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Transport in Sierra Leone

There are a number of systems of transport in Sierra Leone, a country in West Africa, which possess road, rail and water infrastructure, including a network of highways and several airports. There are 84 kilometres of railway in Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone no longer has any common carrier railroads, as the 762 mm gauge Sierra Leone Government Railway from Freetown through Bo to Kenema and Daru with a branch to Makeni closed in 1974; the country does not share rail links with adjacent countries and Liberia. The existing railroad is private and operated from 1933 until 1975 by the Sierra Leone Development Company's iron ore mines at Marampa, 66 km east-northeast of the port at Pepel, it is now used on a limited basis. Tecsbacos, the mining company, is reported in 2006 to have problems of theft and obstruction in operating the railway. In May 2008, an extension of this line to Tonkolili with conversion to 1,435 mm upgrade to carry 25,000 t per year was under consideration. Further details of the project were announced in October 2010.

Talks started with Russia in 2006 to seek help to rebuild railways in the country, although choice of gauge is problematic, since the original 762 mm gauge is obsolete. Because of widespread poverty, high petroleum prices and a large portion of the population residing in small communities, walking is the preferred method of transportation in Sierra Leone. There are 11,700 kilometres of highway in Sierra Leone; when construction and reconstruction of roads and bridges in the country is complete, the Trans–West African Coastal Highway will cross Sierra Leone, connecting it to Conakry, 11 other nations of the Economic Community of West African States. There are 800 km of waterways in Sierra Leone. Major ports of Sierra Leone include: Bonthe and Pepel. Queen Elizabeth II Quay in Freetown represents the country's only deep water port facility capable of berthing large-hulled cargo or military vessels; the country possesses a merchant marine of two cargo ships exceeding 1,000 GT. There are ten airports in Sierra Leone.

Of the remaining airports, all of which having unpaved runways, seven have runways of lengths between 914 and 1,523 m. There are two heliports in the country; this article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website UN Map of Sierra Leone

Kubilay Yilmaz

Kubilay Türk Yilmaz is a Turksh footballer who plays as a forward for Turkish club Boluspor on loan from Yeni Malatyaspor. He was born in Turkey, his family moved to Vienna shortly after his birth. Yilmaz is a native speaker of Turkish and German and speaks Czech and English fluently. Yilmaz was signed by Spartak Trnava in January 2017, he made his professional Slovak league debut for Trnava against MFK Zemplín Michalovce on 21 February 2017. Spartak Trnava Slovak Super Liga: 2017–18 Slovak Cup: 2018–19 FC SpartaK Trnava official club profile Kubilay Yilmaz at Soccerway Eurofotbal profile Futbalnet profile


Luiz Rhodolfo Dini Gaioto, or Rhodolfo, is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays as a centre back for Brazilian club Coritiba. Made professional debut away to Internacional in 0–2 defeat on 10 September 2006 in the Campeonato Brasileiro. In 2014, Rhodolfo became the vice-captain of Grêmio, taking the position occupied by Zé Roberto. On August 2014, Rhodolfo moved definitively to Grêmio, his contract with the Gaucho team ran through December 2017. On 24 July 2015 he signed with Turkish club Beşiktaş J. K. for three years with a conditional fourth year. On 11 June 2017, he was announced as new player by Flamengo, with a contract lasting until December 2019. Flamengo paid €1,1m to Beşiktaş J. K. to sign the player. As of 29 February 2020. Atlético ParanaenseCampeonato Paranaense: 2009São PauloCopa Sudamericana: 2012BeşiktaşSüper Lig: 2015–16, 2016–17FlamengoCampeonato Brasileiro Série A: 2019 Campeonato Carioca: 2019 Copa Libertadores: 2019 BrazilSuperclásico de las Américas: 2011 Campeonato Paulista Team of the year: 2011 Rhodolfo profile.

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History of South America

The history of South America is the study of the past the written record, oral histories, traditions, passed down from generation to generation on the continent of South America. South America has a history that has a wide range of human forms of civilization; the Norte Chico civilization in Peru is the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the first six independent civilizations in the world. It predated the Mesoamerican Olmec by nearly two millennia. While millennia of independent development were interrupted by the Portuguese and Spanish colonization of the late 15th century and the demographic collapse that followed, the continent's mestizo and indigenous cultures remain quite distinct from those of their colonizers. Through the trans-Atlantic slave trade, South America became the home of millions of people of the African diaspora; the mixing of ethnic groups led to new social structures. The tensions between colonial countries in Europe, indigenous peoples, escaped slaves shaped South America from the 16th through the 19th centuries.

With the revolution for independence from the Spanish crown achieved during the 19th century, South America underwent yet more social and political changes. These have included nation building projects, absorbing waves of immigration from Europe in the late 19th and 20th centuries, dealing with increased international trade, colonization of hinterlands, wars about territory ownership and power balance. During this period there has been the reorganization of Indigenous rights and duties, subjugation of Indigenous peoples living in the states' frontiers, that lasted until the early 1900s. In the Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic eras, South America and Africa were connected in a landmass called Gondwana, as part of the supercontinent Pangaea. In the Albian, around 110 mya, South America and Africa began to diverge along the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, giving rise to a landmass of Antarctica and South America. During the late Eocene, around 35 mya and South America separated and South America became a massive, biologically rich island-continent.

During 30 million years, the biodiversity of South America was isolated from the rest of the world, leading to the evolution of species within the continent. In the last million years since the Late Miocene, South America became connected with the continent of North America via the Panama Block that closed the marine Bolivar Trough, leading to the Great American Interchange, the interchange of biota from both continents; the first species discovered to have made the northward migration was Pliometanastes, a fossil ground sloth species the size of a modern black bear. Several migrations to the Southern Hemisphere were undertaken by tougher, North American mammal carnivores; the result of the intrusion of North American fauna was that hundreds of South American species became extinct in a short time and that about 60% of present-day South American mammals have evolved from North American species. However, some species were able to spread into North America. Apart from Pliometanastes, during the Irvingtonian stage of the mammal land stages, around 1.9 mya, species as Pampatherium, a giant armadillo, ground sloth Megatherium, giant anteater Myrmecophaga, a Neogene capybara, opossum Didelphis, Mixotoxodon followed the route north.

The terror bird Titanis was the only discovered South American carnivore species who made the journey into North America. The Americas are thought to have been first inhabited by people from eastern Asia who crossed the Bering Land Bridge to present-day Alaska. Over the course of millennia, three waves of migrants spread to all parts of the Americas. Genetic and linguistic evidence has shown that the last wave of migrant peoples settled across the northern tier, did not reach South America; the first evidence for the existence of agricultural practices in South America dates back to circa 6500 BCE, when potatoes and beans began to be cultivated for food in the Amazon Basin. Pottery evidence suggests that manioc, which remains a staple foodstuff today, was being cultivated as early as 2000 BCE. South American cultures began domesticating llamas and alpacas in the highlands of the Andes circa 3500 BCE; these animals were used for both meat. Guinea pigs were domesticated as a food source at this time.

By 2000 BCE, many agrarian village communities had developed throughout the Andes and the surrounding regions. Fishing became a widespread practice along the coast, with fish being the primary source of food for those communities. Irrigation systems were developed at this time, which aided in the rise of agrarian societies; the food crops were quinoa, lima beans, common beans, manioc, sweet potatoes, potatoes and squashes. Cotton was grown and was important as the only major fiber crop. Among the earliest permanent settlements, dated to 4700 BC is the Huaca Prieta site on the coast of Peru, at 3500 BC the Valdivia culture in Ecuador. Other groups formed permanent settlements. Among those groups were the Muisca or "Muysca," and the Tairona, located in present-day Colombia; the Cañari of Ecuador, Quechua of Peru, Aymara of Bolivia were the three most important Native peoples who developed societies of sedentary agriculture in South America. In the last two thou

Elizabeth Ann Ray

Elizabeth Nona Ann "Betty" Ray was a career officer in the United States Army and United States Air Force, most notably serving as director of Women in the Air Force from 1961 to 1965. Ray was born in 1913 in Winnsboro and was raised in Oklahoma, she moved around the state due to her father's job in the newspaper business. She graduated from high school in Mangum and attended Oklahoma College for Women for a year. In 1934 she earned a journalism degree from the University of Oklahoma. After graduation, Ray worked for a newspaper in Oklahoma, she was recruited by the War Department, where she served in the Public Relations Bureau. In 1942, Ray joined the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps and completed Officer Training School at Fort Des Moines, Iowa, she had brief assignments at the training center at Daytona Beach and at the WAAC Headquarters in the Pentagon before being transferred overseas in June 1943. Ray was stationed at the headquarters of Dwight D. Eisenhower in Algeria. In January 1944, she was appointed commander of a WAC intelligence squadron at 15th Air Force Headquarters in Bari, Italy.

She returned to the U. S. in late was assigned to the inactive reserve. On May 10, 1949, Ray was reactivated in the Women in the Air Force and sent to Mitchel Field, New York, where she commanded female troops worked in personnel and public relations. In 1950, she attended Armed Forces Informational School at Carlisle Barracks. From 1953 to 1955, Ray served as deputy director of WAF. From 1955 to 1958, Ray was assigned to DACOWITS as executive secretary for the advisory committee, she became chief of the promotion and augmentation/selection records branch of Strategic Air Command at Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska. In September 1961, Ray was appointed director of WAF and served in this capacity until her retirement in 1965. Elizabeth Ann Ray Papers at the Betty H. Carter Women Veterans Historical Project, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Manuel Flores (American politician)

Manuel "Manny" Flores is the Director of the Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation - Division of Banking. A member of the Democratic Party, Flores was elected to the Chicago City Council in 2003, he represented part of the city's near Northwest Side. Flores is a noted advocate for government transparency and the development of Chicago's green economy. Flores was born in El Paso, but raised in suburban Northlake, Illinois where he attended West Leyden High School, he received his bachelor's degree in political science at Dominican University in River Forest and his law degree from George Washington University Law School. At GW Law he was awarded honors for his clinical work on immigration and human rights litigation in political asylum cases, he went on to work as a congressional aide to Luis Gutiérrez and an assistant state's attorney with the Cook County State's Attorney Office. A year and a half after moving to the 1st ward, Flores chose to challenge Daley-backed incumbent Jesse Granato.

Flores outpolled Granato in the February primary election. In the April runoff, Flores was elected Alderman with 5,290 to Granato's 3,717, he served on seven Chicago City Council committees: Economic and Technology Development. Flores is noted as a champion of sustainability and government transparency, passing several landmark ordinances and initiating programs to develop the region’s green economy. Flores works on the Addison Industrial Corridor Redevelopment Project, a revitalization plan sponsored by the City of Chicago and the Metropolitan Agency for Planning to redevelop the underutilized planned manufacturing district at the north end of the 1st Ward. Alderman Flores has been working with the planning team to realize his vision to create the city’s first green manufacturing district in the Addison Industrial Corridor; the green manufacturing district will leverage retail opportunity and demand for manufacturing created by the nearby Green Exchange and provide jobs for the mixed-income workforce housed at Lathrop Homes.

His vision combines a sustainable philosophy with a plan to bring competitive jobs to the ward and retain the neighborhoods socioeconomic diversity. Flores sponsors the development of the Green Exchange, he worked with Baum Development, LLC, the City of Chicago Zoning Committee, private businesses to ensure the former factory was not converted into residential condominiums. Flores has been developing the Lathrop Homes LEED Neighborhood Development project with the Chicago Housing Authority to create the nation’s first LEED certified public housing project. Lathrop Homes, one of the oldest public housing projects in the city, is located in the northeast corner of the 1st Ward, close to the Green Exchange and the Addison Industrial Corridor. Alderman Flores and CHA are working to develop affordable sustainable housing in a transit-oriented development. LEED ND is a sustainability certification in the experimental stages and Lathrop Homes could become the first development in the United States to receive the qualification.

Flores instituted the Building Green in the First Ward program in January 2008. This program requires that all residential and commercial developers who receive a zoning change for new construction projects must participate in the Chicago Green Homes Program. Developers are required to achieve the maximum 3-star certification, ensuring that this new construction is an environmentally friendly, energy-efficient and high-quality project. In May 2009, Alderman Flores launched, a joint website and TV program, to bring everyday citizens into policymaking decisions concerning the development of the green economy in Chicago. The website and program—a collaborative effort between Alderman Flores, Mike Bueltmann of Clear Content, Comcast CN 100—features discussion and information pages that will be moderated by experts from academia, the private sector, government. Moderators will translate these pages into steps individual citizens can take to promote economic development in Chicago based on sustainable practices and values. seeks to tap into the groundswell of expertise and initiative occurring at the non-governmental level. The site utilizes a Web 2.0 approach to organizing and delivering information, allowing participants to directly provide input and feedback, enhancing social networks directed at specific policymaking and implementation processes. The TIF Sunshine Ordinance was introduced by Aldermen Flores and Waguespack and passed into law on April 22, 2009; the TIF Sunshine Ordinance publishes all documents pertaining to Tax Increment Financing district agreements online in a searchable format to be accessed by the public. This important transparency ordinance places information about the City’s expenditure of tax dollars raised in TIF districts, obscured to the public. Follow on the heels of the TIF Sunshine Ordinance is the City Asset Lease Disclosure Ordinance, introduced by Alderman Flores on May 13, 2009; the ordinance would publish and track documents pertaining to City asset lease agreements worth more than $10 million, such as the leasing of the Chicago Skyway, the Chicago Downtown Public Parking System and the Chicago Parking Meter System.

The ordinance would make all documents available online in a searchable format at a single location and provide a single accounting document to track the appropriations, income earner and future budget distributions generated through the lease of Ci