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Transport in Monaco

Transport in Monaco is facilitated with road, air and water networks. Rail transport is operated by SNCF and its total length is 1.7 km. Monaco has five bus routes operated by Compagnie des Autobus de Monaco. There are two other bus routes which connect Monaco with neighboring regions such as Nice and Menton; the railway is underground within Monegasque territory, no trains can be seen at ground level within the nation. It links Marseille to Ventimiglia through the principality, was opened in 1868. Two stations were provided, named'Monaco' and'Monte-Carlo', but neither remain in current use; the railway line was re-laid, in a new permanent way in tunnels, constructed in two stages. The first, in 1964, was a 3,500 metre tunnel which rendered the original Monte-Carlo station redundant; the second stage, opened in 1999, was a 3 km-long tunnel linked to the first one, allowing the new "underground railway station of Monaco-Monte Carlo" to open. Where the above ground railway was is now available for development, schools and commercial facilities, can locate here totaling some four hectares.

This station is served by international trains and regional trains. Monaco has 50 km of urban roads. Monaco buries its highways so more land is available. There are seven main inclined lifts which provide public transport: between the Place des Moulins and the beaches between the Princess Grace Hospital Centre and the Exotic Garden between the Port Hercules harbor and the Avenue de la Costa between the Place Str Dévôte and the area of Moneghetti between the terraces of the Casino and the Boulevard Louis II between the Avenue des Citronniers and the Avenue Grande-Bretagne between the highway and the Boulevard Larvotto There are six bus routes in Monaco, all operated by Compagnie des Autobus de Monaco. There are 143 bus stops through the Principality. Line 1: Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo, Saint Roman and return Line 2: Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo, Exotic Garden and return Line 4: Place d'Armes, Railway station, Monte-Carlo, Saint Roman and return Line 5: Railway station, Fontvieille and return Line 6: Larvotto Beach and return There are four other bus routes which connect Monaco with neighbouring regions.

Line 11: La Turbie and return Line 100: Nice, Monaco and return Line 100X: Nice and return Line 110: Nice Airport, Monaco and return There is a ferry service "Bateaubus" which operates between both sides of Monaco port. The boat operates under the urban bus system tariff. A narrow gauge subway line is a perennial project in Monaco. There are two ports in Monaco, one is Port Hercules and the other is in Fontvieille. There are seasonal ferry lines like the one from Nice to Saint-Tropez. There is no airport in the Principality of Monaco; the closest airport is Cote d'Azur Airport in Nice, connected to Monaco by the Express 110 bus. A heliport, the Monaco Heliport, is the only aviation facility in the principality, it features shuttle service to and from the international airport at France. As of May 2005, all Royal Helicopter Service is provided by the James Drabble Aviation Services Committee; this deal sparked a great deal of controversy in the National Council of Monaco, as there was no precedent yet set.

Helicopter charter services to French ski resorts are available. Getting Around in Monaco


Haakonsvern is the main base of the Royal Norwegian Navy and the largest naval base in the Nordic area. The base is located at Mathopen within Bergen municipality, about 15 km south-west of the city centre. Around 5,400 people work at the base as officers or civilian staff; the base was established in 1962 when the main naval activities were moved from Horten in the Oslofjord to Bergen. It is the main base for most vessels within the Royal Norwegian Navy and visited by allied vessels. Haakonsvern contains the Royal Norwegian Naval Training Establishment as well as repair and maintenance facilities, including an underground dock facility with the capacity to take frigates. Media related to Haakonsvern Naval Base at Wikimedia Commons Haakonsvern official website

Vashone Adams

Vashone LaRay Adams is a former American football safety in the National Football League for the Cleveland Browns, Baltimore Ravens, New Orleans Saints, Kansas City Chiefs and Dallas Cowboys. He played college football at Eastern Michigan University. Adams attended Overland Christian High School, where he was a two-way player at running back and cornerback, he accepted a football scholarship from Fort Hays State University. He transferred to Butte College after his freshman season, he transferred to Eastern Michigan University after his sophomore season, where he was a two-year starter at safety. Adams was signed as an undrafted free agent by the Cleveland Browns after the 1995 NFL Draft, he was signed to the practice squad in September. He was promoted to the active roster on November 4; as a rookie, he posted 23 tackles. In 1996, the Browns were relocated to Maryland. Although the original Browns name and the team's records would remain in Cleveland, the club became the Baltimore Ravens, an official NFL expansion franchise.

Adams appeared in 16 games. He wasn't re-signed after the season. In 1997, he signed as a free agent with the New Orleans Saints, he earned the starting strong safety position in preseason. He appeared in 5 games, making his only forced fumble. On September 29, he was released after Sammy Knight surpassed him on the depth chart and became the new starting strong safety. On April 7, 1998, he was signed by the Kansas City Chiefs as a free agent, he was placed on the injured reserve list on August 30. He wasn't re-signed after the season. On December 15, 1999, he was signed by the Dallas Cowboys, he was declared inactive for the last 3 regular season games and the NFC Wild Card Playoff contest against the Minnesota Vikings. He wasn't re-signed after the season

Counties of England

The counties of England are areas used for different purposes, which include administrative, geographical and political demarcation. The term'county' is defined in several manners and can apply to similar or the same areas used by each of these demarcation structures; these different types of county each have a more formal name but are referred to just as'counties'. The current arrangement is the result of incremental reform; the original county structure has its origins in the Middle Ages. These counties are referred to as historic or traditional counties; the Local Government Act 1888 created new areas for organising local government that it called administrative counties and county boroughs. These administrative areas adopted the names of, resembled the areas of, the traditional counties. Legislative changes to the new local government structure led to greater distinction between the traditional and the administrative counties; the Local Government Act 1972 abolished the 1888 act, its administrative counties and county boroughs.

In their place, the 1972 Act created new areas for handling local government that were called administrative counties. The 1972 administrative counties differed distinctly in area from the 1888 administrative counties, that had now been abolished, from the traditional counties, that had still not been abolished. Many of the names of the traditional counties were still being used now for the 1972 administrative counties. Legislation created yet further area differences between the 1972 administrative counties and the traditional counties. In 2019, for the purpose of administration, England outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly is divided into 82 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties; the Lieutenancies Act 1997 created areas to be used for the purpose of the Lieutenancies Act. These newly created areas are called ceremonial counties and are based on, but not always the same as, the areas of the 1972 administrative counties. For the purpose of sorting and delivering mail, England was divided into 48 postal counties until 1996.

The term'county', relating to any of its meanings, is used as the geographical basis for a number of institutions such as police and fire services, sports clubs and other non-government organisations. Cumbria, Norfolk, Oxfordshire, Surrey, West Sussex and Worcestershire are non-metropolitan counties of multiple districts with a county council. In these counties most services are provided by the county council and the district councils have a more limited role, their areas each correspond to ceremonial counties. There are six metropolitan counties, they are Greater Manchester, South Yorkshire and Wear, West Midlands and West Yorkshire. In these counties the district councils provide the majority of services. Berkshire is a non-metropolitan county with no county council and multiple districts and maps directly to a ceremonial county. Bristol, Isle of Wight and Rutland are ceremonial counties consisting of a non-metropolitan county of a single district, are known as unitary authorities. Buckinghamshire, Derbyshire, East Sussex, Gloucestershire, Kent, Leicestershire, North Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire and Staffordshire are non-metropolitan counties with multiple districts and a county council, where one or more districts have been split off to form unitary authorities.

The effect is that the corresponding ceremonial county is larger than the non-metropolitan county of the same name and the county council is responsible for providing services in only part of the county. In Cornwall, Durham, East Riding of Yorkshire and Wiltshire the bulk of the area is a unitary authority which shares the name of the ceremonial county and the rest of county is part of one or more other unitary authorities. In total, there are 39 unitary authorities that do not share the names of any of the ceremonial counties. Bedfordshire and Cheshire are counties that consist of a number of unitary authorities, none of which has the same name as the ceremonial county; the City of London and Greater London are anomalous as ceremonial counties that do not correspond to any metropolitan or non-metropolitan counties, pre-date their creation. The metropolitan counties have passenger transport executives to manage public transport, a role undertaken by the local authorities of non-metropolitan counties and Transport for London in Greater London.

Large ceremonial counties correspond to a single police force. For example, the four unitary authorities which make up Cheshire correspond to the same area as the Cheshire Constabulary; some counties are grouped together for this purpose, such as Northumberland with Tyne and Wear to form the Northumbria Police area. In other areas a group of unitary authorities in several counties are grouped together to form police force areas, such as the Cleveland Police and Humberside Police. Greater London and the City of London each have their own police forces, the Metropolitan Police Service and the City of London Police; the fire service is operated on a similar county basis, the ambulance service is organised by the regions of England. Most ceremonial counties form part of a single region, although Lincolnshire and North Yorkshire are divided between regions. Economic development is delivered using the regions; as of 2009, the largest county by area is North Yorkshire and the smallest is t

Kemaman District

Kemaman is a district in Terengganu, Malaysia. Kemaman district is bordered by Dungun district to the north and the state of Pahang to the south and west, it is the southern gateway to the state of Terengganu. The district administrative seat and the main economic centre of Kemaman is the town of Chukai, near the Terengganu-Pahang state border. Other important towns in this district are Kijal and Kemasik; the district is administered by the Kemaman Municipal Council. With a total area of 1000 square miles, it is the third largest district after Hulu Terengganu and Dungun bordering the South China Sea. Kemaman District is divided into 12 mukims, which are: Bandi Banggul Binjai Chukai Hulu Chukai Hulu Jabur Kemasik Kerteh Kijal Pasir Semut Tebak Teluk Kalong Based on the 2000 Population and Housing Census, the population of Kemaman totals 137,070. In the 2010 census, there were 167,824 residents in Kemaman Municipal Council administrative area. Malays were the majority ethnic group with a total of 157,778, while 6937 were Chinese, 743 were Indian, 264 were from other ethnic groups.

Censuses until the 1940s showed that this district as the third highest populated area after Kuala Terengganu and Besut. The population distribution changed after the discovery of oil in the 1970s, placing this district second after Kuala Terengganu; the geographical features of this district can be divided into three main areas which include coastal area, inland area and the foothill area. The coastal area is a flat lowland with the majority of the people focus on fishing activities; this area stretches about 38 kilometers from Kuala Kemaman to Kerteh. More than half of Kemaman's population is concentrated in this area; the inland area of the district is a region of highlands with hilly features. This area is rich with oil palm plantation and timber. So, the concentration of population here is related to local economic activities; the foothill area is the second highest populated area. The area is located between the inland areas; the main occupation of the residents in this area is farming. According to early history, Kemaman was started to be known since the second century B.

C. by the name of'Kole'. This is based on the map of Malay Land Peninsula, drawn by Ptolemy noting that there were two ports in the East Coast and Kole. Historians agreed that Perimula was the Terengganu River Estuary and Kole was Kemaman. In spite of that, the history of the opening of this district is still vague as there is no written account and valid evidence about it. Anyway, local historian agreed that the district has begun to be explored about 300 years ago by Che Wan Teh and his followers. Che Wan Teh was from a noble Pahang family who migrated to this district from Kuala Pahang following a disorder and chaos situation in Kuala Pahang, he set up a settlement in the coastal area and the first village found was Bukit Mengkuang Before the Malays came, the district was occupied by the Sakais who moved to the inland area. After sometimes in Bukit Mengkuang, Che Wan Teh moved to a new settlement area adjacent to Kemaman River estuary known as Tanjung Geliga; this new settlement was unsecured as it was disturbed by pirates and robbers threat.

As a result, Che Wan Teh and his followers moved to another new area on the bank of Kemaman River. This place was known as Chukai; this event is proved by existence of an old cemetery in the area. It was said, his followers and generations after him continuously explored new areas following the rise in population and the need for new agricultural areas. Other than verbal explanation, there was another version which referred to some written accounts relating the opening of Kemaman District with a Pattani aristocrat known as Lebai Saris. Anyway, this version recorded the 19th century early event when Terengganu was under the rule of Sultan Ahmad Shah 1 and indirectly coincides with the opening of Kemaman District by Che Wan Teh. Kemaman's economy is based on the petroleum and steel industries. Petronas The discovery of oil in offshore Terengganu in the 1980s has attracted immigration to Kemaman from rural areas as well as other parts of the country. Terengganu Petroleum Refineries in Kijal are the first refineries owned by Petronas.

Kemaman Port has a liquified petroleum gas export terminal managed by Petronas, the national oil corporation. The presence of petroleum and oil industry here causing this district well developed as well. Traditional industries include fishing and salted fish manufacturing, pioneered by the Chinese. One well known local fishing merchant was Soh Huat Keh, among the successful pioneers of the salted fish manufacturing industry there; these seafood produces are exported throughout Singapore. The presence of natural gas has been the spur for the development of the iron and steel industry in Kemaman. A large steel making company, established direct-reduced iron/electric arc furnace facilities, with its own import/export facilities on the East Wharf. Among the beaches that can be found in this district are Kemasik Beach, Teluk Mak Nik, Telaga Simpul Beach, Cagar Hutan Beach, Ma'Daerah Beach. Kemaman's beaches used to be nesting grounds for painted terrapins. However, due to local desire for turtle eggs, these sea creatures were declared extinct in the area since year 2004.

Among serious efforts to get turtles back to nest o

Other Minds: The Octopus, the Sea, and the Deep Origins of Consciousness

Other Minds is a 2016 bestseller by Peter Godfrey-Smith on the evolution and nature of consciousness. It compares the situation in cephalopods the octopus and the cuttlefish, with that in mammals and birds. Complex active bodies that enable and require a measure of intelligence have evolved three times, in arthropods and vertebrates; the book reflects on the nature of cephalopod intelligence in particular, constrained by their short lifespan, embodied in large part in their autonomous arms which contain more nerve cells than their brains. The book has been admired by reviewers, the New York Times for example calling it "never dogmatic, yet startlingly incisive". Peter Godfrey-Smith is an Australian philosopher of science, specialising in the philosophy of mind and its relationship with the philosophy of biology, he is an experienced diver. Other Minds was published by Farrar and Giroux in the USA in 2016, it was first published in the United Kingdom by William Collins in 2017. It is illustrated with monochrome photographs and diagrams in the text.

All the photographs of octopuses and cuttlefish were taken underwater by Godfrey-Smith. He acknowledges the influence of Daniel Dennett's philosophy. Godfrey-Smith's premise in this book is the fact that intelligence has evolved separately in two groups of animals: in cephalopods like octopuses and cuttlefish, in vertebrates like birds and humans, he notes that studying cephalopods is "probably the closest we will come to meeting an intelligent alien", but that "the minds of cephalopods are the most other of all." He describes many encounters with octopuses in the book, as he dives in the shallow waters off Australia in a favoured place that he names "Octopolis" where many of the animals gather. Octopuses are, he notes, observant friendly, but the architecture of their nervous systems is different from the vertebrate plan; the octopus's intelligence is distributed throughout its body: there are twice as many nerve cells in their eight muscular arms as in their brain. Intelligence is, Godfrey-Smith argues, predicated upon the "complex active bodies".

Three groups of bilaterian animals with that kind of body plan evolved in the Cambrian period, some 500 million years ago: the arthropods, the vertebrates, within the molluscs, the cephalopods. Godfrey-Smith disagrees with an old philosophical idea that consciousness emerged from unthinking matter; such capabilities, in Godfrey-Smith's view, are present in some degree in bacteria, which detect chemicals in their environment, in insects such as bees, which recall the locations of food sources. As for feeling, both crabs and octopuses protect a part of their body, injured: they evidently feel pain and are sentient to this extent. Cephalopods like the octopus or giant squid represent "an independent experiment in the evolution of large brains and complex behaviour" predicated on the same neural systems as our closer mammalian relatives. Neither language nor a worldview is needed for a measure of intelligence in these "other minds" that share planet Earth. Carl Safina, in The New York Times, calls Godfrey-Smith "a rare philosopher", both knowledgeable and curious, who good-naturedly explores the world for insights, "never dogmatic, yet startlingly incisive."

Philip Hoare, in The Guardian, quotes Samuel Taylor Coleridge's couplet "Yea, slimy things did crawl with legs / Upon the slimy sea." To evoke the "eldritch other" of octopus intelligence, "with its more-than-the usual complement of limbs, bulbous eyes, seeking suckers and keratinous beaks voraciously devouring anything in its slippery path." In his view, the book "entirely overturns" such preconceptions, with what Godfrey-Smith calls "an independent experiment in the evolution of large brains and complex behaviour" forming a "fascinating case study". In Hoare's view, Godfrey-Smith's empathy with the animals comes from his personal observation, scuba diving in the Pacific Ocean near his university in Sydney, he concludes that "perhaps these animals, so sensate, learning from each other's behaviour, shifting in shape and colour, are more social than we suspected."Olivia Judson, in The Atlantic, admits to a love affair with octopuses, having read Jacques-Yves Cousteau's 1973 Octopus and Squid: The Soft Intelligence.

She notes that Godfrey-Smith follows the neuroscientist Stanislas Dehaene in suggesting that "there's a particular style of processing—one that we use to deal with time and novelty—that brings with it conscious awareness, while a lot of other quite complex activities do not." She argues that the ability of octopuses to learn new skills, of the kind that may demand consciousness, indicates the possibility of "an awareness that in some ways resembles our own." The biologist Meehan Crist, in The Los Angeles Times, calls the book an "elegantly materialist telling", describing cephalopod intelligence as "subjective experience... embodied in physical form." Since most of the animals' neurons are in their partly-autonomous arms, "'for an octopus, its arms are self – they can be directed and used to manipulate things. But from the central brain's perspective they are non-self too agents of their own.' This is as alien a mind as we could hope to encounter." Crist notes, that Godfrey-Smith reflects on the short lifespan of octopuses.

He wonders, in what Crist calls "a precipitous existential abyss", why they have such a large nervous system, so costly to build and to run, to learn about the w