Politics of Seychelles
Politics of Seychelles takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Seychelles is both head of state and head of government, of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly. By the end of the World War I, the population of Seychelles was 24,000, they were feeling somewhat neglected by Whitehall. There was agitation from the newly formed Planters Association for greater representation in the governance of Seychelles affairs. After 1929 a more liberal flow of funds was ensured by the Colonial Development Act, but it was a time of economic depression. Workers petitioned the government about their poor working conditions and the burden of tax they had to bear. Governor Sir Arthur Grimble instigated some reforms, exempting lower income groups from taxation, He was keen to create model housing and distribute smallholdings for the landless. Sadly, many of this reforms were not approved until World War II had broken out, everything was put on hold.
The Planters Association lobbied for the rich white land owners, but until 1937 those who worked for them had no voice. The League of Coloured Peoples was formed to demand a minimum wage, a wage tribunal and free health care for all; the first political party, the Taxpayers Association, was formed in 1939. A British governor described it as "the embodiment of every reactionary force in Seychelles", it was concerned with protecting the interests of the plantocracy. After the war, they benefited by being granted the vote, limited to literate property owners. At the first elections in 1948, most of those elected to the Legislative Council were predictably members of the Planters and Taxpayers Association, it was not until 1964. In that year, the Seychelles People's United Party was formed. Led by France Albert Rene, they campaigned for independence from Britain. James Mancham's Seychelles Democratic Party, created the same year, by contrast wanted closer integration with Britain. Britain was cool on the idea of integration.
At the first election under universal adult suffrage each party gained three seats with Mancham claiming victory through the support of an independent. Under the new constitution, Mancham became the Chief Minister of the colony. Subsequent elections in 1970 and 1974 gave Mancham a small majority in votes, but a large one in seats, through the "first past the post" voting system. At the April 1974 elections, the DP increased its majority in the Legislative Assembly by three seats, gaining all but two of the fifteen seats with only 52% of the popular vote. Meanwhile, Britain's lack of enthusiasm for integration convinced Mancham to join Rene in calling for independence; the DP and SPUP formed a coalition government in June 1975 to lead Seychelles to independence. The British Government was asked to appoint an electoral review commission so that divergent views on the electoral system and composition of the legislature could be reconciled; as a result, ten seats were added to five to be nominated by each party.
A cabinet of ministers was formed consisting of eight members of the DP and four of the SPUP, with Chief Minister Mancham becoming Prime Minister. With independence on 29 June 1976, Mancham assumed the office of president and René became Prime Minister. Less than one year after independence, on 5 June 1977, with James Mancham in London to attend the Commonwealth Conference, a small group of Rene's supporters and Tanzanian soldiers staged a coup and installed Rene as President. New elections were called in 1979 with Rene against barrister Robert Frichot. A one-party socialist state was established. Mancham was to remain in exile for 15 years. On 25 November 1981 a force of mercenaries led by "Mad" Mike Hoare attempted to take over the islands, but were discovered at the airport, they took over the tower, but hijacked an Air India flight and fled to South Africa where they were arrested and charged. In August 1982, mutineers in the Seychelles Army, maintaining loyalty to Rene but in revolt against alleged conditions in the service, took over the radio station.
They were overcome by Tanzanian troops. In November 1985, Gérard Hoarau, a prominent exiled opponent of Rene was shot and killed by an unidentified gunman on the doorstep of his London home. Hoareau's supporters claimed the Seychelles Government was responsible for the shooting but this was denied and the murder case never solved. However, for the most part Rene ruled throughout this period with underground opposition at home, he was elected unopposed at further elections in 1983 and 1987. Rene used Seychelles' strategic importance to obtain significant help from both superpowers of the period without having to commit himself to either. With a suppressed opposition, he was able to power through much needed social reforms. In February 1992, Conrad Greslé, a prominent local businessman and democracy activist was arrested and charged with treason for planning to overthrow the Seychelles Government with the help of foreign mercenaries and with alleged CIA involvement; this was the last attempt to overthrow the Seychelles Government by force.
After sixteen years of one-party rule, President Rene announced a return to the multiparty system of government at an Extraordinary Congress of the ruling Seychelles People's Progressive Front on 4 December 1991. On 27 December 1991, the Constitution of Seychelles was amended to allow for the registration of political parties. Among the exiles returning to Seychelles was James Mancha
Seychelles International Airport
Seychelles International Airport, or Aéroport de la Pointe Larue in French, is the international airport of the Seychelles located on the island of Mahé near the capital city of Victoria. The airport is the home base and the head office of Air Seychelles and features several regional and long-haul routes due to its importance as an international leisure destination; the airport is 11 kilometres southeast of the capital and is accessible by the Victoria-Providence Highway. It forms part of the administrative districts of La Pointe Larue, Cascade/Providence, Anse aux Pins; the Seychelles non-directional beacon is located 6.2 nautical miles off the approach end of Runway 13. The Seychelles VOR-DME is located on the field; the domestic terminal is a short distance north of the international terminal and offers inter-island flights with a peak of a departure every 10–15 minutes at busy times which corresponds with international arrivals/departures and every 30 minutes at other times. A cargo terminal is south of the international terminal and handles freight from all international and domestic movements.
A base of the Seychelles Public Defence Force is at the southeastern end of Runway 13 on an island, joined with Mahé at the construction of the airport. The opening of the Seychelles International Airport took place on 20 March 1972 by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. Wilkenair of Kenya had, however started a ferry service between Mombasa and Mahé via Diego Suarez in Madagascar and Astove Island using a twin engine Piper Navajo the previous year, it operated to the Seychelles once a week. The first pilot to land at Seychelles airport was Tony Bentley-Buckle, who flew his private plane from Mombasa to Mahe via Moroni in March 1971 before the airfield was complete; the flying time was 9 hours 35 minutes. This was followed by Luxair in December of the same year. A BOAC Super VC10 was the first jet aircraft to land at Seychelles International Airport on 4 July 1971. At the time of the opening it had a control tower. Ground handling and all other airport operations were carried out by the DCA. In 1972 John Faulkner Taylor and Tony Bentley-Buckle founded the first local aircraft company Air Mahé, which operated a Piper PA-34 Seneca between Praslin and Mahé Islands.
This aircraft was replaced by a Britten-Norman Islander. By 1974, over 30 airlines were flying to the Seychelles. Ground handling and all airport operations were being carried out by Aviation Seychelles Company, a company formed in 1973. Construction works for the substantial expansion of the airport started in July 1980 Due to the continuous increase in passenger traffic, a terminal building was built that could cater for 400 more arriving and 400 more departing passengers at any time. Parking bays for up to six large aircraft were a parking area for five light aircraft. In 1981, there was a gun battle at Seychelles International Airport, as British national Mike Hoare led a team of 43 South African mercenaries masquerading as holidaying rugby players in a coup attempt in what is known as the Seychelles affair. After their hidden weapons were discovered on arrival a skirmish ensued, with most of the mercenaries escaping in a hijacked Air India jet; the years 2005/2006 brought further development of civil aviation in the Seychelles.
The Civil Aviation Authority Act was enacted on 4 April 2006 for the corporatisation of the Directorate of Civil Aviation to Seychelles Civil Aviation Authority. Works started to upgrade and extend the terminal building, further extended to handle at least five medium to large jet aircraft as well as six smaller jet aircraft. Additional parking areas were made available to the north-east of the airport to handle the parking of charter and long stay aircraft; this reduces jet-lag as any flight that leaves Seychelles at night will get to most Western European cities in the early morning and vice versa from the European cities to the Seychelles. The airport has been home to unmanned aerial vehicles operated by the United States Air Force and the Central Intelligence Agency for operations over Somalia and the Horn of Africa. President of Seychelles James Michel welcomed the presence of U. S. drones in Seychelles to combat Somalian piracy and terrorism, dating back to at least August 2009. At least two MQ-9 Reaper UAVs have crashed into the Indian Ocean near the airport since December 2011.
There is frequent service to the bus station in Victoria, with taxi ranks outside the terminal available to all locations on Mahé Island. Several tour operators' coach services link passengers to the ferry terminal at the Old Port for inter-island ferry services and to the New Port for cruise holidays. There is plan to link the airport with a light railway/tram system that will run along the east coast of Mahé island due to the high transportation density of this area. Companies were invited to tender by the government in 2007. Transport in Seychelles List of airports in Seychelles Media related to Seychelles International Airport at Wikimedia Commons OpenStreetMap – Pointe Larue SkyVector – Seychelles Int'l Airport information for Seychelles International Airport at Great Circle Mapper. Accident history for Seychelles International at Aviation Safety Network Current weather for Seychelles Intern
History of Seychelles
Arab navigators and other sailors doubtless knew of Seychelles for many centuries. However, the recorded history of Seychelles dates back to the fourth of the Portuguese India Armadas led by Vasco da Gama. On 15 March 1503, the scrivener Thomé Lopes noted the sighting of an elevated island, doubtless one the granitic islands and certainly Silhouette Island; the first recorded landing was by the men of the English East India Company ship Ascension, which arrived in Seychelles in January 1609. The islands were claimed by France in 1756. Seychelles remained uninhabited until the first settlers arrived on board the ship Thélemaque, which arrived on 27 August 1770. Captain Leblanc Lecore landed the first colonists, comprising 15 white men, eight slaves and five Indians; the Seychellois Creole language developed as a means of communication between the different races. The British frigate Orpheus commanded by Captain Henry Newcome arrived at Mahé on 16 May 1794. Terms of capitulation were drawn up and the next day Seychelles was surrendered to Britain.
Following the fall of Mauritius to British forces, Captain Phillip Beaver of the Nisus arrived at Mahé on 23 April 1811 and took possession of Seychelles as a permanent colony of Britain. The Seychelles became an independent republic in 1976. Following a coup d'etat, a socialist one-party state ruled the country from 1977 to 1993; the subsequent democratic Presidential elections were won by candidates of the same party. The early history of Isle de Séchelles or Seychelles is unknown. Malays from Borneo, who settled on Madagascar lingered here circa 200-300 AD. Arab navigators, on trading voyages across the Indian Ocean, were aware of the islands, although they did not settle them. Arabs were trading the valued coco de mer nuts, found only in Seychelles, long before European discovery of the islands; the rotted-out nuts were found washed ashore in the Maldives and Indonesia. On 15 Marchn 1503, Vasco da Gama, crossing from India to East Africa, sighted what was certainly Silhouette Island and the next day, Desroches Island.
The granitic islands began to appear on Portuguese charts as the Seven Sisters. In March 1608, a trading fleet of the English East India Company set sail for India. Lost in a storm, the Ascension's crew headed for it, they anchored "as in a pond". They found an uninhabited island with plentiful fresh water, coconuts, birds and giant tortoises with which to replenish their stores; the Ascension sailed, reported what they had found, but the British took no action. Towards the end of the 17th century, pirates arrived in the Indian Ocean from the Caribbean and made a base in Madagascar, from where they preyed upon vessels approaching and leaving the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf; the French had occupied the Isle de France since 1715. This colony was growing in importance, in 1735 an energetic administrator, Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais was appointed, his brief was to protect the French sea route to India. La Bourdonnais, himself a sailor, turned his attention to making a speedier passage from Mauritius to India.
To this end, in 1742, he sent an expedition under the command of Lazare Picault to chart the islands northeast of Madagascar. On 21 November 1742, the Elisabeth and the Charles anchored off Mahé at Anse Boileau, they found a land of plenty. In fact, Picault named the island Ile d'Abondance. Picault's mapping was poor, so in 1744 he was sent back and renamed the main island Mahé, the group the Iles de la Bourdonnais, he had high hopes for the Iles de la Bourdonnais. However the islands were once more forgotten when La Bourdonnais was replaced in 1746; the outbreak in 1754 of what would become the Seven Years' War between England and France reminded the authorities on Mauritius about the islands. Two ships were commanded by Corneille Nicholas Morphey, he renamed the largest island Isle de Séchelles in honour of Viscount Jean Moreau de Séchelles, Minister of Finance during the reign of Louis XV. This name was used for the island group, whilst Mahé was again used for the largest granitic island. Morphey took possession for the French king and the French East India Company on 1 November 1756.
The end of the Seven Years' War, with France's loss of Canada and its status in India, caused the decline of the French East India Company, which had controlled Mauritius. This settlement, thus Seychelles, now came under direct royal authority; the new intendant of Mauritius, Pierre Poivre, was determined to break the Dutch monopoly of the lucrative spice trade. In 1768, Nicolas Dufresne arranged a commercial venture, sending ships to collect timber and tortoises from the Seychelles. During this expedition, French sovereignty was extended to cover all the islands of the granitic group on Christmas Day. In 1769, the navigators Rochon and Grenier proved that a faster route to India could safely be taken via the Seychelles, thus the importance of the islands' strategic position was realised. Meanwhile, Poivre had obtained seedlings of nutmeg and clove, 10,000 nutmeg seeds, his attempts to propagate them on Mauritius and Bourbon met with little success, he thought again of Seychelles. It was considered fortuitous when Brayer du Barré arrived on Mauritius with royal permission to run a settlement on St Anne at his own expense.
On 12 August 1770, 15 white colonists, seven slaves, five Indians and one black woman settled on St Anne. Du
Supreme Court of Seychelles
The Supreme Court of Seychelles is the highest trial court in Seychelles. It was created in 1903 by Order in Council, when it consisted of one judge, the Chief Justice of the Court. Appeal cases with final judgments of the court in civil matters were transferred to the Supreme Court of Mauritius; when Seychelles became a Republic in 1976, a new Seychelles Court of Appeal was constituted which consisted of a President, two Justices of Appeal and the Judges of the Supreme Court as ex-officio members. Appeals to the court of Civil Appeal of Mauritius were abolished. In 1993, under the new constitution, the judicial power of Seychelles is vested in the Supreme Court, a Court of Appeal, such subordinate courts or tribunals that may be established by legislature; the Attorney-General and the judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President from a list of candidates prepared by the Constitutional Appointments Authority. The head of the Supreme Court, the head of the Judiciary, is entitled the Chief Justice.
The other judges of the Supreme Court are referred to as Puisne Judges
The rupee is the currency of the Seychelles. It is subdivided into 100 cents. In the local Seychellois Creole language, it is called the roupi; the international currency code is SCR. The abbreviations SR and SRe are sometimes used. Seychelles is the smallest country. Several other currencies are called rupee; the British Legislative Council authorized the establishment of a Board of Commissioners of Currency through the Paper Currency Ordinance of 1914, enacted by C. R. M. O’Brien, the governor of the Colony of the Seychelles on 10 August 1914. In 1914, the government produced emergency issues of notes for 1, 5 and 10 rupees. Standard issue notes began to be issued in 1918, with notes for 50 cents and 1 rupee, followed by 5, 10 and 50 rupees in 1928; the 50 cents and 1 rupee notes were phased out in favor of the coins. 20- and 100-rupee notes were first introduced in 1968, whilst the 5-rupee note was replaced by a coin in 1972. In 1976, the Seychelles Monetary Authority took over the issuance of paper money, issuing notes for 10, 25, 50 and 100 rupees.
This series featured the first president of the Seychelles, James Mancham and replaced all colonial notes issued prior to independence. In 1979, there was a redesign, featuring a more socialist and modernized theme reminiscent of the René regime; this series was issued by the Central Bank of Seychelles when it took over full responsibility in the same year. In 1989, a new series was introduced with colors. In 1998, another more high-tech series was introduced with a more practical, ergonomic design; this series saw an additional 500-rupee note first introduced in 2005. On June 7, 2011, the Central Bank of Seychelles issued updated 50, 100 and 500 rupees notes with improved security features; each of the three banknotes has a holographic patch instead of a foil sailfish which appears on the notes. On the 50-rupee note, the silver holographic sailfish alternates between the number 50 and an image of the Aldabra rail, a flightless bird. On the 100-rupee note, the gold holographic sailfish alternates between the number 100 and an image of the Seychelles giant tortoise.
On the 500-rupee note, the gold holographic sailfish alternates between the number 500 and an image of the Seychelles scops owl. Additional security upgrades include a 2.5-mm wide fluorescent security thread on the 50-rupee note, a 2.5-mm wide color-shifting security thread on the 100-rupee note, a 3-mm wide color-shifting security thread on the 500-rupee note. The notes are protected by De La Rue’s unique Gemini technology that fluoresces under ultraviolet light but appears normal in daylight; the color schemes of the notes have been revised, with the notes being more green and orange than the notes in circulation. The new notes carry the year of printing, as well as the signature of Pierre Laporte, the bank’s current governor. Existing notes will be removed from circulation as they wear out. In December 2016, the Central Bank of Seychelles issued a new series of banknotes to commemorate 40 years of Seychelles' independence; the theme of this series is "Seychelles' Unique Biodiversity - the backbone of the economy".
Economy of Seychelles The banknotes of Seychelles
A merchant navy or merchant marine or mercantile marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a specific country. On merchant vessels, seafarers of various ranks and sometimes members of maritime trade unions are required by the International Convention on Standards of Training and Watchkeeping for Seafarers to carry Merchant Mariner's Documents. King George V bestowed the title of the "Merchant Navy" on the British merchant shipping fleets following their service in the First World War; the following is a partial list of the merchant navies or merchant marines of various countries. In many countries the fleet's proper name is the capitalized version of the common noun; the British Merchant Navy comprises the British merchant ships that transport cargo and people during time of peace and war. For much of its history, the merchant navy was the largest merchant fleet in the world, but with the decline of the British Empire in the mid-20th century it slipped down the rankings.
In 1939, the merchant navy was the largest in the world with 33% of total tonnage. By 2012, the merchant navy—still remaining one of the largest in the world—held only 3% of total tonnage; as of the year ending 2012, British Merchant Marine interests consists of 1,504 ships of 100 GT or over. This includes parent owned or managed by a British company; this amounts to: 59,413,000 GT or alternatively 75,265,000 DWT. This is according to the annual maritime shipping statistics provided by the British government and the Department for Transport. British shipping is globally by the UK Chamber of Shipping. Canada, like several other Commonwealth nations, created its own merchant navy in a large-scale effort in World War II. Established in 1939, the Canadian Merchant Navy played a major role in the Battle of the Atlantic bolstering the Allies' merchant fleet due to high losses in the British Merchant Navy. Thousands of Canadians served in the merchant navy aboard hundreds of Canadian merchant ships, notably the "Park Ship", the Canadian equivalent of the American "Liberty Ship".
A school at St. Margarets Bay, Nova Scotia, trained Canadian merchant mariners. "Manning pools", merchant navy barracks, were built in Canadian ports. The Greek maritime fleet is today engaged in commerce and transportation of goods and services universally, it consists of the merchant vessels owned by Greek civilians, flying either the Greek flag or a flag of convenience. Greece is a maritime nation by tradition, as shipping is arguably the oldest form of occupation of the Greeks and a key element of Greek economic activity since ancient times. In 2015, the Greek Merchant Navy controlled the world's largest merchant fleet in terms of tonnage with a total DWT of 334,649,089 tons and a fleet of 5,226 Greek owned vessels, according to Lloyd's List. Greece is ranked regarding all types of ships, including first for tankers and bulk carriers; the birth of the modern Indian Merchant Navy occurred before independence from the United Kingdom, when in 1919 SS Loyalty sailed from India to Britain. Today, India ranks 15th in the world in terms of total DWT.
India supplies around 12.8% of officers and around 14.5% of ratings to the world seafaring community. This is one of the highest of any country. India trains its officers similar to coast guards with all equipment including combat training, they are trained to protect their vessels at all cost from pirates. In December 1939, 3,000 seafarers were employed and 186 merchant vessels were on the New Zealand Registry; some foreign vessels were impressed, including Pamir. New Zealand, like several other Commonwealth nations, created a merchant navy. However, the "wartime Merchant Navy was neither a military force nor a single coherent body", instead it was a "a diverse collection of private companies and ships". Although some ships were involved in the Atlantic and North Pacific trade this involved domestic and South Pacific cargos. New Zealand-owned ships were involved in trade with the United Kingdom and the majority of New Zealand seamen had served with the British Merchant Navy. Over the course of the war, 64 ships were sunk by enemy action on the New Zealand–UK route, 140 merchant seafarers lost their lives.
The Pakistan Merchant Navy was formed in 1947. The Ministry of Port and Shipping, Mercantile Marine Department and Shipping Office established by the Government of Pakistan were authorized to flag the ships and ensured that the vessels were sea worthy. All of the private shipping companies merged and formed the National Shipping Corporation and the Pakistan Shipping Corporation and as a result they had a common flag. Among these companies were the Muhammadi Steamship Company Limited and the East & West Steamship Company. In the Indo-Pak war of 1971 Pakistan suffered a great loss of its merchant vessels at the hands of Indians. On 1 January 1974, President of Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto nationalized the National Shipping Corporation and Pakistan Shipping Corporation, formed the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation with the intent of reestablishing the Pakistan Merchant Navy; the company was incorporated under the provisions of the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation Ordinance of 1979 and the Companies Ordinance of 1984.
Today, the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation is the national flag carrier. The corporation's head office is located in Karachi. A regional office based in Lahore caters for
Vice-President of Seychelles
The Vice-President of Seychelles is the second highest political office in the Seychelles. The position was created in 1996. Seychelles Politics of Seychelles List of colonial governors of Seychelles List of Presidents of Seychelles Prime Minister of Seychelles Lists of Incumbents World Statesmen – Seychelles