Hybrid electric bus
A hybrid electric bus combines a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. These type of buses use a Diesel-electric powertrain and are known as hybrid Diesel-electric buses; the introduction of hybrid electric vehicles and other green vehicles for purposes of public transport forms a part of sustainable transport schemes. A hybrid electric bus may have either a series powertrain; the United States Department of Energy has announced the selection of Navistar Corporation for a cost-shared award of up to $10 million to develop and deploy plug-in hybrid electric school buses. The project aims to deploy 60 vehicles for a three-year period in school bus fleets across the nation; the vehicles will be capable of running in either electric-only or hybrid modes and will be recharged from a standard electrical outlet. Because electricity will be their primary fuel, they will consume less petroleum than standard vehicles. To develop the PHEV school bus, Navistar will examine a range of hybrid architectures and evaluate advanced energy storage devices, with the goal of developing a vehicle with a 40-mile electric range.
Travel beyond the 40-mile range will be facilitated by a clean Diesel engine capable of running on renewable fuels. The DOE funding will cover up to half of the project's cost and will be provided over three years, subject to annual appropriations. Tribrid buses have been developed by the University of Wales, they are powered by hydrogen fuel or solar cells and ultracapacitors. A report prepared by Purdue University suggests introducing more hybrid Diesel-electric buses and a fuel containing 20% biodiesel would further reduce greenhouse emissions and petroleum consumption. Current manufacturers of Diesel-electric hybrid buses include Alexander Dennis, Azure Dynamics Corporation, Eletra, New Flyer Industries, Gillig, Motor Coach Industries, Orion Bus Industries, North American Bus Industries, Daimler AG's Mitsubishi Fuso, MAN, Designline, BAE Systems, Volvo Buses, Castrosua, Tata Hispano and many more. In 2006, Nova Bus, which had marketed the RTS hybrid before that model was discontinued, added a Diesel-electric hybrid option for its LFS series.
As well In the United Kingdom, Wrightbus has introduced a development of the London "Double-Decker", a new interpretation of the traditional red buses that are a feature of the extreme traffic density in London. The Wright Pulsar Gemini HEV bus uses a small Diesel engine with electric storage through a lithium ion battery pack; the use of a 1.9-litre Diesel instead of the typical 7.0-litre engine in a traditional bus demonstrates the possible advantages of serial hybrids in traffic-dense environments. Based on a London test cycle, a reduction in CO2 emissions of 31% and fuel savings in the range of 40% have been demonstrated, compared with an "Euro-4" compliant bus. In 2005 General Electric introduced its hybrid electric gear shifters on the market. Toyota claims to have started with the Coaster Hybrid Bus in 1997 on the Japanese market. In May 2003 General Motors started to tour with hybrid electric buses developed together with Allison. Several hundreds of those buses have entered into daily operation in the U.
S. The Blue Ribbon City Hybrid bus was presented by Hino, a Toyota affiliate, in January 2005. Mitsubishi Fuso have developed a Diesel engine hybrid bus using lithium batteries in 2002, this model has since seen limited service in several Japanese cities. Since 1999, Hybrid electric buses with gas turbine generators have been developed by several manufacturers in the US and New Zealand, with the most successful design being the buses made by Designline of New Zealand; the first model went into commercial service in Christchurch since 1999, models were sold for daily service in Auckland, Hong Kong, Newcastle upon Tyne and Tokyo. New Flyer Industries, North American Bus Industries, Nova Bus produce hybrid electric buses using either BAE System's HybriDrive, or Allison Transmission's electric drive system; the Whispering Wheel bus is another HEV. List of former hybrid bus manufacturers: ISE Corporations Thundervolt Azure Dynamics Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies makes conversions of new and used vehicles, from combustion buses and conventional hybrid electric buses into plug-in buses.
Transit authorities that use hybrid electric buses: Federal funding comes from the federal Diesel Emissions Reduction Act. ABQ RIDE Ann Arbor Area Transportation Authority Autoridad Metropolitana de Autobuses Baltimore, Maryland Bee-Line Bus System Berks Area Reading Transportation Authority Bloomington Transit Broome County Transit Broward County Transit Capital Area Transportation Authority Capital District Transportation Authority Central New York Regional Transportation Authority Charlotte Area Transit System Chatham Area Transit Chicago Transit Authority Citibus. Central Ohio Transit Authority Clarksville Transit System Community Transit C-Tran Citilink CVTD Cache Valley Transit District DART First State Durham Area Transit Auth
Nicaragua the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the northwest, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. Managua is the country's capital and largest city and is the third-largest city in Central America, behind Tegucigalpa and Guatemala City; the multi-ethnic population of six million includes people of indigenous, European and Asian heritage. The main language is Spanish. Indigenous tribes on the Mosquito Coast speak English. Inhabited by various indigenous cultures since ancient times, the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century. Nicaragua gained independence from Spain in 1821; the Mosquito Coast followed a different historical path, with the English colonizing it in the 17th century and coming under the British rule, as well as some minor Spanish interludes in the 19th century. It became an autonomous territory of Nicaragua in 1860 and the northernmost part of it was transferred to Honduras in 1960.
Since its independence, Nicaragua has undergone periods of political unrest, dictatorship and fiscal crisis, leading to the Nicaraguan Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s and the Contra War of the 1980s. The mixture of cultural traditions has generated substantial diversity in folklore, cuisine and literature the latter given the literary contributions of Nicaraguan poets and writers, such as Rubén Darío. Known as the "land of lakes and volcanoes", Nicaragua is home to the second-largest rainforest of the Americas; the country has set a goal of 90% renewable energy by the year 2020. The biological diversity, warm tropical climate and active volcanoes make Nicaragua an popular tourist destination. There are two prevailing theories on; the first is that the name was coined by Spanish colonists based on the name Nicarao, the chieftain or cacique of a powerful indigenous tribe encountered by the Spanish conquistador Gil González Dávila during his entry into southwestern Nicaragua in 1522. This theory holds that the name Nicaragua was formed from Nicarao and agua, to reference the fact that there are two large lakes and several other bodies of water within the country.
However, as of 2002, it was determined that the cacique's real name was Macuilmiquiztli, which meant "Five Deaths" in the Nahuatl language, rather than Nicarao. The second theory is that the country's name comes from any of the following Nahuatl words: nic-anahuac, which meant "Anahuac reached this far", or "the Nahuas came this far", or "those who come from Anahuac came this far". Paleo-Americans first inhabited what is now known as Nicaragua as far back as 12,000 BCE. In pre-Columbian times, Nicaragua's indigenous people were part of the Intermediate Area, between the Mesoamerican and Andean cultural regions, within the influence of the Isthmo-Colombian area. Nicaragua's central region and its Caribbean coast were inhabited by Macro-Chibchan language ethnic groups, they had coalesced in Central America and migrated to present-day northern Colombia and nearby areas. They lived a life based on hunting and gathering, as well as fishing, performing slash-and-burn agriculture. At the end of the 15th century, western Nicaragua was inhabited by several different indigenous peoples related by culture to the Mesoamerican civilizations of the Aztec and Maya, by language to the Mesoamerican Linguistic Area.
The Chorotegas were Mangue language ethnic groups who had arrived in Nicaragua from what is now the Mexican state of Chiapas sometime around 800 CE. The Pipil-Nicarao people were a branch of Nahuas who spoke the Nahuat dialect, like the Chorotegas, they too had come from Chiapas to Nicaragua in 1200 CE. Prior to that, the Pipil-Nicaraos had been associated with the Toltec civilization. Both the Chorotegas and the Pipil-Nicaraos were from Mexico's Cholula valley, had migrated southward. Additionally, there were trade-related colonies in Nicaragua, set up by the Aztecs starting in the 14th century. In 1502, on his fourth voyage, Christopher Columbus became the first European known to have reached what is now Nicaragua as he sailed southeast toward the Isthmus of Panama. Columbus explored the Mosquito Coast on the Atlantic side of Nicaragua but did not encounter any indigenous people. 20 years the Spaniards returned to Nicaragua, this time to its southwestern part. The first attempt to conquer Nicaragua was by the conquistador Gil González Dávila, who had arrived in Panama in January 1520.
In 1522, González Dávila ventured into the area that became known as the Rivas Department of Nicaragua. It was there that he encountered an indigenous Nahua tribe led by a chieftain named Macuilmiquiztli, whose name has sometimes been erroneously referred to as "Nicarao" or "Nicaragua". At the time, the tribe's capital city was called Quauhcapolca. González Dávila had brought along two indigenous interpreters, taught the Spanish language, thus he was able to have a discourse with Macuilmiquiztli. After exploring and gathering gold in the fertile western valleys, González Dávila and his men were attacked and driven off by the Chorotega, led by the chieftain Diriangen; the Spanish attempted to convert the tribes to Christianity. The first Spanish permanent settlements were founded in 1524; that year, the conquistador
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit known as heavy rail, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport found in urban areas. Unlike buses or trams, rapid transit systems are electric railways that operate on an exclusive right-of-way, which cannot be accessed by pedestrians or other vehicles of any sort, and, grade separated in tunnels or on elevated railways. Modern services on rapid transit systems are provided on designated lines between stations using electric multiple units on rail tracks, although some systems use guided rubber tires, magnetic levitation, or monorail; the stations have high platforms, without steps inside the trains, requiring custom-made trains in order to minimize gaps between train and platform. They are integrated with other public transport and operated by the same public transport authorities. However, some rapid transit systems have at-grade intersections between a rapid transit line and a road or between two rapid transit lines.
It is unchallenged in its ability to transport large numbers of people over short distances with little to no use of land. The world's first rapid transit system was the underground Metropolitan Railway which opened as a conventional railway in 1863, now forms part of the London Underground. In 1868, New York opened the elevated West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway a cable-hauled line using static steam engines. China has the largest number of rapid transit systems in the world at 31, with over 4,500 km of lines and is responsible for most of the world's rapid transit expansion in the past decade; the world's longest single-operator rapid transit system by route length is the Shanghai Metro. The world's largest single rapid transit service provider by number of stations is the New York City Subway; the busiest rapid transit systems in the world by annual ridership are the Tokyo subway system, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Moscow Metro, the Beijing Subway, the Shanghai Metro, the Guangzhou Metro, the New York City Subway, the Mexico City Metro, the Paris Métro, the Hong Kong MTR.
Metro is the most common term for underground rapid transit systems used by non-native English speakers. Rapid transit systems may be named after the medium by which passengers travel in busy central business districts. One of these terms may apply to an entire system if a large part of the network runs at ground level. In most of Britain, a subway is a pedestrian underpass. In Scotland, the Glasgow Subway underground rapid transit system is known as the Subway. In most of North America, underground mass transit systems are known as subways; the term metro is a shortened reference to a metropolitan area. Chicago's commuter rail system that serves the entire metropolitan area is called Metra, while its rapid transit system that serves the city is called the "L". Rapid transit systems such as the Washington Metro, Los Angeles Metro Rail, the Miami Metrorail, the Montreal Metro are called the Metro; the opening of London's steam-hauled Metropolitan Railway in 1863 marked the beginning of rapid transit.
Initial experiences with steam engines, despite ventilation, were unpleasant. Experiments with pneumatic railways failed in their extended adoption by cities. Electric traction was more efficient and cleaner than steam and the natural choice for trains running in tunnels and proved superior for elevated services. In 1890 the City & South London Railway was the first electric-traction rapid transit railway, fully underground. Prior to opening the line was to be called the "City and South London Subway", thus introducing the term Subway into railway terminology. Both railways, alongside others, were merged into London Underground; the 1893 Liverpool Overhead Railway was designed to use electric traction from the outset. The technology spread to other cities in Europe, the United States and Canada, with some railways being converted from steam and others being designed to be electric from the outset. Budapest, Chicago and New York all converted or purpose-designed and built electric rail services.
Advancements in technology have allowed new automated services. Hybrid solutions have evolved, such as tram-train and premetro, which incorporate some of the features of rapid transit systems. In response to cost, engineering considerations and topological challenges some cities have opted to construct tram systems those in Australia, where density in cities was low and suburbs tended to spread out. Since the 1970s, the viability of underground train systems in Australian cities Sydney and Melbourne, has been reconsidered and proposed as a solution to over-capacity. Since the 1960s many new systems were introduced in Europe and Latin America. In the 21st century, most new expansions and systems are located in Asia, with China becoming the world's leader in metro expansion operating some of the largest systems and possessing 60 cities operating, constructing or planning a rapid transit system. Rapid transit is used in cities and metropolitan areas to transport large numbers of people short distances at high frequency.
The extent of the rapid transit system varies between cities, with se
The Nicaraguan Canal, formally the Nicaraguan Canal and Development Project was a proposed shipping route through Nicaragua to connect the Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean. Scientists were concerned about the project's environmental impact, as Lake Nicaragua is Central America's key freshwater reservoir while the project's viability was questioned by shipping experts and engineers. Construction of a canal using the San Juan River as an access route to Lake Nicaragua was first proposed in the early colonial era; the United States abandoned plans to construct a waterway in Nicaragua in the early 20th century after it purchased the French interests in the Panama Canal. In June 2013, Nicaragua's National Assembly approved a bill to grant a 50-year concession to finance and manage the project to the private HK Nicaragua Canal Development Investment headed by Wang Jing, a Chinese billionaire; the concession could have been extended for another 50 years. In 2015, media reports suggested the project would be delayed and cancelled because Wang's personal wealth declined as a result of the 2015–16 Chinese stock market crash.
"Major works" such as dredging were to take place after the finishing of a Pacific Ocean wharf, whose construction was planned to start in late 2016. The Nicaraguan government failed to present reliable information about whether or not the project can be financed, thus casting doubt over whether it would be completed; the HKND Group stated that financing would come from debt and equity sales and a potential initial public offering. By May 2017, no concrete action had been taken constructing the canal and further doubts were expressed about its financing. In February 2018, analysts viewed the project as defunct, though the head of the project insisted work was on-going and HKND retained the legal rights to the concession for the canal as well as side projects. Despite HKND vanishing, the Nicaraguan government indicates that it will go ahead with the 908 km2 dry land expropriations anywhere within Nicaragua, under land expropriation Canal Law 840; the idea of constructing a man-made waterway through Central America has been thought about throughout history.
The colonial administration of New Spain conducted preliminary surveys. The routes suggested ran across Nicaragua, Panama, or the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Mexico; the history of attempts to build a Nicaragua canal connecting the Caribbean Sea and thus the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean goes back at least to 1825 when the Federal Republic of Central America hired surveyors to study a route via Lake Nicaragua, 32.7 metres above sea level. Many other proposals have followed. Despite the operation of the Panama Canal, which opened in 1914, interest in a Nicaragua canal has continued. With emergence of globalization, an increase in commerce and the cost of fuel, the limitations of the Panama Canal, the concept of a second canal across the American land bridge became more attractive, in 2006 the president of Nicaragua, Enrique Bolaños, announced an intention to proceed with such a project. With the Panama Canal expansion project, which began commercial operation to modern New Panamax vessels on 26 June 2016, some ships would be too big for the Panama Canal.
On 26 September 2012, the Nicaraguan Government and the newly formed Hong Kong Nicaragua Canal Development Group signed a memorandum of understanding that committed HKND to financing and building the "Nicaraguan Canal and Development Project". HKND Group is a private enterprise; the Nicaraguan government subsequently approved the Master Concession Agreement with HKND on 13 June 2013 thereby granting "the sole rights to the HKND Group to plan, design and thereafter to operate and manage the Nicaragua Grand Canal and other related projects, including ports, a free trade zone, an international airport and other infrastructure development projects." The agreement was renewable for another 50 years. HKND would have paid the Government of Nicaragua US$10M annually for 10 years, thereafter a portion of the revenue starting at 1% and increasing later. Stratfor indicated that after 10 years, ownership shares would periodically be handed over to Nicaragua, so that after 50 years Nicaragua would be the majority shareholder.
HKND Group performed a preliminary study phase of development to assess the technological and economic feasibility of constructing a canal in Nicaragua, as well as the potential environmental and regional implications of various routes. The canal and other associated projects would be financed by investors throughout the world and would generate jobs for Nicaragua and other Central American countries. Initial findings of the commercial analysis conducted by HKND Group indicate that the combined effect of growth in east–west trade and in ship sizes could provide a compelling argument for the construction of a second canal larger than the expanded Panama Canal, across Central America. In the 2020s, growth in global maritime trade is expected to cause congestion and delays in transit through the Panama Canal without a complementary route through the isthmus, by 2030, the volume of trade that a Nicaragua Canal could serve would have grown by 240%. On 10 June 2013, The Associated Press reported that the National Assembly's Infrastructure Committee voted nearly unanimously in favor of the project, with four members abstaining.
On 13 June, Nicaragua's legislature passed the legislation granting the concession. On 15 June, Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega and the billionaire chairman of HKND Group, Wang Jing, signed the concession agree
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Augusto C. Sandino International Airport
Augusto C. Sandino International Airport or ACS is the main joint civil-military public international airport in Managua, Nicaragua named after Nicaraguan revolutionary Augusto Nicolás Sandino and located in the City's 6th ward, known locally as Distrito 6. Christened as Las Mercedes Airport in 1968, it was renamed Augusto C. Sandino International Airport during the Sandinista government in the 1980s and again in 2001 to Managua International Airport by then-president Arnoldo Alemán, its name was changed once more in February 2007 to its current name by President Daniel Ortega to honor the revolutionary. Managua has an alternative landing strip at Punta Huete Airport. Punta Huete was designed for larger aircraft; this alternative landing site, does not service commercial aircraft. The airport is managed by the state-run Administrative Company of International Airports, more known as the EAAI given its Spanish name, the Empresa Administradora de Aeropuertos Internacionales; the runway at the airport is 8,012 ft long, it is located at an elevation of 194 feet.
With 1.4 million passengers in 2013, ACS is the fifth busiest airport by passenger traffic in Central America and it serves as a focus city for the Panamanian airline Copa Airlines. Augusto C. Sandino International Airport has direct scheduled service to destinations in the United States, Mexico, Central America and South America. Before ACS, there was the old Xolotlan Airport, about 2 miles east of Managua, built in 1915 which soon became too small for Managua's airline service growth. Thus, on January 22, 1942, the Nicaraguan Government and Pan American Airways signed a contract to construct an airport by Las Mercedes Country Estate which inspired the name for Las Mercedes Airport. Las Mercedes was further upgraded, re-designed to handle Boeing 707 aircraft, re-inaugurated on July 4, 1968, by Anastasio Somoza Debayle. In the early 1970s, Las Mercedes was expanded to more modern standards, such as four health inspectors, eight immigration officers and ten customs inspectors, it was considered equipped, having air conditioning, background music and conveyor belts for baggage handling.
It had a restaurant on its upper floor where visitors and travelers could see airport movement. The expanded airport could serve three aircraft at once and by 1975 LANICA, the National Airline of Nicaragua, as well as many well known carriers Pan Am, KLM, Taca Airlines, Avianca, Iberia, SAM, TAN, smaller local carriers, flew into Las Mercedes; when the Sandinistas took power, the airport was named after Augusto César Sandino, a Nicaraguan revolutionary and guerrilla leader, after whom the Sandinista movement is named. The Sandinistas however did not maintain the airport, it began to deteriorate until it was expanded and remodeled in 1996, among other things, two new boarding bridges were installed; the airport was renamed "Managua International Airport" in 2001 by President Arnoldo Alemán and renamed again in 2007 to its current name by President Daniel Ortega In mid 2007, President Daniel Ortega renamed the airport in honor of Sandino. Nicaraguan artist Róger Pérez de la Rocha has created two large portraits of Augusto César Sandino, Rubén Darío which they lay at the airports lobby.
Las Mercedes served for a long time as a hub for Nicaragua's flag carriers Lanica, Aeronica from 1979 to the 80's and NICA afterwards. When NICA became a member of Grupo TACA during the 1990s, the number of important connections to the rest of Latin America from which ACS grew considerably. According to EAAI ACS is the 4th safest in the world, it is located just 11 km from Managua's downtown, has a runway which measures 8,015 ft in length and is at an elevation of 194 ft. Embraer 190s, Airbus A300, Airbus A310, Airbus A320, Airbus A330, Airbus 340 Boeing 737s, Boeing 747s, Boeing 757s, Boeing 767s, Lockheed L-1011 TriStars and McDonnell Douglas DC-10s can land at the airport. A large expansion programme was underway by 2003 and as of July 2006 the final phase was completed with 7 gates equipped with jetways, room for 20 airplanes to park, it had been reported in the recent past that the runway would be lengthened by 800 m, but to date this projected has not begun, despite the government's great achievements in building new airports elsewhere in Nicaragua, or overhauling existing airport/airfield infrastructure in other locations as well.
About 360 individuals are employed at the airport. Facilities within the airport include a tourist information desk, restaurants, post office, souvenir shops, duty-free shops and more. To make use of the VIP lounge there are five rate options: Normal, Affiliated Credit Cards and Infants; the types of services in the VIP lounge include checking baggage and documents with customs and immigration plus the airline. Augusto C. Sandino International Airport is Nicaragua's main international gateway. Domestic flights fly between Bluefields and the Corn Islands airports while serving a number of airstrips to the country's east; the airport is accessed by the Panamerican Highway, known as the Carretera Norte. The airport serves as the hub for Avianca Nicaragua. Nicaragua portal Aviation portal List of airports in Nicaragua Transport in Nicaragua
Matagalpa is a city in Nicaragua, the capital of the department of Matagalpa. The city has a population of 200,000, according to the 2012 census, while the population of the department is more than 604,900. Matagalpa is Nicaragua's fourth largest city, the largest in the country's interior, one of the most commercially active outside of Managua. Matagalpa is the 4th most important city in Nicaragua and is known as the "Pearl of the North" and "Land of Eternal Spring." According to Jeronimo Perez, a historian who visited this area in 1855–1856 the name Matagalpa means Cabeza Principal or Pueblo Grande from the Matagalpa indigenous language words: Maika=Head, Calpul* Town- But according to the Matagalpan linguist father Guillermo Kiene, a Catholic priest and missionary who lived from 1898 to 1959, the word Matagalpa comes from the Sumo language, means "let's go where the rocks are." There have been other descriptions of the word Matagalpa: -Here next to the water, -Among Mountains. These descriptions are believed to be related to the geographic location of the city, next to the Grand River of Matagalpa, beautifully surrounded by mountains.
Matagalpa was an indigenous village. The Cacaopera people, or Matagalpa, had their own language, extinct since 1875. A document from the year 1855 with 97 words and phrases from the Matagalpa language can be found in the Daniel G. Brinton section of the American Philosophical Library in Philadelphia; the Matagalpa made ceramics of a style known as "Ceramica Negra" and "Naranja Segovia", they built stone statues representing their chieftain and warriors. They were feared by the Spanish because they were brave and effective with their bows and other arms, it took 300 years for the Spanish to submit them at the time of Nicaragua Independence in 1821 there were many Cacaopera free in the central mountains of Nicaragua. In 1856 they were decisive to defeat William Walker's filibusteers in the Battle of San Jacinto on 14 September 1856, where a column of 60 Cacaopera people with bow and arrows fought at the side of Nicaraguan Patriots winning that battle, which marked the end of Walker adventure in Nicaragua.
That quest has been recognized by historians and archaeologists, there is a popular movement to declare the Cacaopera as National Heroes by the Congress of the Republic next month of September 2011. Matagalpa was an existing indigenous town when the first Spaniards came to this region by 1528 during an attempt to find a water passage to the "Northern Sea", the Caribbean. (Nicaragua's Spanish colonization originated from the direction of the Pacific Ocean, called the Southern Sea by the Spaniards. Matagalpa is located in the continental divide between the Caribbean Sea. Many stories are preserved from colonial times about the British-controlled Mosquito Coast, the Spanish-colonized Pacific area. Gold was discovered around Matagalpa by 1840. Along with many Spaniards and Mestizos, it attracted German and British immigrants. Two of the better known immigrants of this period were Ludwig Elster and his wife Katharina Braun who planted the first coffee trees in the area, the beans from which went to market in Germany.
Coffee agriculture attracted more than 120 European immigrants, many of whom married Matagalpan women, many of their descendants still live in the area. In 1923 some Danish immigrants came to Matagalpa, settled in the highlands as well. Most of the Danish families went back to Denmark. Three families stayed: the Gröns, the Möllers, the Petersens. Matagalpa was the city of refuge for many Nicaraguans escaping the invasion of Tennessean filibuster William Walker who took over much of the country and government in 1856. In Matagalpa the patriots organized the Ejército del Septentrión, which fought in and won the Battle of San Jacinto, assisted by 60 Matagalpa, on 14 September 1856, helping to end Walker's rule. Matagalpa was the birthplace of Nazario Vega and builder of the Cathedral; the department of Matagalpa is the second most populous in Nicaragua after the national capital, the most diversified in production. Over the past few years Matagalpa has experienced a large influx of migrants from other departments, causing stress on infrastructure and the environment.
Matagalpa has a beautiful panoramic highway that starts in the city of Matagalpa and extends 30 kilometres to the city of Jinotega. Scenic views extend up to 140 kilometres away, to the volcanic range near the Pacific coast. Many historians, archeologists and ethnologists have arrived in recent years to do research in this region. American and European descendants of the first settlers are returning to visit the historical homes of their ancestors. Matagalpa is a well diversified province, it produces and exports beef, coffee, onions and mixed fruits and vegetables. For local consumption it produces flowers, corn, beans and many kinds of vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower. Matagalpa is known for its good coffee, its cattle, milk products, vegetables and mountains popular with ecotourists, it is the location of such storied mountain tourist resorts as Aranjuez, Santa Maria de Ostuma, Selva Negra Mountain Resort. A large part of the economy in Matagalpa depends on eco-tourism. Nature hikes and excursions are common thro