Transportation in North America
Transportation in North America is about a varied transportation system, whose quality ranges from being on par with a high-quality European motorway to an unpaved gravelled back road that can extend hundreds of miles. There is an extensive transcontinental freight rail network, but passenger railway ridership is lower than in Europe and Asia; the railroad network of North America is extensive, connecting nearly every major and most minor cities. The United States and Mexico have an interconnected system with railheads stretching from Hay River, Northwest Territories, Canada to Tapachula, on Vancouver Island; the state government of Alaska operates the Alaska Railroad, which does not connect to the North American network. In Canada, rail lines from Labrador City, NL to Sept-Îles, Quebec currently are not linked to the North American network. There have been proposals in recent years to link the island of Newfoundland to the mainland of North America via a 17 km-long rail tunnel under the Strait of Belle Isle, which would carry automobile traffic on flatcars, similar to the Channel Tunnel between the United Kingdom and France.
This has stalled due to the lack of a large road network and a lack of rail lines in Labrador, the remoteness of the area on both sides of the strait in Newfoundland and Labrador. Another issue to contend with is that Newfoundland had abandoned its Canadian National/Newfoundland Railway lines, turning it into the Newfoundland T'Railway, a rail trail spanning the entire island. An automobile tunnel would be most unfeasible due to the length needed to cross the strait, the difficulties of removing automobile exhaust and bringing in fresh air via large circulation fans throughout the tunnel. Although Alaska is not connected to the North American rail network, there are plans to connect it via BC Rail's incomplete but graded rail extension to Dease Lake, where the rails have been laid to Jackson, British Columbia; until this happens, the only way for rail-based equipment to enter or leave Alaska is via rail ferry from Seattle and British Columbia. The only rail connection is the White Pass and Yukon Route, a narrow-gauge heritage railway linking Whitehorse, Yukon with Skagway, Alaska.
A rail connection between Alaska and the North American rail network could prove beneficial, could join up with a possible future rail link over a Bering Strait Rail Tunnel, if it is built. The current railheads or endpoints of the rail network are, in the north, at Hay River, Northwest Territories, British Columbia, Lynn Lake and Churchill, Moosonee, Chibougamau and Matagami, Quebec. In the west, the railheads are at Vancouver, British Columbia, Prince Rupert, British Columbia, with ferry service to Vancouver Island for the railways linking Nanaimo and Victoria. In the east, the North American network extends to Halifax, Sydney, Nova Scotia. In the south, the rail lines terminate at Port of Chiapas, Ciudad Hidalgo, with a short dual-gauge spur line to the border city of Ciudad Tecún Umán, Guatemala. In April 2007 the Russian government announced that it was considering building a rail tunnel under the Bering Strait between Chukotka and Alaska; the tunnel, as projected, would be 60 miles long and would include oil and gas pipelines, fiber optic cables and power lines.
The tunnel project was estimated to take 15 -- 20 years to build. In addition to the Russian government, sponsors of the project include Transneft and RAO United Energy Systems. Mexico has a connection to Guatemala, but it is a break of gauge, since Mexico uses 1,435 mm standard gauge, while Guatemala and Central America use narrow gauge 914 mm. Aside from a short spur line linking border city of Ciudad Tecún Umán, the entire nation is on 914 mm gauge. South of Guatemala, there are numerous breaks of gauge, such as 1,067 mm, El Salvador. Nicaragua has closed its rail network in 1996, though the majority of it was 1,067 mm gauge, with some 1,435 mm lines along the Atlantic Coast. Costa Rica's railroads are of 1,067 mm gauge, along with a private 600 mm gauge railroad at 3.5 km in length. The railroads of Panama are connected to Costa Rica; the country had two gauges: broad gauge 1,524 mm, converted to standard gauge in 2000, narrow gauge. Like the situation with roads, the Darien Gap is a formidable obstacle to railroads, no railways cross it into South America.
FERISTSA was the name of a proposed 1,600-mile US$3 billion owned commercial railroad going from the Panama Canal Railway Company through the entire length of Central America, linking with Mexico's rail system at the Guatemala border. The continent's roads are of varying quality, with divided highway standards in some areas but poor-quality gravel or unpaved roads in others; the road network extends from Prudhoe Bay and Anchorage, Alaska, in the extreme northwest, to Sydney, Nova Scotia, Cartwright and Labrador, Blanc Sablon and Natashquan, Quebec, in the extreme east, all the way to Yaviza, Panama, in the extreme south. It does not connect with the South American road network due to the Darién Gap; some roads are seasonal, such as ice roads that cover frozen bodies of w
Transport in Bermuda
Bermuda consists of several islands with an area of 53.2 km2 with 447 km of paved roads — 225 km of which are public roads and 222 km are private paved roads. A former railway track has been converted into a walking trail. There are two marine ports, an airport, the L. F. Wade International Airport, located at the former U. S. Naval Air Station. A causeway links Hamilton Bermuda to St. George's and the airport. Traffic drives on the left. Bermuda's Ministry of Tourism and Transport manages the public ferry service, "SeaExpress", the public bus system. Bermuda is serviced by a bus system. From the main bus terminal in Hamilton eleven bus routes spread out in all directions of the island; as the island is narrow and in most sections has a northern and southern route that are serviced, access to the system is within a short distance. The MAN buses stop at pink or blue markers. Fares are based on sections traveled, transfers are available. SeaExpress operates four routes for ferries and boats that originate from the ferry terminal in Hamilton.
The "Blue Route" services the West End and the Dockyard of Sandys, the "Orange Route" links to the Dockyard and St. George's, the "Green Route" travels to Rockaway of Southampton, the "Pink Route" brings passengers to points in Paget and Warwick. Fare for travelling by ferry is inexpensive, allow travel for frequent travel at most hours. In 2003, high-speed catamaran ferry service was introduced. Cars were not allowed in Bermuda until 1946. Today, Bermuda has a large number of private cars one for every two inhabitants; this is because, with close to 300,000 visitors a year, allowing car rental on one of the world's most densely populated islands would bring traffic to a standstill, as well as bankrupt the island's taxi industry. Car prices are much higher than in the United States and Europe, due to heavy import duties, residents are limited to one car per household; the size of cars is restricted, meaning that many models popular in the United States and Europe are not available in Bermuda.
Only the Governor and Premier are exempt from these restrictions. There is no car hire; the highest speed limit anywhere on the island is 35 km/h, it is lower in built-up and other congested areas. Between 1931 and 1948, Bermuda Railway provided rail passenger and freight services between St George's and Somerset in Sandys Parish, via Hamilton; the railway was replaced by a bus service and the line dismantled in 1948. Much of the old railway right-of-way has been converted to the "Bermuda Railway Trail" for hiking and biking; as at 2007, Bermuda had 447 km of paved roads — of which 225 km were public roads and 222 km were private paved roads. There are ports in Hamilton, St George's, Dockyard. During summer months, large cruise ships dock at the Dockyard at the northwestern end of the island; the only airport in Bermuda is L. F. Wade International Airport located in the parish of St. George's, 11 km northeast of Hamilton. In 2006, the airport handled about 900,000 passengers, it has one passenger terminal, one cargo terminal, eight aircraft stands and can support all aircraft sizes up to the Airbus A380.
As at 2006, seven airlines operated seasonal or year-round scheduled services to Bermuda from Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. It has a 3,048 m paved runway; the airport is served by taxis. There is no car hire in Bermuda. Bermuda is a flag of convenience, with 160 vessels on its registry as at 2016. Much of the material in this article is adapted from the CIA World Factbook 2009. Travel: Transport on Bermuda - Discover Bermuda, Official Site of the Bermuda Department of Tourism
Transport in Costa Rica
There are many modes of transport in Costa Rica but the country's infrastructure has suffered from a lack of maintenance and new investment. There is an extensive road system of more than 30,000 kilometers, although much of it is in disrepair. According to a 2016 U. S. government report, investment from China which attempted to improve the infrastructure found the "projects stalled by bureaucratic and legal concerns". Most parts of the country are accessible by road; the main highland cities in the country's Central Valley are connected by paved all-weather roads with the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and by the Pan American Highway with Nicaragua and Panama, the neighboring countries to the North and the South. Costa Rica's ports are struggling to keep pace with growing trade, they have insufficient capacity, their equipment is in poor condition. The railroad didn't function for several years, until recent government effort to reactivate it for city transportation. An August 2016 OECD report provided this summary: "The road network is extensive but of poor quality, railways are in disrepair and only being reactivated after having been shut down in the 1990s, seaports quality and capacity are deficient.
Internal transportation overly relies on private road vehicles as the public transport system railways, is inadequate." Total: 278 km narrow gauge: 278 km of 3 ft 6 in gauge The road system in Costa Rica is not as developed as it might be expected for such a country. However, there are some two-lane trunk roads with restricted access under development. Total: 35,330 km paved: 8,621 km unpaved: 26,709 km The Ministry of Public Works and Transportation, along with the National Road Council, are the government organizations in charge of national road nomenclature and maintenance. There are three level of nationwide roads: These are trunk roads devised to connect important cities, most of the national roads are connected to the capital city, San José. Numbered from 1 to 39. Route 1, part of the Pan-American Highway. Connects San José, Palmares San Ramón, Esparza, Cañas, Liberia and La Cruz. There are two toll booths, in Naranjo, it consists of the following named segments: Autopista General Cañas: San José to Juan Santamaría International Airport.
Autopista Bernardo Soto: From Juan Santamaría International Airport to San Ramón. Interamericana Norte: San Ramón to Peñas Blancas. Route 2, part of the Pan-American Highway. Connected cities include San José, San Pedro, Tres RíosCartago, Tejar del Guarco San Isidro de El General, Buenos Aires, Palmar Norte, Paso Canoas. There is one toll booth in Tres Ríos de La Unión, it consists of the following named segments: Autopista Florencio del Castillo: San José to Cartago. Interamericana Sur: Cartago to Paso Canoas. Route 27, is operated by Autopistas del Sol, it connects San José, Santa Ana, Ciudad Colón, Atenas and Puntarenas. There are four toll booths at San Rafael de Escazú, San Rafael de Alajuela and Orotina, it consists of the following named segments: Autopista Próspero Fernández: San José to Santa Ana. Autopista José María Castro Madriz: Santa Ana to Caldera. Route 32 Connects San José, Tibás, Guápiles, Guácimo, Limón. One toll booth in San Isidro, Heredia, it consists of the following named segments: Autopista Braulio Carrillo, San José to San Juan de Tibás.
Carretera Braulio Carrillo, San Juan de Tibás to Siquirres. Carretera José Joaquin Trejos Fernández, Siquirres to Limón. Route 34, Pacífica Fernández. Algunas ciudades que comunica: Pozón - Tárcoles - Herradura - Jacó - Parrita - Quepos - Dominical- Puerto Cortés - Palmar Norte Route 39, Paseo de la Segunda República, is an incomplete ring road that distributes traffic around the eastern and western areas of the capital city, it connects to Route 1, Route 27 and Route 2. There are many elevated access roads, some roundabouts, it has as much as 6 lanes but most of the road is only 4 lanes wide. There is a pending work in progress to complete the north section of the ring road, which will enable the Route 32 to be connected directly as well, as of the moment, drivers must go to downtown San José to connect to the Route 39; these are roads. Numbered from 100 a 255; these roads connect main cities to villages or residential areas, numbered from 301 to 935. 730 km, seasonally navigable by small craft refined products 242 km In 2016, the government pledged ₡93 million for a new cruise ship terminal for Puerto Limón.
Moín Puerto Limón Golfito Puerto Quepos Puntarenas Port of Caldera total: 2 ships 2,308 GT/743 tonnes deadweight ships by type: passenger/cargo ships 2 Total: 161 total: 47 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 27 under 914 metres: 16 total: 114 914 to 1,523 m: 18 under 914 metres: 96 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html
The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico and Central America to the west and south west, to the north by the Greater Antilles starting with Cuba, to the east by the Lesser Antilles, to the south by the north coast of South America; the entire area of the Caribbean Sea, the numerous islands of the West Indies, adjacent coasts, are collectively known as the Caribbean. The Caribbean Sea is one of the largest seas and has an area of about 2,754,000 km2; the sea's deepest point is the Cayman Trough, between the Cayman Islands and Jamaica, at 7,686 m below sea level. The Caribbean coastline has many gulfs and bays: the Gulf of Gonâve, Gulf of Venezuela, Gulf of Darién, Golfo de los Mosquitos, Gulf of Paria and Gulf of Honduras; the Caribbean Sea has the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. It runs 1,000 km along the coasts of Mexico, Belize and Honduras; the name "Caribbean" derives from the Caribs, one of the region's dominant Native American groups at the time of European contact during the late 15th century.
After Christopher Columbus landed in the Bahamas in 1492, the Spanish term Antillas applied to the lands. During the first century of development, Spanish dominance in the region remained undisputed. From the 16th century, Europeans visiting the Caribbean region identified the "South Sea" as opposed to the "North Sea"; the Caribbean Sea had been unknown to the populations of Eurasia until 1492, when Christopher Columbus sailed into Caribbean waters on a quest to find a sea route to Asia. At that time the Western Hemisphere in general was unknown to most Europeans, although it had been discovered between the years 800 and 1000 by the vikings. Following the discovery of the islands by Columbus, the area was colonized by several Western cultures. Following the colonization of the Caribbean islands, the Caribbean Sea became a busy area for European-based marine trading and transports, this commerce attracted pirates such as Samuel Bellamy and Blackbeard; as of 2015 the area is home to borders 12 continental countries.
The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Caribbean Sea as follows: On the North. In the Windward Channel – a line joining Caleta Point and Pearl Point in Haïti. In the Mona Passage – a line joining Cape Engaño and the extreme of Agujereada in Puerto Rico. Eastern limits. From Point San Diego Northward along the meridian thereof to the 100-fathom line, thence Eastward and Southward, in such a manner that all islands and narrow waters of the Lesser Antilles are included in the Caribbean Sea as far as Galera Point. From Galera Point through Trinidad to Galeota Point and thence to Baja Point in Venezuela. Note that, although Barbados is an island on the same continental shelf, it is considered to be in the Atlantic Ocean rather than the Caribbean Sea; the Caribbean Sea is an oceanic sea situated on the Caribbean Plate. The Caribbean Sea is separated from the ocean by several island arcs of various ages; the youngest stretches from the Lesser Antilles to the Virgin Islands to the north east of Trinidad and Tobago off the coast of Venezuela.
This arc was formed by the collision of the South American Plate with the Caribbean Plate and includes active and extinct volcanoes such as Mount Pelee, the Quill on Sint Eustatius in the Caribbean Netherlands and Morne Trois Pitons on Dominica. The larger islands in the northern part of the sea Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico lie on an older island arc; the geological age of the Caribbean Sea is estimated to be between 160 and 180 million years and was formed by a horizontal fracture that split the supercontinent called Pangea in the Mesozoic Era. It is assumed the proto-caribbean basin existed in the Devonian period. In the early Carboniferous movement of Gondwana to the north and its convergence with the Euramerica basin decreased in size; the next stage of the Caribbean Sea's formation began in the Triassic. Powerful rifting led to the formation of narrow troughs, stretching from modern Newfoundland to the west coast of the Gulf of Mexico which formed siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. In the early Jurassic due to powerful marine transgression, water broke into the present area of the Gulf of Mexico creating a vast shallow pool.
The emergence of deep basins in the Caribbean occurred during the Middle Jurassic rifting. The emergence of these basins marked the beginning of the Atlantic Ocean and contributed to the destruction of Pangaea at the end of the late Jurassic. During the Cretaceous the Caribbean acquired the shape close to that seen today. In the early Paleogene due to Marine regression the Caribbean became separated from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean by the land of Cuba and Haiti; the Caribbean remained like this for most of the Cenozoic until the Holocene when rising water levels of the oceans restored communication with the Atlantic Ocean. The Caribbean's floor is composed of sub-oceanic sediments of deep red clay in the deep basins and troughs. On continental slopes and ridges calcareous silts are found. Clay minerals having been deposited by the mainland river Orinoco and the Magdalena River. Deposits on th
Transport in the Bahamas
This article talks about transportation in the Bahamas, a North American archipelagic state in the Atlantic Ocean. 2,718 kilometres of road in the Bahamas is classified as highway. Of these 1,560 kilometres are paved; as a former British colony, drivers drive on the left. Marinas and harbours are plentiful on The Bahamas islands, making aquatic travel an easy way to navigate between the islands group. Boat travel can be the only way to reach some of the smaller islands. Travelers entering the island will need to clear customs first, but boatsmen can enter any of the following ports of entry and harbours in The Bahamas: Abaco Islands: Green Turtle Cay, Marsh Harbour, Spanish Cay, Treasure Cay, or Walker's Cay Berry Islands: Chub Cay and Great Harbour Cay Bimini: Alice Town Cat Cays: Hawksnest Marina Eleuthera: Governor's Harbour, Harbour Island, Rock Sound, or Spanish Wells Exuma: George Town Grand Bahama Island: Freeport Harbour, Lucayan Marina Village and Port Lucaya, or Old Bahama Bay at West End Inagua: Matthew Town Long Island: Stella Maris Airport Mayaguana: Abraham's Bay Nassau/New Providence Island: Any marina San Salvador: Cockburn TownFacilities catering to large passenger cruise ships are located on Grand Bahama Island and New Providence.
The Lucayan Harbour Cruise Facility in Freeport and Nassau harbour's Prince George Wharf are built to handle multiple modern cruise ships at one time. Additionally, several major cruise line corporations have each purchased an uninhabited island which they now operate as private island destinations available to their respective ships; these include Great Stirrup Cay, owned by Norwegian Cruise Line, Little Stirrup Cay otherwise known as Royal Caribbean International's "Coco Cay", Carnival Corporation's Little San Salvador Island or "Half Moon Cay", Castaway Cay, of Disney Cruise Line. Of these, only Castaway Cay offers ships an actual pier for docking; the others use tender boats to service ships anchored off shore. Total: 1,440 By type: bulk carrier 335, container ship 53, general cargo 98, oil tanker 284, other 670 The Bahamas are one of the world's top five flag of convenience shipping registries; the main airports on the islands are Lynden Pindling International Airport on New Providence, Grand Bahama International Airport on Grand Bahama Island, Marsh Harbour International Airport on Abaco Island.
Out of 62 airports in all, 23 have paved runways, of which there are two that are over 3,047 meters long. Airports with paved runways: total: 23 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 914 to 1,523 m: 6 Airports with unpaved runways: total: 39 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 12 under 914 m: 22 Bahamasair is the national flag carrier airline of the Bahamas. A heliport is located on Paradise Island, as well as other smaller islands, such as the various cruise line private islands. There are no railways in the Bahamas. Transportation in the Bahamas Road Traffic Department of the Bahamas
Transport in Colombia
Transport in Colombia is regulated by the Ministry of Transport. Road travel is the main means of transport; the indigenous peoples in Colombia used and some continue to use the water ways as the way of transportation using rafts and canoes. With the arrival of the Europeans the Spaniards brought the horses and donkey used by them in ranching duties in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Horses contributed to the transport of the Spanish conquerors and colonizers, they introduced the wheel, brought wooden carts and carriages to facilitate their transport. The Spaniards developed the first roads and most of these in the Caribbean region. Due to the rough terrain of Colombia communications between regions was difficult and affected the effectiveness of the central government creating isolation in some regions. Maritime navigation developed locally after Spain lifted its restrictions on ports within the Spanish Empire inducing mercantilism. Spanish transported African slaves and forcedly migrated many indigenous tribes throughout Colombia.
With the independence and the influences of the European Industrial Revolution the main way of transport in Colombia became the navigation through the Magdalena River which connected Honda in inland Colombia, with Barranquilla by the Caribbean sea to the trade with the United States and Europe. This brought a large wave of immigrants from European and Middle Eastern countries; the industrialization process and transportation in Colombia were affected by the internal civil wars that surged after the independence from Spain and that continued throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. During the late 19th century European and American companies introduced railways to carry to the ports the local production of raw materials intended for exports and imports from Europe. Steam ships began carrying Colombians and goods from Europe and the United States over the Magdalena River; the Ministry of Transport was created in 1905 during the Presidency of Rafael Reyes under the name of Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Transporte or Ministry of Public Works and Transport with the main function of taking care of national assets issues, including mines, oil and trade marks, roads, national buildings and land without landowners.
In the early 20th century roads and highways maintenance and construction regulations were established. Rivers were cleaned and channeled and the navigational industry was organized; the Public works districts, as well as the Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Colombia. Among other major projects developed were the aqueduct of Bogotá, La Regadera Dam and the Vitelma Water Treatment Plant; the Ministry created the National Institute of Transit, under the Transport and tariffs Directorate and was in charge of designing the first National roads plan with the support of many foreign multinational construction companies. Aviation was born in Barranquilla with the creation of SCADTA in 1919 a joint venture between Colombians and Germans that delivered mail to the main cities of Colombia which merged with SACO to form Avianca. Colombia has 3,034 kilometers of rail lines, 150 kilometers of which are 1,435 mm gauge and 3,154 kilometers of which are 914 mm gauge. However, only 2,611 kilometers of lines are still in use.
Rail transport in Colombia remains underdeveloped. The national railroad system, once the country's main mode of transport for freight, has been neglected in favor of road development and now accounts for only about a quarter of freight transport. Passenger-rail use was suspended in 1992 resumed at the end of the 1990s, as of 2017 it is considered abandoned. Fewer than 165,000 passenger journeys were made in 1999, as compared with more than 5 million in 1972, the figure was only 160,130 in 2005; the two still-functioning passenger trains are: one between Puerto Berrío and García Cadena, another one between Bogotá and Zipaquirá. Short sections of railroad the Bogotá-Atlantic rim, are used to haul goods coal, to the Caribbean and Pacific ports. In 2005 a total of 27.5 million metric tons of cargo were transported by rail. Although the nation's rail network links seven of the country's 10 major cities little of it has been used because of security concerns, lack of maintenance, the power of the road transport union.
During 2004–6 2,000 kilometers of the country's rail lines underwent refurbishment. This upgrade involved two main projects: the 1,484-kilometer line linking Bogotá to the Caribbean Coast and the 499-kilometer Pacific coastal network that links the industrial city of Cali and the surrounding coffee-growing region to the port of Buenaventura; the three main north-south highways are the Caribbean and Central Trunk Highways. Estimates of the length of Colombia's road system in 2004 ranged from 115,000 kilometers to 145,000 kilometers, of which fewer than 15 percent were paved. However, according to 2005 data reported by the Colombian government, the road network totaled 163,000 kilometers, 68 percent of which were paved and in good condition; the increase may reflect some newly built roads. President Uribe has vowed to pave more than 2,500 kilometers of roads during his administration, about 5,000 kilometers of new secondary roads were being built in the 2003–6 period. Despite serious terrain obstacles three-quarters of all cross-border dry
Saint Lucia is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. The island was called Iyonola, the name given to the island by the native Amerindians and Hewanorra, the name given by the native Caribs. Part of the Lesser Antilles, it is located north/northeast of the island of Saint Vincent, northwest of Barbados and south of Martinique, it reported a population of 165,595 in the 2010 census. Its capital is Castries; the French were the island's first European settlers. They signed a treaty with the native Island Caribs in 1660. England took control of the island from 1663 to 1667. In ensuing years, it was at war with France fourteen times, the rule of the island changed frequently. In 1814, the British took definitive control of the island; because it switched so between British and French control, Saint Lucia was known as the "Helen of the West Indies" after the Greek mythology "Helen of Troy". Representative government came about in 1840.
From 1958 to 1962, the island was a member of the West Indies Federation. On 22 February 1979, Saint Lucia became an independent state and a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Saint Lucia is a mixed jurisdiction, meaning that it has a legal system based in part on both the civil law and English common law; the Civil Code of St. Lucia of 1867 was based on the Quebec Civil Code of 1866, as supplemented by English common law-style legislation, it is a member of Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Christopher Columbus may have sighted the island during his fourth voyage in 1502, since he made landfall on Martinique, yet he does not mention the island in his log. Juan de la Cosa noted the island on his map of 1500, calling it El Falcon, another island to the south Las Agujas. A Spanish cédula from 1511 mentions the island within the Spanish domain, a globe in the Vatican made in 1520, shows the island as Sancta Lucia. A 1529 Spanish map shows S. Luzia. One of the Windward Islands, Saint Lucia was named after Saint Lucy of Syracuse.
It is the only country in the world named after a historical woman. Legend states French sailors were shipwrecked here on 13 December, the feast day of St. Lucy, thus naming the island in honor of Sainte Lucie. In the late 1550s, the French pirate François le Clerc set up a camp on Pigeon Island, from where he attacked passing Spanish ships. In 1605, an English vessel called the Oliphe Blossome was blown off-course on its way to Guyana, the 67 colonists started a settlement on Saint Lucia, after being welcomed by the Carib chief Anthonie. By 26 September 1605, only 19 survived, after continued attacks by the Carib chief Augraumart, so they fled the island. In 1664, Thomas Warner claimed Saint Lucia for England, he brought 1,000 men to defend it from the French, but after two years, only 89 survived with the rest dying due to disease. In 1666, the French West India Company resumed control of the island, which in 1674 was made an official French crown colony as a dependency of Martinique. Both the British and the French found the island attractive after the sugar industry developed, during the 18th century the island changed ownership or was declared neutral territory a dozen times, although the French settlements remained and the island was a de facto French colony well into the eighteenth century.
In 1722, George I of Great Britain granted both Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent to The 2nd Duke of Montagu. He in turn appointed a merchant sea captain and adventurer, as deputy-governor. Uring went to the islands with a group of seven ships, established settlement at Petit Carenage. Unable to get enough support from British warships, he and the new colonists were run off by the French. During the Seven Years' War, Britain occupied Saint Lucia for a year. Britain handed the island back to the French at the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Like the English and Dutch on other islands, the French began to develop the land for the cultivation of sugar cane as a commodity crop on large plantations in 1765. In January 1791, during the French Revolution, the National Assembly sent four commissaries to St. Lucia to spread the revolution philosophy. By August 1791, slaves began to abandon their estates and Governor de Gimat fled. In December 1792, Lt. Jean-Baptiste Raymond de Lacrosse arrived with revolutionary pamphlets, the impoverished whites and free people of color began to arm themselves as patriots.
On 1 February 1793, France declared war on England and Holland, General Nicolas Xavier de Ricard took over as Governor. The National Convention abolished enslavement on 4 February 1794, but St. Lucia fell to a British invasion led by Vice Admiral John Jervis on 1 April 1794. Morne Fortune became Fort Charlotte. Soon, a patriot army of resistance, L'Armee Francaise dans les Bois, began to fight back, thus started the First Brigand War. A short time the British invaded the island as a part of the broken out war with France. On 21 February 1795 and a group of locals under the nominal control of Victor Hugues defeated a battalion of British troops at Vieux Fort and Rabot. In 1796, Castries was burned as part of the conflict. General John Moore retook Fort Charlotte in 1796 with the 27th Inniskilling Fusiliers after two days of bitter fighting; as an honour, the Fusiliers' regimental colour was displayed on the flagstaff of the captured fortress at Morne Fortune for an hour before be