Ohrid is a city in North Macedonia, the seat of Ohrid Municipality. It is the largest city on Lake Ohrid and the eighth-largest city in the country, with over 42,000 inhabitants as of 2002. Ohrid once had 365 churches, one for each day of the year, has been referred to as a "Jerusalem"; the city is rich in picturesque houses and monuments, tourism is predominant. It is located southwest of west of Resen and Bitola. In 1979 and in 1980 Ohrid and Lake Ohrid were accepted as Cultural and Natural World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. Ohrid is one of only 28 sites that are part of UNESCO's World Heritage that are Cultural as well as Natural sites. In antiquity the city was known under the ancient Greek name of Λυχνίς and Λυχνιδός and the Latin Lychnidus meaning "city of light" "a precious stone that emits light", from λύχνος, "lamp, portable light". Polybius, writing in the second century BC, refers to the town as Λυχνίδιον - Lichnidion, it became capital of the First Bulgarian Empire in the early medieval period, was referred to by Byzantine writers as Achrida.
By 879 AD, the town was referred to as Ohrid. In Macedonian language and the other South Slavic languages, the name of the city is Ohrid. In Albanian, the city is known in modern Greek Ochrida and Achrida; the earliest inhabitants of the widest Lake Ohrid region were the Enchele, an Illyrian tribe and the Dassaretae, an ancient Greek tribe based further East in the region of Lynkestis. According to recent excavations this was a town as early as of king Phillip II of Macedon, they conclude that Samuil's Fortress was built on the place of an earlier fortification, dated to 4th century BC. During the Roman conquests, towards the end of 3rd and the beginning of 2nd century BC, the Dassaretae and the region Dassaretia were mentioned, as well as the ancient Greek city of Lychnidos; the existence of the ancient Greek city of Lychnidos is linked to the Greek myth of the Phoenician prince Cadmus who, banished from Thebes, in Boeotia, fled to the Enchele and founded the town of Lychnidos on the shores of the modern Lake Ohrid.
The Lake of Ohrid, the ancient Greek Lacus Lychnitis, whose blue and exceedingly transparent waters in antiquity gave to the lake its Greek name. It was located along the Via Egnatia. Archaeological excavations prove early adoption of Christianity in the area. Bishops from Lychnidos participated in multiple ecumenical councils; the South Slavs began to arrive in the area during the 6th century AD. By the early 7th century it was colonized by a Slavic tribe known as the Berziti. Bulgaria conquered the city around 840; the name Ohrid first appeared in 879. The Ohrid Literary School established in 886 by Clement of Ohrid became one of the two major cultural centres of the First Bulgarian Empire. Between 990 and 1015, Ohrid was the stronghold of the Bulgarian Empire. From 990 to 1018 Ohrid was the seat of the Bulgarian Patriarchate. After the Byzantine reconquest of the city in 1018 by Basil II, the Bulgarian Patriarchate was downgraded to an Archbishopric of Ohrid, placed under the authority of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.
The higher clergy after 1018 was invariably Greek, including during the period of Ottoman domination, until the abolition of the archbishopric in 1767. At the beginning of the 16th century the archbishopric reached its peak subordinating the Sofia, Vidin and Moldavian eparchies, part of the former medieval Serbian Patriarchate of Peć, the Orthodox districts of Italy and Dalmatia; as an episcopal city, Ohrid was a cultural center of great importance for the Balkans. All surviving churches were built by the Byzantines and by the Bulgarians, the rest of them date back to the short time of Serbian rule during the late Middle Ages. Bohemond, leading a Norman army from southern Italy, took the city in 1083. Byzantines regained it in 1085. In the 13th and 14th century the city changed hands between the Despotate of Epirus, the Bulgarian, the Byzantine and the Serbian Empires, as well as local Albanian rulers. In the mid-13th century Ohrid was one of the cities ruled by Pal Gropa, a member of the Albanian noble Gropa family.
In 1334 the city was incorporated in the Serbian Empire. After Dusan's death the city came under the control of Andrea Gropa, while after his death Prince Marko incorporated it in the Kingdom of Prilep. In the early 1370s Marko lost Ohrid to Pal II Gropa, another member of the Gropa family and unsuccessfully tried to recapture it in 1375 with Ottoman assistance. In 1395 the Ottomans under Bayezid I captured the city which became the seat of the newly established Sanjak of Ohrid. In September 14–15, 1464 12,000 troops of the League of Lezhë and 1,000 of the Republic of Venice defeated a 14,000-man Ottoman force near the city; when Mehmed II returned from Albania after his actions against Skanderbeg in 1466 he dethroned Dorotheos, the Archbishop of Ohrid, expatriated him together with his clerks and boyars and considerable number of citizens of Ohrid to Istanbul because of their anti-Ottoman activities during Skanderbeg's rebellion when many citizens of Ohrid, including Dorotheos and his clergy, supported Skanderbeg and his fight.
The Christian population declined during the first centuries of Ottoman rule. In 1664 there w
Radoviš is a city in the southeastern part of North Macedonia. It is the second largest city in the southeastern region; the city is the seat of Radoviš Municipality, spread on the bottom of Plačkovica Mountain and the northern part of the Radoviš-Strumica valley. The main road M6 Štip–Radoviš-Strumica is tangentially placed on the township of Radoviš; this road is a main communication route with other parts of the country. The town of Radoviš was mentioned for the first time in 1019 during the reign of the Byzantine King Basil II (which was the name of the town during the Middle Ages. At this time in history, Radoviš is an important center for regional trade and mining. At that time, the town was located in the North-West of the town's present location, on the banks of the Old river, where we can find traces of several churches, for example St. Archangel church. In the 14th century, after the withdrawal of the Byzantine Empire, Radoviš found itself in the Serb medieval state. In 1361, the tsar Uroš sojourned in Radoviš.
During the Ottoman Empire, in the 17th Century under the Kyustendil sanjak, it belonged to the diocese of the Kustendil metropolitan. At that time, the town had 3,000–4,000 inhabitants; the Medieval period of Radoviš is characterized by the expansion and development of Radoviš and its surroundings. The economical and educational histories of the region can attest to this. In the territory of the Municipality of Radoviš are located both explored and unexplored archeological sites and churches all of which are a part of a rich heritage of culture monuments. In addition, this territory dates back to prehistoric times and contain artifacts from the Neolithic, Eneolithic and the Bronze Ages. In the time of Philip the Second and Alexander the Great, poems about the territory of the Municipality of Radoviš were written. Numerous remains date back to Roman times and earlier. Additional findings include ancient settlements and aqueducts. During the 19th and 20th centuries Radoviš and surrounding regions, were influenced by the historical events related to the Razlovo and Ilinden Uprisings along with the events related to the Balkans and Second World War influenced the entire micro region.
During Turkish hegemony in Macedonia in the 16th century, the micro region was populated by a nomadic Turkish population called the Juruci, an ethnic group that still exists to this day in this part of the world. The documents Kustendilski metropolitan from the 17th century are called "Radoviš documents". By the end of the 18th century Radoviš was a town surrounded by the old fortress, the remains of which exist today; the former main road to Strumica from Pomoravje through Kumanovo, Ovce Pole and Radoviško Pole led to Thessaloniki and the Orphan Bay Almost one millennium ago, Radoviš' queen Rada, was looking from the wall of the fortress when she became upset by her fiancee's exclamation "Rado Vish". This exclamation, supposed to warn her of the enemy attack, became according to the legend the name of the city, a synonym of its endurance over the centuries to come. Another opinion is that the name of the town is from Radu. Several Slavic names were formed using this name: Radovan, Rađenović, Radulović, etc..
The Turkish name for the town is relevant during Ottoman rule. The Serbo-Croat name is Radovište; the area of the municipality is 608 km². Radoviš municipality has 28,244 inhabitants, according to the last census. Population density is 56/km², it is populated with Macedonians and with Turkish minority. In the Municipality of Radoviš ethnic conflicts and intolerance are unknown. 36 villages are part of the municipality of Radoviš. The mayor of Radoviš is elected directly through a local election; the current mayor is Gerasim Konzulov from SDSM. He won the local election in October 2017; the party that won the previous local elections in 2013 was VMRO-DPMNE. The climate of Radoviš is moderate Mediterranean-Continental. With hot and dry summers. Winters are characteristic for their coldness and the snow falls often. Average annual temperatures range from 12.5 to 13.0 °C in the valley and at the highest parts of the mountain ranges up to 7.5 °C. The warmest months are July and August, when the temperatures are above 31 °C, reach 40 °C, the average is 23 °C.
The coldest month is January with an average temperature of 1.2 °C. The average annual precipitation is 563 mm, with large fluctuations from year to year, but there is a difference between the mountain and the valley; as to the annual sum of sunshine hours, the region has 2326 sunshine hours per year, 6.4 hours per day, 112 sunny days a year. According to the census performed in 2002, the population of the city of Radoviš is 16,233 inhabitants, while in the municipality including the villages 28,244 inhabitants; the ethnic structure of the population living in the city is: Macedonians: 13,991 Turks: 1,927 Romani: 181 Serbs: 60 Vlachs: 20 Albanians: 1 Others: 42 Radoviš is a Macedonian Christian city, with minorities of Protestants and Catholics. There are three Macedonian Christian churches, the new one Holy Trinity, the old one St. Ilija, St. King Constantine and Queen Elena from the 18th century. There are Macedonian Christian monasteries such as those of St. Archangel Michael, St. Pantaleon and St. George.
There are various Protestant churches, such as two Methodist churches, a Baptist church and a Jehovah's Witnesses Kingdom Hall. Radoviš is linked with the neighbour cities Štip and Strumica by road. R
Transport in Greece
Transport in Greece have undergone significant changes in the past two decades, vastly modernizing the country's infrastructure and transportation. Although ferry transport between islands remains the prominent method of transport between the nation's islands, improvements to the road infrastructure, urban transport, airports have all led to a vast improvement in transportation; these upgrades have played a key role in supporting Greece's eonomy, which in the past decade has come to rely on the construction industry. Total: 2,571 km, standard gauge: 1,565 km 1,435 mm gauge narrow gauge: 961 km 1,000 mm gauge. Cities with a rapid transit railway network: Athens - Athens Metro Thessaloniki - Thessaloniki Metro Cities with a commuter rail network: Athens Thessaloniki Patras Athens Tram List of town tramway systems in Greece As of 2017, Greece has 2500 km of motorways. Roads: total: 117,000 km paved: 107,406 km unpaved: 9,594 km over 2500 underground tunnels OSY subsidiary of OASA organizes mass bus transit in Athens OASTH organizes mass bus transit in Thessaloniki.
Companies named. KTEL is the common name for every company, responsible for intercity and regional bus transit. Most of the regional units, have their own regional network of buses, have their regional unit names labeled on KTEL vehicles that operate there.. The 80 km system consists of three coastal canals including the Corinth Canal and three unconnected rivers; the Corinth Canal crosses the Isthmus of Corinth, connecting the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf. Alexandroupoli Argostoli Elefsina Ermoupolis Heraklion, Crete Kalamata Kavala Kerkyra Kos Chalkis Igoumenitsa Lavrio Patras Piraeus Port of Thessaloniki Volos Katakolo Mykonos Mytilene Rhodes Souda Syros total: 3,338 ships totaling 109,377,819 GT/182,540,868 tonnes deadweight ships by type bulk carrier: 273 cargo ship: 60 chemical tanker: 22 combination bulk: 5 combination ore/oil: 8 container ship: 43 Liquified Gas Carrier: 5 multi-functional large load carrier: 1 passenger ship: 12 passenger/cargo: 2 petroleum tanker: 245 refrigerated cargo: 3 roll-on/roll-off ship: 19 short-sea passenger: 75 specialized tanker: 4 vehicle carrier: 2 total: 82 With paved runways: 67over 3,047 m: 5 2,438 to 3,047 m: 16 1,524 to 2,437 m: 19 914 to 1,523 m: 17under 914 m: 10 With unpaved runways: 15914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 12 heliports: 8 crude oil: 26 km petroleum products: 547 km Egnatia Odos 670 km Motorway 25 Motorway 29 77 km Ionia Odos "196 km" Motorway 1 550 km Attiki Odos 69.7 km Moreas Motorway 205 km Olympia Odos 210 km Rio–Antirrio bridge 2,880 metre long (2nd longest cable bridge in Europe Piraeus–Platy railway Athens Airport–Kiato railway Thessaloniki–Alexandroupoli railway Athens MetroLine 1 Line 2 Line 3 Athens Tram Athens International Airport Central Greece Motorway North Road Axis of Crete Branches of Egnatia OdosMotorway 21 Motorway 27 Motorway 71 electrification and building double track on sections of Piraeus–Platy railway Line 3 extension to Piraeus Line 4 Thessaloniki Metro Athens Tram extension to Piraeus Larisa-Kozane Motorway Kiato-Patras standard gauge railway Line 4 Igoumenitsa-Ioannina-Kalampaka Railway line Kalampaka-Kastoria Railway line Florina-Pogradec Railway line Kalampaka-Kozani-Thessaloniki-Kavala-Toxotes Railway line Ioannina-Rio Railway line Thessaloniki-Chalkidiki Railway line Thessaloniki-Giannitsa-Skydra Railway line Chania-Rethymnon-Herakleion Railway line Thessaloniki Tram Heraklion Tram Patras Tram Larisa Tram Ioannina Tram Volos Tram New Heraklion Airport in Kasteli Rapid transit in Greece Greek shipping This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.
Www. Greek-Motorway. Net The Hellenic Merchant Maritime Sector: A Historical and Business Overview
Demir Kapija is a town in North Macedonia, located near the ominous limestone gates of the same name. It has 3,725 inhabitants; the town is the seat of Demir Kapija Municipality. The name of the town comes from Turkish Demir Kapı when the settlement was part of the Ottoman Empire, is still called Demir Kapı in Turkish; the town of Demir Kapija has 3,275 residents. The Vardar river makes a gorge close to Demir Kapija; when passing "The Iron Gates", the road leads to the Gevgelija valley. It is the most varied region in Macedonia with its agricultural products; this valley is under the influence of the Aegean climate. Demir Kapija has recorded the highest temperature in whole Macedonia. 45,7 degrees Celsius was recorded here the 24 of July 2007. It is a national monument of nature and an ornithological reserve, home to many rare species of birds and endemic plants. Demir-Kapija is a place mentioned in Classical times under the name of Stenae. Earlier dates to the Paeonian era, a fortress for which remains on the mountain Ramniste on the foothills of the Demir Kapija settlement.
The ruins are one of only 3 known Paeonian structures in Macedonia unearthed, dating some 3000 years. In the Middle Ages Demir Kapija was known as a Slav settlement, under the name of Prosek, while today's name originates from the Turkish reign, meaning "The Iron Gate"; the town of Prosek was used as a fortress due to its good strategic position. In the thirteenth century AD, Prosek had become the seat of Dobromir Hriz, Strez was its well-known commander; the former settlement was fortified by walls, it is considered that it was used to exist in the Neolithic Age. Demir Kapija is hiding numerous invincible remains; the research up to the present has proved that all the pass periods have left their traces: the Paeonian, Ancient Macedonian, Byzantine, the period of Samuil, the Turkish as well as the early Christian period. The former Yugoslav King Aleksandar Karadjordjevic had his summer winery built here; the winery is the oldest on the Balkans and still produces quality wines under the owned Agropin name.
Newer wineries, like Popova Kula, have opened up additionally and paves the way for exports and economic stimulus of the region. Demir Kapija is home to the flour mill Dekamel and has a modern farm for production of eggs known as Salmak. Demir Kapija is an outdoors haven for recreational activities. Mountaineers enjoy hiking the area for their favorite tea plants; the national and regional Kayak competitions were held here because of the natural rapids formed by the river into the canyon. Alpinists climb the rock towers to see the most impressive view of the canyon beyond. Trails are made to hike to these points, as well as to the remains of the aforementioned ruins of the fortress Prosek; the most popular hike, noted in The Bradt Guide to Macedonia, is the stopping point between the 2 tunnels on the highway. Demir Kapija is home to the largest mental institute in the state, The Specijalen Zavod; the Special Olympics team from this institute is well noted in track and field events. The continued support of foreign aid such as UNICEF and the British Embassy continues to educate families and the community in general to the contribution and awareness of special needs.
Http://www.campingmacedonia.com http://www.rocklandcamp.com http://www.popovakula.com.mk https://web.archive.org/web/20060329040938/http://www.cybermacedonia.com/demirkap.html https://web.archive.org/web/20060518074401/http://www.gomacedonia.com/demir_kapija.shtml http://www.roads.org.mk/cor-n-s.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20070627072711/http://www.bhdani.com/arhiva/103/citanka03.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20060512220734/http://www.srichinmoyraces.org/climbing/recent/dkapija/document_view http://www.mhg.ru/english/4DCA3E1 http://www.usaid.gov/locations/europe_eurasia/press/cshi_water_reconstruction.html http://www.maplandia.com/macedonia/negotino/#link http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/mk-demk.html https://web.archive.org/web/20051214050715/http://www.moe.gov.mk/prirodnonasledstvo/Klisura%20DA.htm http://www.dosnica.com.mk/ https://web.archive.org/web/20060219155351/http://www.speczavoddk.com.mk/
Kosovo the Republic of Kosovo, is a recognized state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe. Defined in an area of 10,908 square kilometres, Kosovo is landlocked in the center of the Balkans and bordered by the uncontested territory of Serbia to the north and east, North Macedonia to the southeast, Albania to the southwest and Montenegro to the west. Geographically, Kosovo possesses varied and opposing landscapes for its size determined by the ideal climate along with the geology and hydrology. Most of central Kosovo is dominated by the vast fields of Dukagjin and Kosovo; the Albanian Alps and Šar Mountains rise in the southwest and southeast respectively. The earliest known human settlements in what is now Kosovo were the Paleolithic Vinča and Starčevo cultures. During the Classical period, it was inhabited by the Celtic people. In 168 BC, the area was annexed by the Romans. In the Middle Ages, it was conquered by the Byzantine and Serbian Empires; the Battle of Kosovo of 1389 is considered to be one of the defining moments in Serbian medieval history.
The region was the core of the Serbian medieval state, the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church from the 14th century, when its status was upgraded to a patriarchate. Kosovo was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 15th to the early 20th century. In the late 19th century, it became the centre of the Albanian National Awakening. Following their defeat in the Balkan Wars, the Ottomans ceded Kosovo to Montenegro. Both countries joined Yugoslavia after World War I, following a period of Yugoslav unitarianism in the Kingdom, the post-World War II Yugoslav constitution established the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija within the Yugoslav constituent republic of Serbia. Tensions between Kosovo's Albanian and Serb communities simmered through the 20th century and erupted into major violence, culminating in the Kosovo War of 1998 and 1999, which resulted in the withdrawal of the Yugoslav army and the establishment of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. On 17 February 2008, Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia.
It has since gained diplomatic recognition as a sovereign state by 113 UN member states. Serbia does not recognize Kosovo as a sovereign state, although with the Brussels Agreement of 2013, it has accepted its institutions. While Serbia recognizes administration of the territory by Kosovo's elected government, it continues to claim it as the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. Kosovo has a lower-middle-income economy and has experienced solid economic growth over the last decade by international financial institutions, has experienced growth every year since the onset of the 2008 global financial crisis. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, Regional Cooperation Council, has applied for membership of Interpol and for observer status in the Organization of the Islamic Cooperation; the entire region that today corresponds to the territory is referred to in English as Kosovo and in Albanian as Kosova or Kosovë or Kosovë. In Serbia, a formal distinction is made between the western areas.
According to one theory, Kosovo is the Serbian neuter possessive adjective of kos "blackbird", an ellipsis for Kosovo Polje,'blackbird field', the name of a plain situated in the eastern half of today's Kosovo and the site of the 1389 Battle of Kosovo Field. The name of the plain was applied to the Kosovo Province created in 1864. Albanians refer to Kosovo as Dardania, the name of a Roman province formed in 165 BC, which covered the territory of modern Kosovo; the name is derived from ancient tribe of Dardani from proto-Albanian word dardha/dardā which means "pear". The former Kosovo President Ibrahim Rugova had been an enthusiastic backer of a "Dardanian" identity and the Kosovan flag and presidential seal refer to this national identity. However, the name "Kosova" remains more used among the Albanian population; the current borders of Kosovo were drawn while part of SFR Yugoslavia in 1945, when the Autonomous Region of Kosovo and Metohija was created as an administrative division of the new People's Republic of Serbia.
In 1963, it was raised from the level of an autonomous region to the level of an autonomous province as the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija. In 1968, the dual name "Kosovo and Metohija" was reduced to a simple "Kosovo" in the name of the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo. In 1990, the province was renamed the Autonomous Province of Metohija; the official conventional long name of the state is Republic of Kosovo, as defined by the Constitution of Kosovo, is used to represent Kosovo internationally. Additionally, as a result of an arrangement agreed between Pristina and Belgrade in talks mediated by the European Union, Kosovo has participated in some international forums and organisations under the title "Kosovo*" with a footnote stating "This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, is in line with UNSC 1244 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence"; this arrangement, dubbed the "asterisk agreement", was agreed
Štip is the largest urban agglomeration in the eastern part of North Macedonia, serving as the economic, industrial and educational focal point for the surrounding municipalities. As of the 2002 census, the Štip municipality alone had a population of about 47,796. Štip is the largest textile production center in the country. The city of Štip is the seat of Štip Municipality; the city is located at the intersection of the Lakavica, Ovče Pole, Kočani valleys. Two rivers pass through Štip, the Bregalnica, the second largest in North Macedonia, the Otinja which divides the city center; the hill Isar, with its early medieval fortress on top, dominates the city and provides for the common reference as The city under the Isar. The area surrounding the city is suffering from deforestation, contributing to the temperature extremes, summers being hot and dry with mean temperatures around 32 °C and days above 40 °C being common. Winters are short and mild with normals around −2 °C, but with occasional drops down to −10 °C.
Spring comes in February, when most of the foliage is regenerating, although freak snow storms could appear as late as May. The soil is sandy, has large patches of red soil which indicates large percentage of Iron in the soil; the geographical area of the city of Štip is bordered by the mountain Plačkovica east, by the Krivolak valley south-east, the estuary of the river Bregalnica in the south-west, by its alluvial plain in the north. It is probable; the Paeonians were situated in the region west of the fertile river Axius basin, around the 5th and 4th centuries BC. The two tribes that lived along the river Astibo, an estuary to the Axius, were the Derrones, named after their god of healing and the Laeaeans, who minted their own heavy coins as a sign of their sovereignty following the example of the Greek city-states on Chalkidiki. Although these tribes were weakened by the Persian invasion of 480 BC, led by King Xerxes I, they remained a formidable power and a well-organized people, renowned for the production of their exceptionally heavy coins with emblems including domesticated specimens of the wild aurochs for which Paeonia was famous.
They were absorbed into the Macedonian empire by Alexander I before 360 BC. The area itself is first mentioned in the writings of the historian Polien from the 3rd century BC, who talks of a river named "Astibo", presumed to be the river Bregalnica today. Polien states that the Paeonian emperors were crowned in Astibo; the first mention of a settlement dates to the reign of Roman emperor Tiberius, when Estipeon is mentioned as an important settlement in the Roman province of Paeonia and the second stop on the Roman road from Stobi to Pautalia. In the 6th century, the Slavs raided the Balkans and destroyed the Byzantine settlement, the Slavic tribe of Sagudats permanently settled the area. In the 9th century and Methodius crossed this region and Christianized it, on their way to Great Moravia. Many rulers controlled the area of Štip during the early Middle Ages. Štip was part of the Bulgarian Empire but after the Byzantine victory in the Battle of Kleidion in 1014 it fell again under Byzantine rule until the reestablishment of the Bulgarian Empire in 1185.
From the mid-13th century the town changed hands several times. By 1284, Serbian King Stefan Milutin conquered the region. In 1334, the Church of the Holy Archangel in Štip, built by protosebastos Hrelja who held the region under the Serbian crown, was according to his wish granted to Hilandar, in a charter of King Stefan Dušan; the region was annexed by the Ottoman Empire after a raid in 1385. It was made seat of a sanjak. There is little information about the development of Štip during Ottoman rule which would continue for the next five centuries, interrupted only during 1689–1690 when the city was invaded by the Austrians for two years. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Štip was part of the Kosovo Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. In 1912, at the start of the Balkan Wars, Štip and the surrounding area was occupied by Bulgaria, but Bulgaria's defeat by its former allies Serbia and Greece, in 1913, resulted in annexation to the Kingdom of Serbia. Stip was re-taken by Bulgaria from 1915-18.
Events concerning the Kingdom of Serbia meant that Štip became a part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes together with the rest of Vardar Macedonia. From 1929 to 1941, Štip was part of the Vardar Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. On 6 April 1941, when Yugoslavia was attacked by Nazi Germany, the city was bombed by German planes which took off from Bulgaria. During the Second World War the Axis-allied Bulgarian forces occupied the city until early September, 1944, after which it was taken by German troops. Štip was retaken by the Macedonian National Liberation Army and the newly allied Bulgarian Army, now part of the anti-Axis coalition on 8 November 1944. Thus 8 November is celebrated as'Liberation Day' in the city and municipality of Štip, is a non-working holiday. According to the National Census of 2002 the populations of Štip Municipality breaks down as follows: Today, Štip is the center of the country’s textile and fashion industry; the home of such industrial giants in Former Yugoslavia like the Cotton Industry "Makedonka" - Štip, with
Serbia the Republic of Serbia, is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. The sovereign state borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, Montenegro to the southwest; the country claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia's population is about seven million, its capital, ranks among the oldest and largest citiеs in southeastern Europe. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the territory of modern-day Serbia faced Slavic migrations to the Balkans in the 6th century, establishing several sovereign states in the early Middle Ages at times recognized as tributaries to the Byzantine and Hungarian kingdoms; the Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by the Vatican and Constantinople in 1217, reaching its territorial apex in 1346 as the short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entirety of modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans, their rule was at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which started expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th century while maintaining a foothold in the north of the country.
In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. Following disastrous casualties in World War I, the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, peacefully dissolved in 2006. In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community. Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, CERN, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA, is acceding to the WTO. Since 2014 the country has been negotiating its EU accession with perspective of joining the European Union by 2025. Serbia dropped in ranking from Free to Partly Free in the 2019 Freedom House report. Since 2007, Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality.
An upper-middle income economy with a dominant service sector followed by the industrial sector and agriculture, the country ranks high on the Human Development Index, Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index. The origin of the name, "Serbia" is unclear. Various authors mentioned names of Serbs and Sorbs in different variants: Surbii, Serbloi, Sorabi, Sarbi, Serboi, Surbi, etc; these authors used these names to refer to Serbs and Sorbs in areas where their historical presence was/is not disputed, but there are sources that mention same or similar names in other parts of the World. Theoretically, the root *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb, Ukrainian pryserbytysia, Old Indic sarbh-, Latin sero, Greek siro. However, Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond derived the denomination of Srb from srbati. Sorbian scholar H. Schuster-Šewc suggested a connection with the Proto-Slavic verb for "to slurp" *sьrb-, with cognates such as сёрбать, сьорбати, сёрбаць, srbati, сърбам and серебати.
From 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, which became the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country is the "Republic of Serbia". However, between the period from 1992 to 2006, the official names of the country were the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Archeological evidence of Paleolithic settlements on the territory of present-day Serbia are scarce. A fragment of a human jaw was believed to be up to 525,000 -- 397,000 years old. Around 6,500 years BC, during the Neolithic, the Starčevo and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated much of Southeastern Europe. Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube. During the Iron Age, Thracians and Illyrians were encountered by the Ancient Greeks during their expansion into the south of modern Serbia in the 4th century BC.
The Celtic tribe of Scordisci settled throughout the area in the 3rd century BC and formed a tribal state, building several fortifications, including their capital at Singidunum and Naissos. The Romans conquered much of the territory in the 2nd century BC. In 167 BC the Roman province of Illyricum was established; as a result of this, contemporary Serbia extends or over several former Roman provinces, including Moesia, Praevalitana, Dalmatia and Macedoni