city and passengers to and from the city. However, complications arose. There was a lack of funding for the upkeep of the system; the poor designs of the tracks and cars posed a challenge against the high tides of the Atlantic Ocean. To keep the railway in use, the government of Barbados took over in 1916. By 1937 the railway was shut down due to safety issues. There are still remnants of the railway today and many can be seen by the coastlines, and every year there is a marathon run & walk along the old route from Bridgetown to Carrington on the East Coast. In 1881 a horse-