Transport in Dominica
Dominica is an island nation in the Windward islands in the Lesser Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean Sea. Most people arrive in Dominica via Douglas–Charles Airport, where most commercial flights to the island land. Dominica utilizes sea transport and a roadway network. There are two regional, no international airports on the island; the primary airport, Douglas-Charles Airport, is on the northeast coast and is about a 45-minute drive from Portsmouth. The second is about 15 minutes from Roseau on the southwest coast. Airlines which serve the Canefield Airport are Winair using DHC6-300 Series Twin Otters, Coastal Air using Cessna aircraft, Anguilla Air Services, Airawak, VI Airlink, Fly BVI, SVG Air and and many other regional airlines and charters. Douglas-Charles Airport is suitable for limited use of commercial jets because of runway length. Douglas-Charles has regular service by Air Sunshine, Seaborne Airlines and LIAT using twin turboprop aircraft like the ATR & Saab 340, as well as Conviasa and Amerijet, using Boeing 727 Freighters, is the only airline with jet service to the republic.
Since the passing of tropical storm Erika Amerijet has stopped all flight to the Douglas Charles Airport. A runway extension and service upgrade project began at Douglas-Charles Airport around 2006 and was finished in 2010. In March 2013, airline American Eagle halted flights to the island citing high labour costs; the only direct flights to Dominica are from other Caribbean islands. Douglas-Charles houses the Dominica Outstation of the Eastern Caribbean Civil Aviation Authority. Dominica has 1,512 kilometres of roadways, 762 kilometres of these roadways are paved. Dominica's road network runs along the coastline and along river valleys. Major roads are two-lane highways which connect the capital, with Portsmouth and the Douglas Charles Airport, it takes about 45 minutes to drive from Portsmouth to Roseau. Private minibuses form the major public transport system; these major roads were reconstructed with assistance from the People's Republic of China and the European Union. Due to Tropical Storm Erika, several road surfaces and bridges were damaged by flooding and landslides, including on the newly completed E.
O. LeBlanc and Dr. Nicholas Liverpool Highways; the only railway known to have operated on the island is a short-lived 36” gauge forestry railway which ran inland from the port of Portsmouth on the northern Leeward coast, 45 km north of Roseau from 1910 until 1913/14. Dominica provides ports for large cruise ships and transportation of goods into and out of the country; the main ports reside in Portsmouth. These are regulated by the Dominica Sea Ports Authority. Http://www.dominica.gov.dm/ - Government of Dominica https://www.facebook.com/dominicaports/ - Dominica Air and Sea Ports Authority
Road Town, located on Tortola, is the capital of the British Virgin Islands. It is situated on the horseshoe-shaped Road Harbour in the centre of the island's south coast; the population was about 9,400 in 2004. The name is derived from the nautical term "the roads", a place less sheltered than a harbour but which ships can get to. A 28 hectares development called Wickham's Cay, consisting of two areas that were reclaimed from the sea and a marina, have enabled Road Town to emerge as a haven for yacht chartering and a centre of tourism; this area is the newest part of the city and the hub for the new commercial and administrative buildings of the BVI. The oldest building in Road Town, HM Prison on Main Street, was built in 1774; the British Virgin Islands enjoy a tropical climate, moderated by trade winds. Temperatures vary little throughout the year. In the capital, Road Town, typical daily maxima are around 32 °C in the summer and 29 °C in the winter. Typical daily minima are around 24 °C in 21 °C in the winter.
Rainfall averages about 1,150 mm per year, higher in the hills and lower on the coast. Rainfall can be quite variable, but the wettest months on average are September to November and the driest months on average are February and March. Hurricanes hit the islands, with the hurricane season running from June to November. Road Town is one of the principal centres for bareboating in the Caribbean. Many successful yacht-charter businesses operate from Road Town. Cruise ships can be seen docked here as well; the Harbour is a popular jumping-off point for many of the ferries servicing the island. The ferry terminal is located at the north-west end of Road Town. Ferries run during the day every day of the week, but at night: it is important to consult an up-to-date ferry timetable in advance. Road Town is served by the British Virgin Islands' only major airport, Terrance B. Lettsome International Airport, at Beef Island, within a short drive of the city. Only short haul flights are available from this airport, long distance flights are served by Cyril E. King Airport in the US Virgin Islands.
"Buses" in Tortola refers to full-sized passenger vans, or large modified open-air pick-up trucks with bench seating and a canvas top: these are known locally as "safaris". Traveling by bus can be less expensive than having a taxi to oneself, is an option when travelling from the airport to Road Town, or from town to either end of the island. On 1 August 1834, the Slavery Abolition Act was read at the Sunday Morning Well. In 1853, a town-wide fire destroyed nearly every building in Road Town; the fire spread because of angry rioters protested an increase on the cattle tax. Rioters set fire to most of the plantations across the island. On 4 September 2017, The largest and strongest hurricane in history, Hurricane Irma and devastated the island leaving behind multiple casualties in the aftermath. There is some ambiguity as to the precise geographical extent of Road Town. Approaching the town from the west, a sign at the bottom of Slaney Hill greets visitors to Road Town, but traditionalists assert that the town itself only starts from Road Reef and Fort Burt, that Prospect Reef Hotel is not technically in Road Town.
Approaching Road Town from the east, there is similar ambiguity if Road Town begins at the Port Purcell roundabout below Fort George, or whether it includes Baughers' Bay. Fort Burt and Fort George were the historical markers of the western and eastern limits of the town which benefitted from the protection of the Crown. Government House, the official residence of the Governor of the British Virgin Islands located in Road Town Ferry Schedule Tortola Map & Guide Detailed map of Road Town article from Encyclopædia Britannica Real Travel/Frommer's Travel Guide to Road Town
Transport in El Salvador
El Salvador has transport links by road, rail and air. El Salvador has over 10,000 km of roads, one passenger rail service. There are several seaports on the Pacific Ocean, two international airports. A weekday passenger service links a journey of 40 minutes. Of a total of 602 km narrow gauge rail, much is abandoned. In November 2013 the government rail agency FENADESAL announced plans for development of four electrified railways serving San Salvador, Sitio del Niño, El Salvador International Airport, La Unión, the Honduran frontier. Guatemala - 3 ft gauge both countries closed. Honduras - none A new railway to be known as FERISTSA was proposed in 2005 to connect Mexico with Panama, passing through El Salvador. Total: 10,029 km paved: 1,986 km unpaved: 8,043 km The RN-21 is the first freeway to be built in El Salvador and in Central America; the freeway passes the northern area of the city of La Libertad. It has a small portion serving Antiguo Cuscatlan, La Libertad, merges with the RN-5 in San Salvador.
The total length of the RN-21 is 9.95 kilometres and is working as a traffic reliever in the metropolitan area. The RN-21 was named in honor of Monseñor Romero; the first phase of the highway was completed in 2009, the second phase in November 2012. Acajutla Puerto Cutuco La Libertad La Unión Puerto El Triunfo none 75 total: 4 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 2 total: 71 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 14 under 914 m: 56 1 El Salvador International Airport Ilopango International Airport El Tamarindo
Transportation in Canada
Transportation in Canada, the world's second-largest country in total area, is dedicated to having an efficient, high-capacity multimodal transport spanning vast distances between natural resource extraction sites and urban areas. Canada's transportation system includes more than 1,400,000 kilometres of roads, 10 major international airports, 300 smaller airports, 72,093 km of functioning railway track, more than 300 commercial ports and harbours that provide access to the Pacific and Arctic oceans as well as the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway. In 2005, the transportation sector made up 4.2% of Canada's GDP, compared to 3.7% for Canada's mining and oil and gas extraction industries. Transport Canada oversees and regulates most aspects of transportation within federal jurisdiction, including interprovincial transport; this includes rail and maritime transportation. Transport Canada is under the direction of the federal government's Minister of Transport; the Transportation Safety Board of Canada is responsible for maintaining transportation safety in Canada by investigating accidents and making safety recommendations.
There is a total of 1,042,300 km of roads in Canada, of which 415,600 km are paved, including 17,000 km of expressways. As of 2008, 626,700 km were unpaved. In 2009, there were 20,706,616 road vehicles registered in Canada, of which 96% were vehicles under 4.5 tonnes, 2.4% were vehicles between 4.5 and 15 t tonnes and 1.6% were 15 t or greater. These vehicles travelled a total of 333.29 billion kilometres, of which 303.6 billion was for vehicles under 4.5 t, 8.3 billion was for vehicles between 4.5 and 15 t and 21.4 billion was for vehicles over 15 t. For the 4.5 to 15 t trucks, 88.9% of vehicle-kilometres were intra-province trips, 4.9% were inter-province, 2.8% were between Canada and the US and 3.4% made outside of Canada. For trucks over 15 t, 59.1% of vehicle-kilometres were intra-province trips, 20% inter-province trips, 13.8% Canada-US trips and 7.1% trips made outside of Canada. Canada's vehicles consumed a total of 31.4 million cubic metres of gasoline and 9.91 million cubic metres of diesel.
Trucking generated 35% of the total GDP from transport, compared to 25% for rail and air combined. Hence roads are the dominant means of freight transport in Canada. Roads and highways were managed by provincial and municipal authorities until construction of the Northwest Highway System and the Trans-Canada Highway project initiation; the Alaska Highway of 1942 was constructed during World War II for military purposes connecting Fort St. John, British Columbia with Fairbanks, Alaska; the transcontinental highway, a joint national and provincial expenditure, was begun in 1949 under the initiation of the Trans Canada Highway Act on December 10, 1949. The 7,821 km highway was completed in 1962 at a total expenditure of $1.4 billion. Internationally, Canada has road links with Alaska; the Ministry of Transportation maintains the road network in Ontario and employs Ministry of Transport Enforcement Officers for the purpose of administering the Canada Transportation Act and related regulations. The Department of Transportation in New Brunswick performs a similar task in that province as well.
Regulations enacted in regards to Canada highways are the 1971 Motor Vehicle Safety Act and the 1990 Highway Traffic ActThe safety of Canada's roads is moderately good by international standards, is improving both in terms of accidents per head of population and per billion vehicle kilometers. Air transportation made up 9% of the transport sector's GDP generation in 2005. Canada's largest air carrier and its flag carrier is Air Canada, which had 34 million customers in 2006 and, as of April 2010, operates 363 aircraft. CHC Helicopter, the largest commercial helicopter operator in the world, is second with 142 aircraft and WestJet, a low-cost carrier formed in 1996, is third with 100 aircraft. Canada's airline industry saw significant change following the signing of the US-Canada open skies agreement in 1995, when the marketplace became less regulated and more competitive; the Canadian Transportation Agency employs transportation enforcement officers to maintain aircraft safety standards, conduct periodic aircraft inspections, of all air carriers.
The Canadian Air Transport Security Authority is charged with the responsibility for the security of air traffic within Canada. In 1994 the National Airports Policy was enacted Of over 1,800 registered Canadian aerodromes, certified airports and floatplane bases, 26 are specially designated under Canada's National Airports System: these include all airports that handle 200,000 or more passengers each year, as well as the principal airport serving each federal and territorial capital. However, since the introduction of the policy only one, Iqaluit Airport, has been added and no airports have been removed despite dropping below 200,000 passengers; the Government of Canada, with the exception of the three territorial capitals, retains ownership of these airports and leases them to local authorities. The next tier consists
Transport in Colombia
Transport in Colombia is regulated by the Ministry of Transport. Road travel is the main means of transport; the indigenous peoples in Colombia used and some continue to use the water ways as the way of transportation using rafts and canoes. With the arrival of the Europeans the Spaniards brought the horses and donkey used by them in ranching duties in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Horses contributed to the transport of the Spanish conquerors and colonizers, they introduced the wheel, brought wooden carts and carriages to facilitate their transport. The Spaniards developed the first roads and most of these in the Caribbean region. Due to the rough terrain of Colombia communications between regions was difficult and affected the effectiveness of the central government creating isolation in some regions. Maritime navigation developed locally after Spain lifted its restrictions on ports within the Spanish Empire inducing mercantilism. Spanish transported African slaves and forcedly migrated many indigenous tribes throughout Colombia.
With the independence and the influences of the European Industrial Revolution the main way of transport in Colombia became the navigation through the Magdalena River which connected Honda in inland Colombia, with Barranquilla by the Caribbean sea to the trade with the United States and Europe. This brought a large wave of immigrants from European and Middle Eastern countries; the industrialization process and transportation in Colombia were affected by the internal civil wars that surged after the independence from Spain and that continued throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. During the late 19th century European and American companies introduced railways to carry to the ports the local production of raw materials intended for exports and imports from Europe. Steam ships began carrying Colombians and goods from Europe and the United States over the Magdalena River; the Ministry of Transport was created in 1905 during the Presidency of Rafael Reyes under the name of Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Transporte or Ministry of Public Works and Transport with the main function of taking care of national assets issues, including mines, oil and trade marks, roads, national buildings and land without landowners.
In the early 20th century roads and highways maintenance and construction regulations were established. Rivers were cleaned and channeled and the navigational industry was organized; the Public works districts, as well as the Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Colombia. Among other major projects developed were the aqueduct of Bogotá, La Regadera Dam and the Vitelma Water Treatment Plant; the Ministry created the National Institute of Transit, under the Transport and tariffs Directorate and was in charge of designing the first National roads plan with the support of many foreign multinational construction companies. Aviation was born in Barranquilla with the creation of SCADTA in 1919 a joint venture between Colombians and Germans that delivered mail to the main cities of Colombia which merged with SACO to form Avianca. Colombia has 3,034 kilometers of rail lines, 150 kilometers of which are 1,435 mm gauge and 3,154 kilometers of which are 914 mm gauge. However, only 2,611 kilometers of lines are still in use.
Rail transport in Colombia remains underdeveloped. The national railroad system, once the country's main mode of transport for freight, has been neglected in favor of road development and now accounts for only about a quarter of freight transport. Passenger-rail use was suspended in 1992 resumed at the end of the 1990s, as of 2017 it is considered abandoned. Fewer than 165,000 passenger journeys were made in 1999, as compared with more than 5 million in 1972, the figure was only 160,130 in 2005; the two still-functioning passenger trains are: one between Puerto Berrío and García Cadena, another one between Bogotá and Zipaquirá. Short sections of railroad the Bogotá-Atlantic rim, are used to haul goods coal, to the Caribbean and Pacific ports. In 2005 a total of 27.5 million metric tons of cargo were transported by rail. Although the nation's rail network links seven of the country's 10 major cities little of it has been used because of security concerns, lack of maintenance, the power of the road transport union.
During 2004–6 2,000 kilometers of the country's rail lines underwent refurbishment. This upgrade involved two main projects: the 1,484-kilometer line linking Bogotá to the Caribbean Coast and the 499-kilometer Pacific coastal network that links the industrial city of Cali and the surrounding coffee-growing region to the port of Buenaventura; the three main north-south highways are the Caribbean and Central Trunk Highways. Estimates of the length of Colombia's road system in 2004 ranged from 115,000 kilometers to 145,000 kilometers, of which fewer than 15 percent were paved. However, according to 2005 data reported by the Colombian government, the road network totaled 163,000 kilometers, 68 percent of which were paved and in good condition; the increase may reflect some newly built roads. President Uribe has vowed to pave more than 2,500 kilometers of roads during his administration, about 5,000 kilometers of new secondary roads were being built in the 2003–6 period. Despite serious terrain obstacles three-quarters of all cross-border dry
Transport in the Falkland Islands
The Falkland Islands has three primary means of transport - road and air. However, in 1946, when Sir Miles Clifford arrived as governor, there were no air services, no roads outside Stanley and an indifferent sea service. Sir Miles was instrumental in starting the Falkland Islands Government Air Service in December 1948; the inaugural flight involved a mercy flight from North Arm Settlement to Stanley to bring a girl with peritonitis to life-saving medical help in Stanley. There are now an international airport, a domestic airport, a number of airstrips, a growing road network and a much-improved ferry service between the two main islands. In 1982, the Falkland Islands had no roads outside Stanley, only tracks. By 2007, the Falkland Islands had a road network of 488 miles with a further roads planned for construction link to all occupied mainland settlements by 2013. In 2012, the Falkland Islands Government classified the 536 miles road network - East Falkland 304 miles and West Falkland 232 miles - into "A" roads, "B" roads and "C" roads for purposes of Highways Asset Management Plan.
The "A" roads are the 75 miles link between Stanley and New Haven and the 48 miles link between Port Howard and Fox Bay. All roads within Stanley are asphalted; the road between Stanley and MPA is gravel all-weather roads with some short asphalted sections. The road between Stanley and MPA has a large trench on either side, which will ground any vehicle driving into it; these trenches were dug deeper than they needed to be as annual rainfall was taken as a number for the monthly rainfall. Stanley has two taxi services which can be used for travel within the town and the surrounding areas. A variety of four-wheel drive vehicles can be hired in Stanley, which are essential for travel along unpaved roads that are badly potholed. A bus service ferries passengers between the main airport for international flights at Mount Pleasant and Stanley. Bicycles can be hired, though because of the unsealed roads and hilly terrain, these are more suitable for use around the Stanley area. Speed limits are 40 mph elsewhere.
There are two seaports in the Falkland Islands and Fox Bay. The designated harbours in Stanley area include Berkeley Sound, Port William and Stanley Harbour itself. Fox Bay is a customs entry point for West Falkland; the Falkland Islands do not have a merchant navy. Since November 2008, a regular ferry service has linked the two main islands, carrying cars and cargo; the ferry, MV Concordia Bay, a 42.45 m twin-screw shallow draft landing craft runs between Port Howard in West Falkland and New Haven in East Falkland. She has a deck, 30 m in length and 10 m in width, sufficient for 16 one-ten Land Rovers and accommodation for 30 passengers, she has a crane, capable of lifting 10 tonnes at 7 m. She visits some of the smaller islands. Other smaller boats may be chartered in advance. Tourist cruise ships visit many of the islands, making use of inflatable boats where adequate docking facilities are not available. A 2-foot gauge railway, known as the Camber Railway, was built along the north side of Stanley Harbour in 1915-1916 and used until the 1920s.
It was about 3.5 miles long. The trackbed is still visible; the Falkland Islands have two airports with paved runways. The main international airport is RAF Mount Pleasant, 27 miles west of Stanley. LAN Airlines operate weekly flights to Punta Arenas. Once a month, this flight stops in Río Gallegos, Argentina; the Royal Air Force operates flights from RAF Mount Pleasant to RAF Brize Norton in Oxfordshire, with a refuelling stop at Dakar, because the runway at RAF Ascension Island is closed until at least 2019. This service is called the South Atlantic Airbridge; as of 2011 Titan Airways operates the RAF air link. British International operate two Sikorsky S61N helicopters, based at RAF Mount Pleasant, under contract to the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence for moving military personnel and supplies around the islands; the smaller Port Stanley Airport, outside the city, is used for internal flights. The Falkland Islands Government Air Service operates Islander aircraft that can use the grass airstrips that most settlements have.
Flight schedules are decided a day in advance according to passenger needs and the next day's timetable is published every evening. The schedules are based on three routes - a Northern Shuttle and the Southern Shuttle that each have one flight a day and the East - West Shuttle that has a morning and an evening flight every day; the British Antarctic Survey operates a transcontinental air link between Port Stanley Airport and the Rothera Research Station on the Antarctic Peninsula and servicing other British bases in the British Antarctic Territory using a de Havilland Canada Dash 7. Media related to Transport in the Falkland Islands at Wikimedia Commons
Transport in Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago, a country that relies on industrialisation and tourism, has various transport systems. Trinidad is the larger island, with a business-oriented economy and the seat of the country's government and Piarco International Airport, the country's most major airport. A smaller number of international flights from fly directly to Tobago's Arthur Napoleon Raymond Robinson International Airport. There is a small airfield name Camden Airstrip in Couva, used for cropdusting planes. Public transport is provided by a bus service operated by government-owned Public Transport Service Corporation owned mini-buses and owned cars. Maxi-taxis and some cars carry passengers along fixed routes for a fixed fare, although cars are more expensive for similar routes carried by maxi-taxis because of their much smaller passenger capacities. Car taxis are not allowed to utilise the Priority Bus Route, as such maxi-taxis and buses are preferable for speedily entering and exiting the cities during rush hour.
In downtown Port of Spain on a street referred to as South Quay is the historic site of the Trinidad Government Rail building at. This former railway facility is now the current administrative and bus loading headquarters of the Public Transport Service Corporation; the compound houses the Maxi Taxi loading facility, located in its north- eastern quadrant. The Maxi Taxi loading facility is utilized by both route two or red banded Maxi Taxis and route three which are green banded; the red banded Maxi Taxis ply for hire from Port of Spain eastward to as far as the town of Sangre Grande. Green banded Maxi Taxis ply for hire from Port of Spain in a southern direction to either Chaguanas, considered central Trinidad or to the region of San Fernando located along the South- western coast of Trinidad; the entire PTSC compound located on South Quay Port of Spain is referred to as The Port of Spain Transit Centre. The name "City Gate" to which the facility is popularly referred cannot be of used by the PTSC of on any official documentation used to refer to this facility.
Other Maxi Taxis such as the Route one or yellow banded Maxis ply for hire from Port of Spain to West/ North- West Trinidad. This loading facility is located on #19- 21 South Quay in downtown Port of Spain two hundred meters West of the PTSC; this Route one facility caters to persons travelling to locations such as. In all other locations and for Port of Spain Intra-city transportation, taxi-stands are scattered at various streets of the town or region, after sunset some of these taxi-stands may change location, although this changed location is fixed. There has been a growth in popularity of American-style taxi-cabs that do not work along a fixed route and they can be booked for specific times for specific journeys. Ferries operate between Port of Scarborough. Cars can be kept in the cargo areas. Ferries run daily; the ferries are inexpensive, in spite of the minimum 2½–3 hour travel time between Port of Spain and Scarborough. The Water Taxi Service operates between the cities of Port of Spain and San Fernando at a peak rate of five sailings from San Fernando to Port of Spain per morning.
Each sailing carries 400 passengers. Travel time is 50 mins and the cost of the service is subsidized. There is a minimal agricultural railway system near San Fernando, but the Trinidad Government Railway, built while Trinidad and Tobago was a colony of the United Kingdom was scaled back until it was discontinued in 1968.. On April 11, 2008 the Trinitrain consortium announced it would plan and build 105 km two line Trinidad Rapid Railway, it was claimed. However the project was cancelled in September 2010. Total: 8,320 km paved: 8,320 km unpaved: 0 km Trinidad Island has a large and complex highway network that consists of three 6-lane freeways: Churchill–Roosevelt Highway, runs from Barataria to Wallerfield, extends for 45 km. Uriah Butler Highway, extends for 15.7 km. Beetham Highway that connects Barataria to Downtown Port of SpainOther Major Highways Solomon Hochoy Highway that connect Chaguanas to Debe and is being extended to Point Fortin Audrey Jeffers Highway that connects West Port of Spain to Cocorite Rienzi Kirton Highway that runs through San Fernando Diego Martin HighwayTobago Highways Claude Noel Highway that connects Canaan to ScarboroughMinor Highways San Fernando By-Pass Wrightson Road Rivulet Road South Trunk Road Pipelines: crude oil 1,032 km.