A1 motorway (Romania)
The A1 motorway is a built motorway in Romania, planned to connect Bucharest with the Banat and Crișana regions in the western part of the country. When completed it will be 576 kilometers long and it will span the country on the approximative south-east to north west direction; the motorway starts in the western part of Bucharest and connects the following major cities: Pitești, Deva, Timișoara, reaching Hungary's M43 motorway near Nădlac. As the motorway is built along the Trans-European Transport Networks Rhine-Danube Corridor the construction receives 85% funding from the European Union; as of May 2018, the combined length of the opened sections totals 400.4 kilometers. Other 56.8 kilometres are under construction. The parts of the motorway in service include the Bucharest – Pitești section, the Sibiu – Deva section, the Margina – Nădlac section. Construction works are carried out between Șoimuș, near Deva, Margina on three segments having a total length of 56.7 kilometers. This section of the motorway is operational and is composed of two segments: Bucharest – Pitești and Pitești bypass.
The Bucharest – Pitești segment is the first motorway class road built in Romania and remained the only one for more than 15 years, until the completion of the Fetești – Cernavodă segment on the A2 motorway in 1987. It was constructed between 1972 during the communist regime. Various parts of the segment underwent several major rehabilitations: between 1997 and 2000 by the FAT joint venture composed of Italian companies Federici and Todini, between 2002 and 2004 by the Romanian companies Albix Timișoara and Cosar București and between 2006 and 2010 by Romanian companies PA&CO Internațional and Euroconstruct Trading'98; as of November 2015 this is the only segment of the motorway where in rest areas operate motels and restaurants. The Pitești bypass segment was awarded in April 2004 to a joint venture composed of Italian companies Astaldi and Italstrade; the segment was opened to traffic during November 2007, having a major role in diverting traffic from the Pitești city centre. An underpass in the Bascov area was built to resolve traffic congestion at the nearby junction of the DN7 and DN7C roads, generating in turn problems at the Pitești motorway end.
The underpass was completed during October 2008. This section of the motorway is planned and is split into five segments: Pitești – Curtea de Argeș, Curtea de Argeș – Văleni, Văleni – Racovița, Racovița – Boița, Boița – Sibiu; this is the most difficult section of the whole motorway from construction works perspective, considering that it has to cross the Carpathian Mountains along the Olt River Valley. The feasibility study was completed during late 2008 with plans to start construction works next year, however the Romanian Government has continuously delayed the start of the activity until 2012, considering several options on how the motorway construction was to be funded, while advancing several deadlines for the start/completion of works on the section; as during early 2012 the section was accepted to be funded under European Union's Cohesion Fund, the 2008 feasibility study had to be updated with several key elements required by the European Union that were not considered. The tender for the update was launched in April 2012 aiming to have the section finalized by 2020, as total construction costs for its 116.6 kilometers were estimated at 3.25 billion euro.
Eight months the Romanian Government reconsidered and cancelled the tender. The year 2013 brought much controversy, as the Romanian Government declared that the priority motorway route for crossing the Carpathian Mountains will be the A3 motorway instead of the A1 motorway and further supported the idea of modifying the route of the Pan-European Corridor IV to pass through Brașov. According to the same plans the A3 motorway was to be connected to the A1 motorway via another motorway between Sibiu and Făgăraș, thus creating a nearly complete motorway corridor between Bucharest and Sibiu, via Brașov, while the section between Pitești and Sibiu was no longer an immediate priority; this was regarded as a strategy to avoid a competing alternative route to the section of the A3 motorway between Comarnic and Brașov, planned to be built via a concession contract. During the 2013 Trans-European Transport Networks reunion the European Union rejected the plan and criticized the attempt to switch priorities from constructing the Pitești – Sibiu motorway, determining the Romanian authorities to reconsider the change.
After further trying unsuccessfully in December 2013 to persuade the European Union to change the route of the motorway to pass through Râmnicu Vâlcea, the Romanian Government has retendered in June 2014 the update of the 2008 feasibility study for the section, has signed the contract for this activity with a joint venture composed of Italian company Spea Ingegneria Europea and Romanian company Tecnic Consulting Engineering in June 2015, after an appeal from one of the bid participants. As the Ministry of Transport has started work on the Romanian General Master Plan for Transport required to access 2014–2020 European funds, it generated further controversy by appearing to continue to try avoiding the construction of the section as a motorway, as it downgraded it to express road in an October 2014 version of the Master Plan and considered a phased express road/motorway approach in a subsequent version of the Master Plan; this has prompted reactions from the European Union, t
Lugoj is a city in Timiș County, western Romania. The Timiș River divides the city into two halves, the so-called Romanian Lugoj that spreads on the right bank and the German Lugoj on the left bank, it is the seat of the Eparchy of Lugoj in the Romanian Church United with Greek-Catholic. The city administers Măguri and Tapia. In German: Lugosch. In Hungarian, Măguri is called Szendelak, Tapia is known as Tápia. Lugoj was once a fortified city that developed along the Timiș River. During the Middle Ages and eighteenth century, it was of greater relative importance than at present. A diploma dated Wednesday 22 August 1376, signed by King Sigismund of Luxemburg, shows that Lugoj city was donated to landowners Ladislaus and Stephen Loszonczy. At the end of the 14th century, after the Battle of Nicopolis, the Turks crossed the Danube, invading Banat and reached the gates of Lugoj. During major campaigns against the Turks, Hunyadi, as a comite of Timis, took steps to organize the city's defense system.
He strengthened the city with trenches and palisades. The Banate of Lugoj-Caransebeș resisted Ottoman pressures until 1658, when Ákos Barcsay, Prince of Transylvania, asked Lugoj and Caransebeș to accept the decision taken by the Diet of Sighișoara to agree to Turkish occupation. After the defeat of the Turks during the Battle of Vienna in 1683, the Habsburgs went on the offensive and occupied the cities of Lugoj and Lipova. On September 25, 1695 the battle between the armies of the Habsburg Empire and the Ottoman Empire that took place near Lugoj ended with the defeat of the Austrians. After signing the Treaty of Karlovitz, Banat remained under Ottoman rule for nearly 20 years; the Treaty of Passarowitz was signed and the Turks were expelled. The Habsburg Monarchy wanted to repopulate the Banat, which had emptied following the years of occupation and earlier bubonic plague; the government recruited Germans from Bavaria and Alsace-Lorraine farmers to revive agriculture in the rich floodplain.
They traveled down the Danube River on boats to this area. They took the rafts apart to use to build their first houses. In this area, the first German colonists settled on the left bank of the river Timis, creating what was called "German Lugoj"; the government had offered them the privileges of keeping their German religion. In the 18th century, many public buildings were built in the city, including the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church "Assumption". In 1778, following the incorporation of Banat into Hungary, Lugoj became the county seat of Caras. In 1795 the government unified the German Lugoj. Eftimie Murgu settled in Lugoj in 1841. In June 1848 he chaired the second National Assembly of Romanians of Banat, where they expressed in postulates the National Order of Romanians during the Revolutionary Movement from Banat, whose center was Lugoj. In the summer of 1842 a great fire took place, in which about 400 houses and important buildings were destroyed. In August 1849 Lugoj was the last seat of the Hungarian revolutionary government.
It served as the last refuge of Lajos Kossuth and several other leaders of the Revolution prior to their escape to the Ottoman Empire. Under the imperial resolution of 12 December 1850, Lugoj became the seat of the Greek-Catholic Diocese of Banat. Lugoj was the seat of Krassó-Szörény County from 1881 to 1918. Following the break-up of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I, the Banat, after a brief period of Serbian occupation, came under Romanian administration. Severin County was organized and named, its seat was located in Lugoj until the temporary abolition of counties in 1950; the Iron Bridge, a symbol of Lugoj, was built in 1902. On November 3, 1918 a Great National Assembly took place in Lugoj; the right of self-determination of the Romanian nation was proclaimed after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I. In modern times, the city was the home town of famous Dracula actor Bela Lugosi. Lugosi's family name was Blaskó. Coriolan Brediceanu National College Iulia Hașdeu National College Aurel Vlaicu School Group Valeriu Braniște College Drăgan European University of Lugoj Simona Arghir, handballer Caius Brediceanu, diplomat Coriolan Brediceanu and lawyer Tiberiu Brediceanu, composer Corina Caprioriu, judoka Aurel Ciupe, painter Konstantin Danil, portraiture painter Georges Devereux, ethnopsychologist Iosif Constantin Drăgan and author Traian Grozăvescu, opera tenor György Kurtág, composer Bela Lugosi, actor Lavinia Miloșovici, gymnast Victor Neumann, historian Dumitru Pârvulescu, wrestler Aurel Popovici, politician Josef Posipal, soccer player Otilia Ruicu-Eșanu, 400m athlete Aura Twarowska, mezzo-soprano Lugoj is twinned with: Vršac Szekszárd Orléans Jena Assos-Lechaio Nisporeni Monopoli City Hall site Lugojul - local info site Lugoj Lugoj fun "Drăgan" European University of Lugoj Actualitatea, weekly newspaper Redeşteptarea, weekly newspaper Lugoj Online, online newspaper
Roman roads were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. They provided efficient means for the overland movement of armies and civilians, the inland carriage of official communications and trade goods. Roman roads were of several kinds, ranging from small local roads to broad, long-distance highways built to connect cities, major towns and military bases; these major roads were stone-paved and metaled, cambered for drainage, were flanked by footpaths and drainage ditches. They were laid along surveyed courses, some were cut through hills, or conducted over rivers and ravines on bridgework. Sections could be supported over marshy ground on piled foundations. At the peak of Rome's development, no fewer than 29 great military highways radiated from the capital, the late Empire's 113 provinces were interconnected by 372 great roads; the whole comprised more than 400,000 kilometres of roads, of which over 80,500 kilometres were stone-paved.
In Gaul alone, no less than 21,000 kilometres of roadways are said to have been improved, in Britain at least 4,000 kilometres. The courses of many Roman roads survived for millennia. Livy mentions some of the most familiar roads near Rome, the milestones on them, at times long before the first paved road—the Appian Way. Unless these allusions are just simple anachronisms, the roads referred to were at the time little more than levelled earthen tracks. Thus, the Via Gabina is mentioned in about 500 BC. In the Itinerary of Antoninus, the description of the road system, after the death of Julius Caesar and during the tenure of Augustus, is as follows: "With the exception of some outlying portions, such as Britain north of the Wall and certain provinces east of the Euphrates, the whole Empire was penetrated by these itinera. There is hardly a district to which we might expect a Roman official to be sent, on service either civil or military, where we do not find roads, they reach the Wall in Britain.
A road map of the empire reveals that it was laced with a dense network of prepared viae. Beyond its borders there were no paved roads. There were, for instance, some pre-Roman ancient trackways in Britain, such as the Ridgeway and the Icknield Way. For specific roads, see Roman road locations below; the Laws of the Twelve Tables, dated to about 450 BC, required that any public road be 8 Roman feet wide where straight and twice that width where curved. These were the minimum widths for a via. Actual practices varied from this standard; the Tables command Romans to build public roads and give wayfarers the right to pass over private land where the road is in disrepair. Building roads that would not need frequent repair therefore became an ideological objective, as well as building them as straight as possible in order to build the narrowest roads possible, thus save on material. Roman law defined the right to use a road as liability; the ius eundi established a claim to use an footpath, across private land.
A via combined both types of servitutes, provided it was of the proper width, determined by an arbiter. The default width was the latitudo legitima of 8 feet. Roman law and tradition forbade the use of vehicles except in certain cases. Married women and government officials on business could ride; the Lex Iulia Municipalis restricted commercial carts to night-time access in the city within the walls and within a mile outside the walls. Roman roads varied from simple corduroy roads to paved roads using deep roadbeds of tamped rubble as an underlying layer to ensure that they kept dry, as the water would flow out from between the stones and fragments of rubble, instead of becoming mud in clay soils. According to Ulpian, there were three types of roads: Viae publicae, praetoriae or militares Viae privatae, glareae or agrariae Viae vicinales The first type of road included public high or main roads and maintained at the public expense, with their soil vested in the state; such roads led either to a town, or to a public river, or to another public road.
Siculus Flaccus, who lived under Trajan, calls them viae publicae regalesque, describes their characteristics as follows: They are placed under curatores, repaired by redemptores at the public expense. These roads bear the names of their constructors. Roman roads were named after the censor who had ordered their reconstruction; the same person served afterwards as c
Pitești is a city in Romania, located on the Argeș River. The capital and largest city of Argeș County, it is an important commercial and industrial center, as well as the home of two universities. Pitești is situated in the historical region of Muntenia, it lies on the A1 freeway connecting the city directly to the national capital Bucharest, being an important railway junction, with a classification yard in nearby Bălilești. The city houses the Arpechim oil refinery, is a marketing center for the automotive industry, in particular Automobile Dacia. Inhabited since prehistoric times but first mentioned in the 14th century, it developed as a trading town in northern Wallachia, serving as an informal residence for various Wallachian Princes until the 18th century. From the 19th century and until the interwar period, it was an important political center for the National Liberal Party and the main residence of the Brătianu family of politicians. During the early stages of the communist regime, it was one of the main sites of political repression, with the Pitești prison becoming home to an experiment in brainwashing techniques.
The earliest traces of human settlements in this area relate to the Paleolithic. Coins minted by the Dacians during the 3rd century BC, copying the design of Thracian tetradrachmon issued by Lysimachus, have been discovered here. A small Roman castrum was built sometime in the 3rd century AD in the vicinity of present-day Pitești. During the Age of Migrations, the Pitești area was, according to historian Constantin C. Giurescu, the site of trading between Vlachs and Slavs, which, in his opinion, was the origin of Târgul din Deal, a separate locality; the first recorded mention of Pitești itself was on May 20, 1386, when Wallachian Prince Mircea I granted a gristmill in the area to Cozia Monastery. Pitești was subsequently one of the temporary residences of Wallachian Princes. Due to its positioning on the junction of major European routes, the city developed as an important commercial center. By the late 14th century, it became home to a sizable Armenian community. At the time, the locality was only extending on the left bank of the Argeș, expanded over the river, reaching the hill slopes to the west.
While Pitești was designated as a high-ranking town, a village of Pitești was still mentioned as late as 1528, which led some historians to conclude that the village and urban area coexisted within the same boundaries. Although princely quarters have not been uncovered, among the rulers to issue documents from Pitești were Basarab Țepeluș cel Tânăr, Neagoe Basarab, Vlad Înecatul, Vlad Vintilă de la Slatina, Michael the Brave, Simion Movilă, Matei Basarab and Constantin Șerban. In addition, Constantin Brâncoveanu, who owned large sections of vineyard in the area, is reported to have spent several seasons in the town. Under Vlad Vintilă, who allied himself with the Holy Roman Empire against his Ottoman overlords, Aloisio Gritti and his Wallachian boyar partisans camped in the Pitești neighborhood of Războieni, where they were attacked and defeated by the Prince. In 1600-1601, troops of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, led by Jan Zamoyski, were stationed in Pitești during their expedition against Michael the Brave.
Around that time, fighting occurred in and around the town as the new prince Radu Șerban clashed with the Ottomans and their Crimean Khanate allies. Constantin Șerban financed the building of the Orthodox Saint George Church, completed in 1656, his building program included a palace and adjacent gardens. Around that time, the city hosted travelers of renown, such as Arab chronicler Paul of Aleppo and Swedish politician Claes Rålamb, it was during Brâncoveanu's rule that the city was home to Stolnic Constantin Cantacuzino, exchanging letters with English statesman William, Baron Paget. A tower and other princely houses, built by Brâncoveanu outside the town deteriorated over the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1689, Habsburg troops led by Louis William of Baden occupied the city as part of the Great Turkish War. In November 1714, as a direct result of Swedish defeats in the Great Northern War against Imperial Russia, Swedish King Charles XII unsuccessfully sought an alliance with Sultan Ahmed III.
During the Austro-Turkish War of 1716 -- 1718, Habsburg troops captured the town. In 1780, Tuscan numismatist Domenico Sestini passed through the Argeș region, described the town as having 250 houses and 7 churches. In 1804, the citizens requested to have an upper school opened. During the 1790s, Pitești was visited by Luigi Mayer, a German pupil of Giovanni Battista Piranesi, who left etchings of the region; the town was an important location for events relating to the last stage of the Wallachian uprising of 1821 and
The Danube is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Eastern Europe; the Danube was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Originating in Germany, the Danube flows southeast for 2,850 km, passing through or bordering Austria, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria and Ukraine before draining into the Black Sea, its drainage basin extends into nine more countries. The Danube river basin is home to fish species such as pike, huchen, Wels catfish and tench, it is home to a large diversity of carp and sturgeon, as well as salmon and trout. A few species of euryhaline fish, such as European seabass and eel, inhabit the Danube Delta and the lower portion of the river. Since ancient times, the Danube has become a traditional trade route in Europe, nowadays 2,415 km of its total length being navigable; the river is an important source of energy and drinking water. Danube is an Old European river name derived from a Proto-Indo-European *dānu.
Other river names from the same root include the Dunaj, Dzvina/Daugava, Donets, Dniestr, Dysna and Tuoni. In Rigvedic Sanskrit, dānu means "fluid, drop", in Avestan, the same word means "river". In the Rigveda, Dānu once appears as the mother of Vrtra, "a dragon blocking the course of the rivers"; the Finnish word for Danube is Tonava, most derived from the word for the river in Swedish and German, Donau. Its Sámi name Deatnu means "Great River", it is possible that dānu in Scythian as in Avestan was a generic word for "river": Dnieper and Dniestr, from Danapris and Danastius, are presumed to continue Scythian *dānu apara "far river" and *dānu nazdya- "near river", respectively. The river was known to the ancient Greeks as the Istros a borrowing from a Daco-Thracian name meaning "strong, swift", from a root also encountered in the ancient name of the Dniester and akin to Iranic turos “swift” and Sanskrit iṣiras "swift", from the PIE *isro-, *sreu “to flow”. In the Middle Ages, the Greek Tiras was borrowed into Italian as Tyrlo and into Turkic languages as Tyrla, the latter further borrowed into Romanian as a regionalism.
The Thraco-Phrygian name was Matoas, "the bringer of luck". In Latin, the Danube was variously known as Ister; the Latin name is masculine, except Slovenian. The German Donau is feminine, as it has been re-interpreted as containing the suffix -ouwe "wetland". Romanian differs from other surrounding languages in designating the river with a feminine term, Dunărea; this form was not inherited from Latin. To explain the loss of the Latin name, scholars who suppose that Romanian developed near the large river propose that the Romanian name descends from a hypotetical Thracian *Donaris that shares the same PIE root with the Iranic don-/dan-, with the suffix -aris encountered in the ancient name of the Ialomița River, in the unidentified Miliare river mentioned by Jordanes in his Getica. Gábor Vékony says that this hypothesis is not plausible, because the Greeks borrowed the Istros form from the native Thracians, he proposes. The modern languages spoken in the Danube basin all use names related to Dānuvius: German: Donau.
Dunav. Dunai. Classified as an international waterway, it originates in the town of Donaueschingen, in the Black Forest of Germany, at the confluence of the rivers Brigach and Breg; the Danube flows southeast for about 2,730 km, passing through four capital cities before emptying into the Black Sea via the Danube Delta in Romania and Ukraine. Once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, the river passes through or touches the borders of 10 countries: Romania, Serbia, Germany, Slovakia, Croatia and Moldova, its drainage basin extends into nine more. In addition to the bordering countries, the drainage basin includes parts of nine more countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Czech Republic, Montenegro, Italy, North Macedonia and Albania, its total drainage basin is 801,463 km2. The highest point of the drainage basin is the summit of Piz Bernina at the Italy–Switzerland border, at 4,049 metres; the land drained by the Danube extends into many other countries. Many Danubian tributaries are important rivers in their own right, navigable by barges and other shallow-draught boats.
From its source to its outlet into the Black Sea, its main tribu
Automotive industry in Romania
Much of the Romanian manufacturing industry consists of branch plants of foreign firms, though there are some important domestic manufacturers, such as Automobile Dacia, Ford Romania, Roman Braşov and Igero. In 2018, est. 500,000 automobiles were produced in Romania. During the Communist period, Romania was one of the largest automobile producers in Central and Eastern Europe, however the industry declined after the 1989 revolution. Other domestic manufacturers such as Tractorul Braşov, ARO and Oltcit existed, however they went bankrupt due to botched privatization in the 1990s. Since 1990, several foreign companies, including Mercedes, Hyundai, Volvo and Peugeot, expressed interest in opening branch plants in Romania. In 2014, the Romanian automotive industry ranks fifth in Central and Eastern Europe, behind that of the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. Ford bought the Automobile Craiova plant for $57 million, planning to produce automobiles at a rate of over 300,000 units a year by 2010. Ford said it would invest €675 million in the former Daewoo car factory and that it would buy supplies from the Romanian market worth €1 billion.
In September 2009, the company began to assemble the Ford Transit Connect in Craiova, in 2012, production of the new Ford B-Max was started. Robert Bosch GmbH, the world’s largest supplier of automotive components will invest as much as 60 million euros in a new factory in Jucu - Romania; the new Bosch facility will produce electronic components for automobiles, will create about 2,000 jobs. Dacia Logan was the top-selling new car in Central and Eastern Europe in the first half of 2007 with 52,750 units sold, ahead of Skoda Fabia, Skoda Octavia, Opel Astra and Ford Focus. In 2012, Dacia launched four new models, the Lodgy and the Dokker, the second generations of the Logan and Sandero, whereas Ford launched their new mini MPV, the B-Max; the both manufacturers introduced two new and technologically advanced turbocharged three-cylinder petrol engines, which are locally produced and represented premieres in their segments. Astra Cibro DAC Dacia El Car Ford Romania Grivbuz ROMAN AA&WF ARO Automobile Craiova Malaxa Oltcit Rocar
Carpatair S. A. is a owned Romanian charter and former regional airline headquartered in Timișoara. Carpatair started operations in February 1999 in Cluj-Napoca; the present title was adopted in December 1999 when Swiss and Swedish investors took a 49% stake in the company. The airline is owned by Romanian shareholders and Swiss and Swedish shareholders The airline is an IATA member since 2006 and has successfully received its 5th IOSA registration. Carpatair employed 450 staff at March 2007; the current President and Chief Executive of Carpatair is Nicolae Petrov. Carpatair emerged from the status of insolvency into the one "in reorganization", having continued to offer charter&ACMI solutions; the carrier had filed for Insolvency on 23 January 2014. Romanian Law 85/2006, it is similar to the US-American Chapter 11, providing the company a special legal status; as of May 2014, Carpatair dissolved most of their former route network and it no longer operates in Romania or Moldova. Carpatair operations now consists of ACMI charters.
From December 2015, Carpatair operated for Adria Airways between Örebro in Sweden and Copenhagen in Denmark and under a NJ flight code route between Stockholm Arlanda Airport and Arvidsjaur/Gällivare in Sweden. From March 2016 until June of the same year, they flew under Adria Airways call sign from Tallinn. During spring and summer 2016 one aircraft has been flying under contract for Volotea in France and Italy. From July 2016 they are operating the route Stavanger - Oslo under contract for Norwegian Air Shuttle and a number of routes from Brussels Airport on contract from Brussels Airlines. In summer 2016 Carpatair operated one aircraft on a wetlease for LOT Polish Airlines on routes from Warsaw to Amsterdam and Gdańsk. Between April and May 2017, Carpatair operated services between Berlin-Tegel and Prague on behalf of now defunct Air Berlin. During the 2018 summer schedule, one aircraft has been wetleased to KLM to operate routes from Amsterdam to Edinburgh and Hanover; the Carpatair fleet consists of the following aircraft: On 2 February 2013, a Carpatair ATR 72–212A operating on behalf of Alitalia experienced a hard landing at Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport in Rome while arriving from Pisa.
Two people were injured of. During the interval between the time of the event that Saturday evening and sunrise on Sunday, the turboprop – which had worn Alitalia's green and red livery – was repainted in white. Media related to Carpatair at Wikimedia Commons Official website