Transport in Bhutan
Transport in Bhutan uses about 8,000 kilometres of roads and four airports, three of which are operational and interconnected. Paro Airport is the only airport; as part of Bhutan's infrastructure modernization programs, its road system has been under development since the 1960s. There are no railways and, since Bhutan is a landlocked country without major waterways, there are no ports. Bhutan had a total of 8,050 km of roads in 4,991 km of which were paved and 3,059 km unpaved; because of the lack of paved roads, travel in Bhutan was by foot or on mule- or horseback until 1961. Road construction began in earnest during the First Development Plan; the first 175-kilometre-long paved road was completed in 1962. A branch road linked Paro with the Phuntsholing–Thimphu road, a jeep track linked Thimphu and Phuntsholing with Jaigaon, West Bengal. Travel time by motor vehicle from the border to Thimphu shrank to six hours. About 30,000 Indian and Nepalese labourers were imported to build the road with Indian aid when India was bolstering its defence against a potential Chinese invasion.
Bhutan provided labour for the construction work. Another road was built to connect Tashigang with Arunachal Pradesh. About 1,500 kilometres of roads were built by the mid-1970s with manual labour. There was a 2,280-kilometre road network in 1989. Despite the construction of paved roads linking the principal towns in the south, mountainous terrain elsewhere makes travel difficult from one valley to the next. Most roads run in river valleys; as part of the Sixth Development Plan, the Department of Public Works made plans to construct and upgrade 1,000 kilometres of roads and to extend the road network through Bhutan's five major river valleys by 1992. Driveable roads were not the only important development; the country's primary road is the East-West Highway, which began construction in 1962. The road begins in Phuentsholing on the southwestern Indian border and ends in Trashigang in the far east, with spurs to other major centres such as Paro and Punakha; the 2.5-metre-wide Lateral Road must support traffic in both directions, since the cost of cutting a wider road through the Middle Himalayas would be prohibitive.
Safety barriers, road markings, signage are sparse. Traffic is slow about 15 km/h, to minimise head-on collisions. Road accidents are still frequent and, because of the steep topography horrific. Most of the route between Paro Airport and Thimphu has been improved as a two-lane road; the Lateral Road traverses a number including Tremo La and Do Chu La.. The highest pass on the road is at Chapcha. Main roads in western and eastern Bhutan are maintained by Dantak, a task force of India's Border Roads Organisation. Roads in the rest of the country are maintained by the Bhutanese government's Department of Roads. Much of the country's geology is unstable and there are frequent slips and landslides, aggravated by the summer monsoon and winter snowstorms and frost heaving. Teams of Indian labourers are housed at work camps in the mountain. Conditions in the camps are poor, with workers breaking rocks into gravel on a piece-rate basis when not clearing the roads. An international aid project is underway to stabilise the worst sections of the road.
A major Japanese aid project aims to replace most of the narrow, single-track bridges with two-way girder spans capable of carrying heavier traffic. Most freight is moved on eight-ton 300 hp Tata trucks, which are overloaded. There is a network of passenger buses, the most common vehicle in government and private use is the four-wheel-drive pickup truck. A national driver-licensing system includes a. Government drivers are trained at the Samthang Vocational Training Institute's driving school; the roads have traffic lights. Bhutan has no railways, but on 25 January 2005 the king of Bhutan and the prime minister of India agreed to conduct a feasibility study for rail links. Possible routes were Hasimara–Phuentsholing, with a branch to Pasaka. In December 2009 the king of Bhutan approved the final plan to build an 11-mile-long, 1,676 mm Indian broad gauge rail link between Hashimara in West Bengal and Toribari in Bhutan; the railway, via Satali, Bharna Bari and Dalsingpara, will be owned by Indian Railways.
Bhutan has four airports. Paro, the country's only international airport, is in a steep-sided valley with its approaches restricted to visual flight rules. During the monsoon season, flights are delayed by cloud cover. Drukair is the national carrier; the airport is one of the highest and most-challenging airports
Transport in the United Arab Emirates
This article covers the various forms of transport in the United Arab Emirates, by road, air, etc. The United Arab Emirates have an extensive and well-developed road network, principally in the northern coastal area where the main population centres are located. Many of these roads have been improved to become multi-lane dual-carriageway motorways, coping with the high demand for road transportation. Speed limits are 120 km/h on freeways, 100 km/h on rural roads, 60 or 80 km/h on urban dual-carriageways. Heavy trucks and buses are installed with speed limiters to prevent overspeeding. E10 Abu Dhabi – Al Shahama. Length: 44 km. E11 Al Silaa – Al Qir. Length: 583 km; this is the most important motorway of the country, stretching from Saudi Arabia to Oman, connecting Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Umm al-Quwain, Ras al-Khaimah, other important centres. E12 Abu Dhabi – Al Falah. Length: 34 km. E15 Ruways – Wasit Oasis. Length: 145 km. E16 Al Rahba – Al Saad. Length: 100 km. E18 Ras Al Khaimah – Al Manama. Length: 61 km.
E20 Abu Dhabi – Al Hayer. Length: 144 km. E22 Abu Dhabi – Al Ain. Length: 157 km. E44 Dubai–Hatta. Length: 129 km. E45 Tarif–Liwa. Length: 109 km. E55 Umm al-Quwain – Al Shuwaib. Length: 131 km. E66 Dubai – Al Ain. Length: 130 km. E84 Al Malaiha – Fujairah. Length: 43 km. E88 Sharjah – Masafi. Length: 77 km. E89 Diba al Fujairah – Fujairah. Length: 66 km. E99 Diba al Fujairah – Kalba. Length: 82 km. E102 Sharjah – Kalba. Length: 119 km. E311 Dubai – Ras al Khaimah. Length: 139 km. E611 Dubai – Umm al-Quwain. Known as Emirates Road Dubai Bypass Road. Length: 110 km. Private vehicles are used in the country. Driving licenses are above. An extensive and modern road network connects the main coastal cities. Six people were killed, at least 40 were injured and dozens of vehicles burned March 11, 2008 when hundreds of cars collided on a fog-shrouded Abu Dhabi–Dubai highway. Taxis services are operated by both government agencies as well as private agencies. Bus services were introduced in Abu Dhabi by the Emirate in 2008 with four routes which were zero fare in their pilot year.
At the end of 2011, bus services in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi provided more than 95 service routes with 650 buses to transport 50 million passengers in the region. In the Bus Network Plan in 2013, 14 bus routes were operated in Abu Dhabi City. In Dubai, the Roads and Transport Authority operates bus services under the name DubaiBus. Buses in Sharjah are operated by Mowasalat, in Ajman by Ajman bus. There are buses operating between the different Emirates due to the lack of rail connectivity, although this is planned to be rectified in the near future. Fares on Abu Dhabi buses are paid by the Hafilat Card since 2015, a contactless smart card to be flashed when entering and exiting the bus at mini-terminals inside of the bus, it is only available for bus travellers but will be expanded into the water transport systems and the planned Abu Dhabi Metro, Etihad Rail and the Abu Dhabi Tram System. The Ojra card is used by frequent travellers; the Nol card is a contactless smart card used for Public Transport in Dubai.
It is used for payment on buses between Dubai and other cities. The only heavy rail transport operational in the UAE is the Dubai Metro since 2009, while the Abu Dhabi Metro is under construction and Sharjah Metro planning. Etihad Rail was set up in 2009 to manage a national-level freight and passenger rail network within the country, to other nations of the Gulf Cooperation Council as part of Gulf Railway; the first phase of the system is complete and freight service has begun. The second phase will connect the railway to Mussafah and Jebel Ali ports in Dubai, is planned to connect to the Saudi and Omani borders. In January 2016, construction of phase two was suspended for re-evaluation, while service on phase one continued. Costing US$10 billion, the three-stage rail system is planned to have 1,200 km of railway connecting cities in UAE and linking to other Gulf countries. Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, Sharjah, Ras Al Khaimah and Khor Fakkan will be linked by Etihad Rail when construction is completed.
In November 2014, Dubai launched the UAE's first tram network named Dubai Tram. Dubai Trolley runs as tourist attraction since 2015. Another tram system is being planned for Ajman; the General Civil Aviation Authority started applying an advanced program in 2010 that allows the assessment of aircraft registered in foreign countries in order to ensure their safety and airworthiness. In 2011, it banned all aircraft registered in Congo DR, Equatorial Guinea, Sierra Leone and São Tomé and Príncipe due to their poor safety standards. Dubai International Airport was the busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic in 2014. Abu Dhabi International Airport is the second-largest airport in the UAE. There are 42 airports in the UAE as of 2013. Heliports: Five are known as of 2013. Emirates is owned by Dubai. Etihad Airways is owned by Abu Dhabi. Other airlines are Air Arabia and Royal Jet. Crude oil, 830 kilometres Natural gas, including natural gas liquids, 870 kilometres The major ports are Khalifa Port, Zayed Port, Port of Jebel Ali, Port Rashid, Port Khalid, Port Saeed, Container Port Khor Fakkan.
Other ports include Ajman Port, Fujairah Port (a bunke
A transport corridor is a linear area, defined by one or more modes of transportation like highways, railroads or public transit which share a common course. Development occurs around transportation corridors because they carry so many people, creating linear agglomerations like the Las Vegas Strip or the linear form of many neighborhood retail areas. Transportation Corridor Agencies Pan-European corridors Western Railway Corridor Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor Northeast Corridor Panama Canal Ribbon development Linear settlement
Transport in Azerbaijan
The transport in Azerbaijan involves air traffic and railroads. All transportation services in Azerbaijan except for oil and gas pipelines are regulated by the Ministry of Transportation of Azerbaijan Republic. For Soviet transportation, see Transport in the Soviet Union. There are 2,932 km of rail tracks out of which only 2,117 km are in common carrier service and 810 km are industrial lines. Total: 2,932 km Country comparison to the world: 59 Broad gauge: 1,520 mm gauge Currently the only metro system in Azerbaijan is the Baku Metro, located in Baku, the country's capital. New plans to open metro systems in the most populated and developed cities of Azerbaijan were unveiled. Sumgayit and Ganja all plan to have subway systems in the future. There are about 25,000 kilometers of roads in Azerbaijan, serving domestic cargo traffic and giving access to international main highways. Highways are in fair condition and need an upgrade to international standards in a view to accommodate growing transit traffic.
Main and rural roads are in urgent need of rehabilitation and maintenance. The total vehicle fleet in Azerbaijan was about 517,000 in 2004, with about 49 private passenger cars per 1,000 inhabitants, quite low compared to European benchmarks but increasing due to the fast economic growth. Road transport accounted for 54% of all freight in 2003, up from about 48% in 1999. Main highways carrying international traffic are the Baku-Alat-Ganja-Qazakh-Georgian Border corridor with a length of 503 km and the so-called North-South Transport Corridor that stretches out from the Russian to the Iranian border along 521 km. Road connections are disrupted with Armenia because of the unresolved conflict regarding the possession of the Nagorno-Karabakh. Travel between mainland and the detached exclave of Nakhichevan is made by air or by road through Iran. Nakhichevan has a 9-kilometre strategic border with Turkey. Total: 59,142 km Country comparison to the world: 74 Paved: 29,210 km Unpaved: 29,931 km Baku is the centre of a major oil- and gas-producing region, major long-distance pipelines radiate from the region's oil fields to all neighboring areas.
Pipelines are high capacity lines and have diameters of either 1,020 or 1,220 millimeters. The main petroleum pipeline was completed in 2005 under American pressure to limit Russian and Iranian influence in the area, it runs from Baku via Tbilisi to Ceyhan in Turkey, therefore the acronym BTC pipeline. It made obsolete the old Soviet pipeline pumping crude oil from the onshore and offshore Caspian fields near Baku west across Azerbaijan and Georgia to the port of Batumi, where the oil is either exported in its crude form or processed at Batumi's refinery. Two natural gas lines parallel the old petroleum line as far as Tbilisi, where they turn north across the Caucasus Mountains to join the grid of natural gas pipelines that supply cities throughout Russia and Eastern Europe. Condensate 89 km. Azerbaijan has direct maritime connections only with other Caspian littoral states. However, the Volga-Don canal provides a maritime access to the high seas; the main activity is transport of cargo of oil and oil products.
Shipping regions are Caspian, Black and Marmara Seas. The main shipping company owes 72 ships. Baku International Marine Trade Port is the largest port on the Caspian Sea, its ferry terminal underwent a major reconstruction supported by a US$16.2 million loan from EBRD. It is now able to handle 30 million tons of freight a year; the Caspian Sea provides vital transport links with other countries and is being used to ship oil until various pipeline projects are completed. In 2014 Azberbaijan stated it would seek to ease transportation on the Caspian Sea due increased demand by its neighboring states. On June 4, 2004 the Ministry of Transportation of the Republic of Azerbaijan established the Maritime Administration; as the regulatory authority in maritime transport, its functions include participating in the formulation of state policy, regulating transport demand of goods and passengers and for other types of maritime transport services, as well as implementing state programs and projects for the development of maritime transport.
Ports and harbors: Baku, Dubandi Total: 90 ships Country comparison to the world: 53 Ships by type: cargo 37, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker 47, chemical tanker 1, roll on/roll off 3, specialized tanker 2 Registered in other countries: 2 There are regular flights between Azerbaijan and former Soviet countries, UK, France, Italy, Iran, Turkey, UAE, United States, China and has a cargo flights in UAE, Luxembourg, China, Kyrgyzstan and Iraq. The national airline is Azerbaijan Airlines. There are 5 international airports located in Baku, Nakhchivan, Zaqatala. Heydar Aliyev International Airport in Baku reopened in 1999 after a US$64 million upgrading and extension financed by Turkish company Enka; the airport can now handle 1,600 passengers an hour. The new runways are able to serve jumbojets; the complete overhaul of the international airport in Nakhchivan has been completed in May 2004. The US$32 million reconstruction project of Ganja Airport has been launched by the Government and was completed by mid-2006.
In 2008, two more airports were opened
Transport in China
Transport in China has experienced major growth and expansion in recent years. Although China's transport system comprises a vast network of transport nodes across its huge territory, the nodes tend to concentrate in the more economically developed coastal areas and inland cities along major rivers; the physical state and comprehensiveness of China's transport infrastructure tend to vary by geography. While remote, rural areas still depend on non-mechanized means of transport, a modern maglev system was built in China to connect the city center of Shanghai with Shanghai Pudong International Airport. Airports and railway construction will provide a massive employment boost in China over the next decade. Much of contemporary China's transport systems have been built since the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949; the railway, the primary mode of long distance transport, has seen rapid growth reaching 120,970 km of railway lines making it the second longest network in the world. Prior to 1950, there were only 21,800 km of railway lines.
The extensive rail network includes the longest and busiest HSR network in the world with 25,000 km of high-speed lines by year end 2017. While rail travel remained the most popular form of intercity transport, air travel has experienced significant growth since the late 1990s. Major airports such as Beijing Capital International and Shanghai Pudong International being among the busiest in the world. At the end of 2017, there are some 34 metro systems in operation across China, including some of the largest and busiest subway networks in the world. Of the 12 largest metro networks in the world by length, seven are now in China. Additionally, many bus rapid transit, light rail and rapid transit lines are under construction, or in the planning stages across the country; the highway and road system has gone through rapid expansion, resulting in a rapid increase of motor vehicle use throughout China. A government-led effort started in the 90s to connect the country by expressways via the "National Trunk Highway System" has expanded the network to about 97,000 km by the end of 2012 making China's the longest expressway network in the world.
China is in the midst of a massive upgrade of its transport infrastructure. Until China's economy was able to continue to grow despite deficiencies in infrastructure development; this is no longer the case, the Government realizes that to keep the economy moving forward, they need an efficient system in place to move goods and people across the country. According to World Bank statistics, goods lost due to poor or obsolete transport infrastructure amounted to one percent of China's GDP as as the most current survey. Logistic costs account for 20% of a product's price in China, compared to 10% in the United States, 5% in other developed countries. Ports are being improved for greater use of China's waterways, airports are being improved across the country. Related industries such as construction equipment, container security, electronics and safety devices have grown rapidly. Transport in Mainland China is regulated by a new agency formed from the Ministry of Communications, the Ministry of Railways, the Civil Aviation Administration of China.
The aforementioned transport authorities have no jurisdiction in Hong Macau. Hong Kong's transport is regulated by Transport Department of Hong Kong whereas Macau's transport is regulated by Land, Public works and Transport Bureau of Macau. Rail is the major mode of transport in China. In 2011 China's railways carried 2,947 billion tonne-kilometers of freight and 961.23 billion passenger-kilometers. The high volume of traffic that China's railway system carries makes it critical to China's economy. China's railway system carries 24% of the world's railway transport volume on only 6% of the world's railways. China has the world's second longest railway network. About 47% of the network is electrified in 2010. In 2011 China's railway inventory included 19,431 locomotives owned by the national railway system; the inventory in recent times included some 100 steam locomotives, but the last such locomotive, built in 1999, is now in service as a tourist attraction while the others have been retired from commercial service.
The remaining locomotives are either diesel- or electric-powered. Another 352 locomotives are owned by 604 operated by joint-venture railways. National railway freight cars numbered 622,284 and passenger coaches 52,130; because of its limited capital, overburdened infrastructure, need to continuously modernize, the national rail system, controlled by the Ministry of Railways through a network of regional divisions, operates on an austere budget. Foreign capital investment in the freight sector was allowed beginning in 2003, international public stock offerings opened in 2006. In another move to better capitalize and reform the rail system, the Ministry of Railways established three public shareholder-owned companies in 2003: China Railways Container Transport Company, China Railway Special Cargo Service Company, China Railways Parcel Express Company. In recent decades, rail use in China has seen significant growth in the volume of goods and passengers transported. Since 1980, the volume of goods transported has increased by 305% and the volume of passengers has increased by 485%.
During this same time periond, total length of rail lines has only increased by 34%. In 1992, a new large-scale rail project was launched in China, called the "New Silk Road" or "Eurasian Co
Transport in Bahrain
Transport in Bahrain encompasses road transportation by car, air transportation and shipping. It has been announced. Bahrain has one of the lowest gasoline prices in the world, at $0.78 per gallon. The widening of roads in the old districts of Manama and the development of a national network linking the capital to other settlements commenced as early as the arrival of the first car in 1914; the continuous increase in the number of cars from 395 in 1944, to 3,379 in 1954 and to 18,372 cars in 1970 caused urban development to focus on expanding the road network, widening carriageways and the establishment of more parking spaces. Many tracks laid in the pre-oil era were resurfaced and widened, turning them into'road arteries'. Initial widening of the roads started in the Manama Souq district, widening its main roads by demolishing encroaching houses. A series of ring roads were constructed, to push back the coastline and extend the city area in belt-like forms. To the north, the foreshore used to be around Government Avenue in the 1920s but it shifted to a new road, King Faisal Road, in the early 1930s which became the coastal road.
To the east, a bridge connected Manama to Muharraq since 1929, a new causeway was built in 1941 which replaced the old wooden bridge. Transits between the two islands peaked after the construction of the Bahrain International Airport in 1932. To the south of Manama, roads connected groves and marshes of Hoora, Adliya and Juffair. Villages such as Mahooz, Seqaya served as the end of these roads. To the west, a major highway was built that linked Manama to the isolated village port of Budaiya, this highway crossed through the'green belt' villages of Sanabis and Duraz. To the south, a road was built that connected Manama to Riffa; the discovery of oil accelerated the growth of the city's road network. The four main islands and all the towns and villages are linked by well-constructed roads. There were 3,164 km of roadways in 2002. Multiple causeways stretching over 2.8 km, connect Manama with Muharraq Island, the Sitra Causeway joins Sitra to the main island. A four-lane highway atop a 24 km causeway, linking Bahrain with the Saudi Arabian mainland via the island of Umm an-Nasan was completed in December, 1986, financed by Saudi Arabia.
In 2000, there were 41,820 commercial vehicles. Bahrain's port of Mina Salman can accommodate 16 oceangoing vessels drawing up to 11 m. In 2001, Bahrain had a merchant fleet of eight ships of 1,000 GT or over, totaling 270,784 GT. Private vehicles and taxis are the primary means of transportation in the city. Bahrain changed from driving on the left to driving on the right in November 1967. King Fahd Causeway, measuring 25 km connects Bahrain and Saudi Arabia through a multiple-dike bridge. Qatar–Bahrain Friendship Bridge, will be 45 km long, connecting Bahrain and Qatar as the longest fixed link in the world, consisting both roads and railway; as of 2012, there were no railways in Bahrain, but plans were developing for a railway system connecting all the countries in the Persian Gulf and for a light rail network within Bahrain. A subway system has been proposed. In August 2018, Al-Ayam reported that transportation officials in Bahrain were looking for "bids to fund a new metro railway system in the fourth quarter of 2019."
There were plans for the rail to be international, connecting to local railway systems in the UAE and Saudi Arabia. According to Ehsan Bayat, Bahrain's system will contribute 36 km to the network; the project is to be completed in four phases over four years and cost $1-2 billion, as a joint venture between the public and private sector. It will be a 109 km railway system, the first in Bahrain, it will be called linking all six Gulf States. Along with private funders, it will be funded by the Ministry of Transportation in KSA and King Fahad Causeway Authority. Plans are now back on track for construction of a monorail, which would run throughout the island state. Bahrain's Cabinet approved the monorail plan in the noughts, though the Global Financial Crisis has delayed the project. On a 2014 estimate, Bahrain owns two airports. Among them is Bahrain International Airport, the primary airport in the country; as of 2008, Bahrain owns three harbors in Mina Salman and Sitrah. Since 2014, Bahrain has sought to promote itself as an open register.
As of 2018, the register totalled 61 vessels, including small craft. Much of the material in this article is adapted from the CIA World Factbook 2008. "Bahrain". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency
Deadweight tonnage or tons deadweight is a measure of how much weight a ship can carry, not its weight, empty or in any degree of load. DWT is the sum of the weights of cargo, fresh water, ballast water, provisions and crew. DWT is used to specify a ship's maximum permissible deadweight, although it may denote the actual DWT of a ship not loaded to capacity. Deadweight tonnage is a measure of a vessel's weight carrying capacity, does not include the weight of the ship itself, it should not be confused with displacement, which includes the ship's own weight, nor other volume or capacity measures such as gross tonnage or net tonnage. Deadweight tonnage was expressed in long tons but is now given internationally in tonnes. In modern international shipping conventions such as the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, deadweight is explicitly defined as the difference in tonnes between the displacement of a ship in water of a specific gravity of 1.025 at the draft corresponding to the assigned summer freeboard and the light displacement of the ship.