The Nepali Congress is a social-democratic political party in Nepal. It is the largest opposition party in the House of the National Assembly; the party was formed in 1950 by the merger of Nepali National Congress and Nepal Democratic Congress. Nepali Congress prime ministers led four governments between the fall of the Rana dynasty and the start of the Panchayat era, including the first democratically elected government of Nepal in 1959. In the 2017 elections, NC emerged as the second largest party in the House of Representatives, winning 63 out of 275 seats. In 1947, Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala, published an appeal for a unified struggle of Nepali people against the Rana regime; the same year, some Nepalese got together in Benaras and formed an organization by the name All Indian Nepali National Congress where an ad-hoc committee was established. The initial officers were Devi Prasad Devkota, Balchandra Sharma, vice-president, Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, general secretary, Gopal Prasad Bhattarai, publicity minister.
Its Working Committee included Narayan Prasad Bhattarai and Narendra Regmi. Its coordinator was Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala. Around the same time, Nepalese located in Calcutta formed another organization by the name All Indian Nepali Gorkha Congress whose Chairman was Dharma Narayan Pradhan. Koirala traveled extensively to places such as Benaras, Darjeeling, Assam and Dehradhun and established contact with the Nepalese there, he met with Ganesh Man Singh during the same period. Nepalese representatives from different areas of Nepal and India organized one session in Calcutta. Koirala, Dilli Raman Regmi Dharma Narayan Pradhan and Dhan Man Singh Pariyar were present. In the same session, dropping Akhil Bharatiya from its name, the organization was named Nepali National Congress. Tanka Prasad Acharya, facing a life-sentence in Kathmandu, was made its chairman; the flag was square-shaped with white and red colors in succession, with the moon and the sun in its center. The major four proposals passed by the session were: Assist the Indians in their Independence movement.
Support Vietnam struggling for freedom against French colonization. Ask for the immediate release of imprisoned members of the Praja Parishad. Initiate a non-violence movement in Nepal for the establishment of an accountable ruling system; the organization's modus operandi was chosen. The organization attached itself to the civil conscience process in Nepal by establishing Tanka Prasad Acharya as its chairman; the Nepali Congress Party was formed by the merger of Nepali National Congress and Nepal Democratic Congress. The Nepali National Congress was founded by Matrika Prasad Koirala in Calcutta, India on January 25, 1946; the Nepal Democratic Congress was founded by Subarna Shumsher Rana in Calcutta on August 4, 1948. The two parties merged on April 10, 1950 to form the Nepali Congress and Koirala became its first president; the party called for an armed revolution against the Rana regime. During the Bairgania Conference in Bairgania, Bihar, on September 27, 1950 the Nepali Congress announced an armed revolution against the Rana regime.
The president of the party announced the liquidation of operations in India and that the party would operate only inside Nepal. After King Tribhuvan took refuge inside the Indian Embassy on November 6, 1950; the Congress Liberation Army decided to take this opportunity to launch attacks against the regime before the King "left Nepalese soil". Matrika and Bisheshwor Prasad Koirala and Subarna Shamsher Rana flew to Bihar, they called the commanders posted at different locations inside Nepal to prepare for armed strikes near the Nepal-India border. On November 11, 1950, at midnight Birgunj was attacked, by November 12 it fell to the Nepali Congress and the first "People's Government" was declared; the liberation army was able to control most of the eastern hills of Nepal and the town of Tansen in Palpa. After pressure by the Indian government and the mass movement by the Nepali Congress and other political parties, the Rana government submitted to their demands and King Tribhuvan returned to the throne, replacing King Gyanendra, crowned king after King Tribhuvan left for India.
After the fall of the Rana government, the Nepali Congress led three of the five governments formed before the elections. Matrika Prasad Koirala, the first commoner to become Prime Minister, led the government from 1951-1952 and 1953-1955 and Subarna Shamsher Rana led the government from 1958-1959; the much delayed elections were held in February 1959 and Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala became the first democratically elected Prime Minister of Nepal after the Nepali Congress won 74 of 109 Parliament seats. Following a royal coup by King Mahendra in 1960, many leaders of the party, including Koirala and General Secretary Hora Prasad Joshi, were imprisoned or exiled. Although political parties were prohibited from 1960 to 1989 and remained outlawed during the panchayat system under the aegis of the Associations and Organizations Act of 1963, the Nepali Congress persisted; the party placed great emphasis on eliminating the feudal economy and building a basis for socioeconomic development. It proposed nationalizing basic industries and instituting progressive taxes on land, urban housing, salaries and foreign investments.
While in exile, the Nepali Congress served as the nucleus around which other opposition groups clustered and instigated popular uprisings in the Hill and Terai regions. During this time, the Nepali Congress refused the overtures of a radical faction of the Communist Party of Nepal for a tactic
Outline of Nepal
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Nepal: Nepal is a landlocked sovereign state in South Asia. The country is bordered to the north by China, to the south and west by India; the Himalayas in the country's northern region has eight of the world's ten highest mountains, including Mount Everest, called Sagarmatha in Nepali. Pronunciation:nɛpɑːl Common English country name: Nepal Official English country name: The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal Common endonym: List of countries and capitals in native languages Official endonym: List of official endonyms of present-day nations and states Adjectival: Nepali Demonym: Nepalese Etymology: Name of Nepal International rankings of Nepal ISO country codes: NP, NPL, 524 ISO region codes: See ISO 3166-2:NP Internet country code top-level domain:.np Geography of Nepal Nepal is: a landlocked country Location: Northern Hemisphere and Eastern Hemisphere Eurasia Asia South Asia Indian subcontinent Time zone: Nepal Time Extreme points of Nepal High: Mount Everest 8,848 m – highest point on Earth Land boundaries: 2,926 km India 1,690 km China 1,236 kmCoastline: noneNepal Geological Society Population of Nepal: 26,494,504 - 41st most populous country Area of Nepal: 147,181 km2 Atlas of Nepal Environment of Nepal Climate of Nepal Natural disasters in Nepal 2007 South Asian floods April 2015 Nepal earthquake Environmental issues in Nepal Renewable energy in Nepal Geology of Nepal Protected areas of Nepal National parks in Nepal Chitwan National Park Langtang National Park Bardia National Park Sagarmatha National Park Khaptad National Park Rara National Park Shey Phoksundo National Park Makalu Barun National Park Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park Banke National Park Shuklaphanta National Park Parsa National Park Wildlife reserves in Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve Hunting reserves in Nepal Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve Wildlife of Nepal Birds of Nepal Asian openbill stork Barred buttonquail Black stork Black-crowned night heron Black-headed ibis Black-necked stork Cattle egret Cheer pheasant Chinese pond heron Great cormorant Great egret Great hornbill Greater adjutant Indian peafowl Indian pond heron Lesser whistling duck Little cormorant Oriental darter Painted stork Purple heron Sarus crane Scarlet minivet Spot-billed pelican Sultan tit Woolly-necked stork Spiny babbler Mammals of Nepal Bengal fox Clouded leopard Corsac fox Marbled cat Red panda Snow leopard Tibetan fox Reptiles of Nepal Trimeresurus septentrionalis Bengal monitor Indotestudo elongata Yellow monitor Cyrtodactylus nepalensis Gloydius himalayanus Garden angelica Juglans regia Luculia gratissima Meconopsis villosa Persicaria affinis Rhododendron arboreum Ruellia capitata Geography of Nepal List of World Heritage Sites in Nepal Glaciers of Nepal Hunku Glacier Khumbu Glacier Khumbu Icefall structured list Begnas Lake Fewa Lake Gajedi Taal Gosaikunda Lausha Taal Rara Lake Khoshte Taal Phoksundo Lake Tilicho Lake Rupa Lake Jhilmili Tal Ghoda Ghodi Tal Rani Pokhari Khaptad lake List of mountains in Nepal Trekking peak List of Ultras of the Himalayas Himalayan sub-rangesFar west Changla Himal - transhimalayan range Gurans Himal Api Saipal upper Karnali basin Kanti Himal - transhimalayan border range Kanjiroba Himal - south of Dolpa Kagmara Lekh - south of Kanjiroba, north of Dhaulagiri west of Kaligandaki River Gautam Himal - transhimalayan border range Mukut Himal - 6,000m and 5,000m peaks northeast of Dhaulagiri II Dhaulagiri - DI-DVI, Churen, Putha Hiunchuli, Ghustang, Sita Chuchura, Junction Pk.
Myagdi Matha Dwari Lekh - lower peaks at western end of Dhaulagiris east of Kaligandaki Damodar and Peri Himal - transhimalayan border range Annapurna Hiunchuli Machapuchare Nilgiri Himal Singu Chuli Tharpu Chuli Tilicho Peak North of Gorkha Mansiri Himal Himalchuli Manaslu Ngadi Chuli Chamar Ganesh Himal Ganesh NW Salasungo Yangra North of Kathmandu Langtang Himal Dorje Lakpa Dragmarpo Ri Langtang Lirung Yala Peak west of Arun River Rolwaling Himal Gauri Sankar Melungtse Mahalangur Himal Ama Dablam Baruntse Chamlang Cholatse Cho Oyu Cho Polu Everest Everest Base Camp South Col Lhotse Nuptse Gyachung Kang Imja Tse Kala Patthar Kanguru Khumbutse Kongde Ri Kusum Kangguru Makalu Mera Peak Nirekha Num Ri Pokalde Pumori Taboche Thamserku east of Arun Janak Himal Kangchenjunga Jannu Mahabharat Range Siwaliks Dundwa Range Provinces of Nepal Administrative divisions of Nepal Provinces of Nepal Districts of Nepal Municipalities of Nepal Gaupalikas of Nepal Khotang District Okhaldhunga District Solukhumbu District Udayapur District Bhojpur District Dhankuta District Morang District Sankhuwasabha District Sunsari District Terhathum District Ilam District Jhapa District Panchthar District Taplejung District Saptari District Siraha District Bara District Parsa District Rautahat District Dhanusa District Sarlahi District Mahottari District Bhaktapur District Dhading District Lalitpur District Kathmandu District Kavrepalanchok District Nuwakot District Rasuwa District Sindhulpalchok District Chitwan District Makwanpur District Dolakha District Ramechhap District Sindhuli District Baglung District Mustang District Myagdi District Parbat District Gorkha District Kaski District Lamjung District Manang District Syangja District Tanahu District Nawalpur Distrcit Arghakhanchi District Gulmi District Kapilvastu District Parasi District Palpa District Rupandehi District Banke District Bardiya District Dang District Pyuthan District Rolpa District Eastern Rukum District Salyan District Dolpa District Humla District Jumla District Kalikot District Mugu District Dailekh District Jajarkot District Surkhet DistrictKarnali Zone Baitadi District Dadeldhura District Darchula District Kanchanpur District Achham Dis
Chobhar is a village in Kathmandu District in the Bagmati Zone of central Nepal and part of Kirtipur Municipality. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had a population of 5,627 and had 1,109 households in it. Chobhar is known for the nearby Chobhar Gorge. There is a temple, Jal Binayak Temple and Adinath Lokeshwar, sacred to both Buddhists and Hindus. There is beautiful suburbs along with lime stone adding its more beauty in the town. One of the biggest income generation of this village is through the supply of Water and the tourist site Manjushree Park
Birgunj is a metropolitan city and border town in Parsa District in the Narayani Zone of southern Nepal. It lies 135 km south of the capital Kathmandu, attached in the north to Raxaul in the border of the Indian state of Bihar; as an entry point to Nepal from Patna and Kolkata, it is known as the "Gateway to Nepal". The town has significant economic importance for Nepal as most of the trade with India is via Birgunj and the Indian town of Raxaul. Tribhuvan Highway links Birgunj to Kathmandu, it was declared a Metropolitan City on 22 May 2017 along with Pokhara. Birgunj is the second largest city in the Terai region of Nepal, the sixth most populated metropolis of the nation. Vijay Kumar Sarawagi is the mayor and Shanti Karki is the deputy mayor who won the local elections on September 27, 2017. Birgunj was established as a conglomerate of several villages around Gahawa Mai Temple. Gahawa Mai Temple remains the epicenter of the town; the settlement was named after the Rana Prime Minister Bir Shamsher, thus acquiring the name Birgunj.
According to the 2011 Census, Birgunj had a population of 133,238. It is the second biggest city in Terai and the fifth biggest city in Nepal after Kathmandu, Pokhara and Biratnagar, it serves as the headquarters of the Parsa District. Although Nepali is the official language, the native Bhojpuri language is the main language spoken. In addition to Bhojpuri, several other languages are spoken, including Maithili, Hindi and Newari. Birgunj was founded in 1897 by 3rd Rana Prime Minister Bir Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana. On 18 May 2006, the parliament of Nepal declared; this led to unrest by Hindu fundamentalist groups across Nepal. Birgunj is a major business centre of Nepal for trade with India. All trade with India occurs through this route; the Indian border town of Raxaul has become one of the busiest towns for heavy transportation due to high trade volume. The 29 km distance from Birgunj to Pathlaiya is the busiest highway in Nepal. Most industries are represented, including agriculture, textiles, petroleum, etc.
56% of the total products of Birgunj are exported to the Indian state of Bihar. Birgunj was built as the closest Nepalese city connecting the capital Kathmandu with India. Birgunj railway station was connected by the Nepal Government Railway to Raxaul station in Bihar across the border with India; the 47 km railway extended north to Amlekhganj in Nepal. It was built in 1927 by the British but discontinued beyond Birgunj in December 1965. Trains run to major cities of India from Raxaul station and Sugauli station including the Satyagrah Express to Delhi, Mithila Express to Kolkata, Lokmanya Tilak express to Mumbai, HYD-RXL express to Hyderabad. Thus, Birgunj has direct connectivity to major Indian cities like - Patna, Allahabad, New Delhi, Bhopal, Guwahati, Lucknow, Kanpur, Raipur, Hyderabad, etc. Birgunj is served by Simara Airport. Regular flights operate between Simara; the Second International Airport of Nepal in under construction at Nijgadh. There are plans to connect the new airport and Kathmandu via a "Fasttrack" expressway after its completion.
This is expected to reduce travel times between the capital and the commercial capital, Birgunj There are regular bus services to all major cities and towns in Nepal including Kathmandu, Patan, Biratnagar, Butwal, Dhangadhi, Janakpur, Bharatpur, etc. Local bus services provide transportation into its vicinity. Night buses from Birgunj to Kathmandu are the most luxurious bus services in all over Nepal. Birgunj bus park is the centre to find buses for any route, Horse driven carts locally called Tanga have been the mode of transport for the Madheshi people. Today it survives as a popular transportation vehicle between its sister city Raxaul; the 6 km railway track from Raxaul to Birgunj was converted to broad gauge two years after the Indian railways converted the track to Raxaul inside India to broad gauge. Now, broad gauge railway line connects Raxaul to the Sirsiya Inland Container Depot that became operational in 2005. Talks have been held to reopen the railway route from Birgunj to Amlekhganj in Nepal by converting it to broad gauge because of its socio-economic importance.
Goods are transported to and from India via Birgunj dry port, the key terminal of surface cargo delivery to Nepal. This cargo point on the south connects the heart of the country, via another key industrial city, Hetauda, it is served by Tribhuvan Highway, extending from the Indian border at Raxaul through Birgunj and Hetauda to Kathmandu with frequent bus service. Simara Airport — 9 mi north near the highway in Pipara Simara, Bara district — offers scheduled flights to Kathmandu. India and Nepal have an open border with no restrictions on the movement of their citizens. There is a customs checkpoint for the movement of third country nationals. Gadhimai Temple Parsa Wildlife Reserve Narayani StadiumGahawa Mai Temple Bindwasini Mai Temple Bhiswa Hillock Ghantaghar Shankaracharya Gate Vishwa Hindu Parishad Park Ghadiarwa Pokhari Birta Mai Temple The city has its own stadium, Narayani Stadium, Nepal's second largest sta
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Raxaul is a sub-divisional town in the East Champaran district of the Indian state of Bihar. It is situated on the India-Nepal border opposite Birgunj. Raxaul is a major railway terminus; the Indian border town of Raxaul has become one of the busiest towns for heavy transportation due to high trade volume. 56% of the total products of Birgunj are exported to the Indian state of Bihar through this route. As of 2011 India census, Raxaul Bazar had a population of 55,532. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Raxaul Bazar has an average literacy rate of 75.62%, higher than the state average of 61.80%: male literacy is 82.14%, female literacy is 68.25%. In Raxaul Bazar, 16.21% of the population is under 6 years of age. People communicate with each other in the Hindi languages. Falejarganj is one of the oldest known name of Raxaul. Raxaul is the only city, connected with Nepal. Birgunj railway station is connected by the Nepal Government Railway to Raxaul station in Bihar across the border with India.
The 47 km railway extends north to Amlekhganj in Nepal. It was built in 1927 by the British but discontinued beyond Birgunj in December 1965; the 6 km railway track from Raxaul to Birgunj was converted to broad gauge two years after the Indian railways converted the track to Raxaul inside India to broad gauge. Now, broad gauge railway line connects Raxaul to the Sirsiya Inland Container Depot which became operational in 2005. Talks have been held to reopen the railway route from Birgunj to Amlekhganj in Nepal by converting it to broad gauge because of its socio-economic importance. Raxaul Junction railway station is situated on the Delhi – Gorakhpur - Raxaul - Chakia - Muzaffarpur - Kolkata lines. Raxaul is connected to several cities in Bihar with daily passenger trains. There are multiple daily connections to Muzaffarpur, Sugauli and Sitamarhi and daily connections to Bagaha, Samastipur and Narkatiaganj. Daily express trains connect to Delhi with stops in major cities in Uttar Pradesh including Gorakhpur and Bareilly.
Kolkata is connected by a daily express train. There are direct trains to Lucknow and Varanasi with stops in several towns in Uttar Pradesh. Chhapra, chakia, Mumbai, Barauni, Bokaro, Rourkela, Raipur and Hyderabad are connected by weekly or multiple weekly trains. Delhi is connected via Sadbhawna Express. Earlier, all tracks were metre gauge but most have been converted to 1,676 mm Broad gauge. After the completion of the gauge conversion from Darbhanga to Raxaul via Sitamarhi, another broad gauge route to Raxaul became available from March 2014; the metre gauge track from Raxaul to Narkatiaganj converted in 2018/august.03 pair passenger trains operated in this route. Raxaul is connected to major cities of India by National Highway 28A; however the condition of NH 28A is terrible causing regular traffic jams. It is the main route to Nepal; the capital of Nepal, Kathmandu is connected with India through this highway. There is a bus terminal from where buses are available for most of cities in Jharkhand.
Raxaul Airport is located at Ekderwa Raxaul in the state of India. It was established after the Sino-Indian War of 1962, when it served as an emergency landing ground for the Indian Army; the Airports Authority of India that owns the airport has undertaken a pre-feasibility study at the airport to upgrade the airport to handle ATR-72 aircraft. A draft Master Plan highlighting a requirement of an additional 121 acres of land has been submitted to the State Government. Now, there is no scheduled commercial air service. Raxaul can be reached by flying to Simara in Nepal; that airport has direct flights to Kathmandu. A proposal to operationalize the airport for civilian use has been drafted. India and Nepal have an open border with no restrictions on movement of their nationals and no need of visa or passport documents for local people. There is a customs checkpoint for third country nationals. There are Jeeps, Cars and the Tangas from Raxaul station for Birganj bus park; the river, Sariswa, a tributary of the Burhi Gandak, originates from Pathlahia hill of the dense Ramban forests in Nepal, its course roaming through the subdivision cutting through Bara and Parsa districts in Nepal and Raxaul in Bihar, India.
It flows southwards from the place of its origin for about 15 km in Nepal and enters India at Raxaul. From here, the river flows about 20 km in India and joins Burhi Gandak near Sugauli in East Champaran district; the water have full of medicinal values like other Himalayan rivers. It maintains its valuable contents till Parwanipur, but after it, unrestrained untreated wastes are being dumped by the 46 factories situated at Birgunj which make this river contaminated. The colour of the river turned into black besides, emanating foul smell has made the life of the people, who dwell near the river, a nightmare, it is the neighbor river of Sariswa river. Adapur Bihar Birganj, Nepal East Champaran district
The Sino-Nepalese War known as the Sino-Gorkha war and in Chinese the Campaign of Gorkha, was an invasion of Tibet by Nepal from 1788-1792. The war was fought between Nepalese and Tibetan armies over a trade dispute related to a long-standing problem of low-quality coins manufactured by Nepal for Tibet; the Nepalese Army under Bahadur Shah plundered Tibet under Qing rule and Tibetans signed the Treaty of Kerung paying annual tribute to Nepal. However, Tibetans requested for Chinese intervention and Sino-Tibetan forces under Fuk'anggan raided Nepal up to Nuwakot only to face strong Nepalese counterattack. Thus, both countries signed the Treaty of Betrawati. Tibet had been using Nepalese silver coins since the time of the Malla kings; when Prithvi Narayan Shah of the Gorkha Kingdom launched an economic blockade on the Kathmandu Valley during his unification campaign, Jaya Prakash Malla of Kathmandu faced an economic crisis which he tried to alleviate by minting low quality coins mixed with copper.
After Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the Kathmandu Valley in 1769 and established the rule of the Shah dynasty in Nepal, he reverted to minting pure silver coins. But by the damage to the confidence of the Nepalese minted coins had been done; the Tibetans demanded that all the impure coins in circulation be replaced by pure silver ones, a demand that would place a huge financial burden on the newly founded Shah dynasty. Prithvi Narayan Shah was not willing to bear such a huge loss in a matter for which he was not responsible, but was willing to vouch for the purity of the newly minted coins, thus two kinds of coins were in circulation in the market. The case remained unresolved due to his untimely demise in 1775, the problem was inherited by successive rulers of Nepal. By 1788 Bahadur Shah, the youngest son of Prithivi Narayan Shah, the uncle and regent of the minor king Rana Bahadur Shah, had inherited an aggravated coinage problem. On the plea of debased coins, Tibet had started to spread rumors that it was in a position to attack Nepal.
Another sore point in Nepal-Tibet relationship was Nepal’s decision to provide refuge to the 10th Shamarpa Lama, Mipam Chödrup Gyamtso, his fourteen Tibetan followers. He had fled from Tibet to Nepal on political grounds, yet another cause for conflict was the low quality of salt being provided by Tibetans to Nepal, since in those days, all the salt in Nepal came from Tibet. A Nepalese delegation was sent to Tibet to resolve these issues, but the demands made by the Nepalese were rejected by the Tibetans; the Nepalese found the quarrel over coinage a good pretext to expand their kingdom and to raid the rich monasteries in Tibet. Thus, Nepal launched multi-directional attacks on Tibet. In the year 1788, Bahadur Shah sent Gorkha troops under the joint command of Damodar Pande and Bam Shah to attack Tibet; the Gorkha troops reached as far as Tashilhunpo. A fierce battle was fought at Shikarjong; the Panchen Lama and Sakya Lama requested the Gorkha troops to have peace talks. So the Gorkha troops went towards Kuti and Kerung.
When the Qianlong Emperor of China heard the news of the invasion of Tibet by Nepal, he sent a large troop of the Chinese army under the command of General Chanchu. Chanchu came to know the situation from the Tibetan Lamas, he decided to stay in Tibet. The representatives of Tibet and Nepal met at Khiru in 1789 to have peace talks. In the talks Tibet was held responsible for the quarrel and were required to give compensation to Nepal for the losses incurred in the war. Tibet had to pay tribute to Nepal a sum of Rs. 50,001 every year in return for giving back to Tibet all the territories acquired during the war. It was called the Treaty of Kerung; the Nepalese representatives were given Rs. 50,001 as the first installment. So giving back the territories - Kerung, Longa and Falak, they went back to Nepal, but Tibet refused to pay the tributes after the first year of the conclusion of the treaty. As a result, the war between Nepal and Tibet continued; as Tibet had refused to pay the tribute to Nepal, Bahadur Shah sent a troop under Abhiman Singh Basnet to Kerung and another troop under the command of Damodar Pande to Kuti in 1791.
Damodar Pande captured the property of the monastery there. He arrested the minister of Lhasa, Dhoren Kazi and came back to Nepal; as soon as this news was heard by the Qianlong Emperor, he sent a strong troop of 70,000 soldiers under the leadership of Fuk'anggan to defend Tibet. Thus in the year 1792 the Nepal - Tibet war turned into a war between Nepal and the Qing empire; the Qing Empire asked Nepal to return the property to Tibet, looted at Digarcha. They demanded them to give back Shamarpa Lama who had taken asylum in Nepal, but Nepal turned a deaf ear to these demands. The Qing imperial army responded to Nepal with military intervention; the Qing forces marched along the banks of the Trishuli river. The Nepalese troops attempted to defend against the Qing attack, but were faced with overwhelming odds. Heavy damages were inflicted on both sides and the Chinese army pushed the Gurkhas back to the inner hills close to the Nepali capital. However, a comprehensive defeat of the Gorkhali army could not be achieved.
At the same time, Nepal was dealing with military confrontations along two other fronts. The nation of Sikkim had begun incursions along Nepal's eastern border. Along the far-western side, the war with Garhwal continuined. Within Nepals own borders, the kingdoms of Achham, Doti an