The Antarctic Peninsula, known as O'Higgins Land in Chile, Tierra de San Martin in Argentina, known as the Palmer Peninsula in the US and as Graham Land in Great Britain, is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica, located at the base of the Southern Hemisphere. At the surface, it is the biggest, most prominent peninsula in Antarctica as it extends 1,300 km from a line between Cape Adams and a point on the mainland south of Eklund Islands. Beneath the ice sheet which covers it, the Antarctic Peninsula consists of a string of bedrock islands, they are joined together by a grounded ice sheet. Tierra del Fuego, the southernmost tip of South America, lies only about 1,000 km away across the Drake Passage; the Antarctic Peninsula is dotted with numerous research stations and nations have made multiple claims of sovereignty. The peninsula is part of disputed and overlapping claims by Argentina and the United Kingdom. None of these claims have international recognition and, under the Antarctic Treaty System, the respective countries do not attempt to enforce their claims.
The British claim is recognised though by Australia, New Zealand and Norway. Argentina has the most personnel stationed on the peninsula; the most first sighting of the Antarctic Peninsula, therefore of the whole Antarctic mainland, was on 27 January 1820 by an expedition of the Russian Imperial Navy led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen. But the party did not recognize as the mainland what they thought was an icefield covered by small hillocks. Three days on 30 January 1820, Edward Bransfield and William Smith, with a British expedition, were the first to chart part of the Antarctic Peninsula; this area was to be called Trinity Peninsula and is the extreme northeast portion of the peninsula. The next confirmed sighting was in 1832 by John Biscoe, a British explorer, who named the northern part of the Antarctic Peninsula as Graham Land; the first European to land on the continent is disputed. A 19th-century seal hunter, John Davis, was certainly the first. But, sealers were secretive about their movements and their logbooks were deliberately unreliable, to protect any new sealing grounds from competition.
Between 1901 and 1904, Otto Nordenskiöld led the Swedish Antarctic Expedition, one of the first expeditions to explore parts of Antarctica. They landed on the Antarctic Peninsula in February 1902, aboard the ship Antarctic, which sank not far from the peninsula. All crew were saved, they were rescued by an Argentine ship. The British Graham Land Expedition between 1934 and 1937 carried out aerial surveys and concluded that Graham Land was not an archipelago but a peninsula. Agreement on the name "Antarctic Peninsula" by the US-ACAN and UK-APC in 1964 resolved a long-standing difference over the use of the United States' name "Palmer Peninsula" or the British name "Graham Land" for this geographic feature; this dispute was resolved by making Graham Land the part of the Antarctic Peninsula northward of a line between Cape Jeremy and Cape Agassiz. Palmer Land is named for the United States seal hunter Nathaniel Palmer; the Chilean name for the feature, O'Higgins Land, is in honor of Bernardo O'Higgins, the Chilean patriot and Antarctic visionary.
Most other Spanish-speaking countries call it la Península Antártica, though Argentina officially refers to this as Tierra de San Martín. Other portions of the peninsula are named by and after the various expeditions that discovered them, including the Bowman Coast, the Black Coast, the Danco Coast, the Davis Coast, the English Coast, the Fallieres Coast, Loubet Land, the Nordenskjold Coast and the Wilkins Coast; the first Antarctic research stations were established during World War II by a British military operation, Operation Tabarin. The 1950s saw a marked increase in the number of research bases as Britain and Argentina competed to make claims over the same area. Meteorology and geology were the primary research subjects. Since the peninsula has the mildest climate in Antarctica, the highest concentration of research stations on the continent can be found there, or on the many nearby islands, it is the part of Antarctica most visited by tour vessels and yachts. Occupied bases include Base General Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme, Bellingshausen Station, Comandante Ferraz Brazilian Antarctic Base, Rothera Research Station and San Martín Base.
Today on the Antarctic Peninsula there are many abandoned military bases. Argentina's Esperanza Base was the birthplace of Emilio Marcos Palma, the first person to be born in Antarctica; the grounding of the Argentine ship the ARA Bahía Paraíso and subsequent 170,000 US gal oil spill occurred near the Antarctic Peninsula in 1989. The peninsula is mountainous, its highest peaks rising to about 2,800 m. Notable peaks on the peninsula include Mount Castro, Mount Coman, Mount Gilbert, Mount Jackson, Mount Hope, the highest point at 3,239 m, Mount William, Mount Owen and Mount Scott; these mountains are considered to be a continuation of the Andes of South America, with a submarine spine or ridge connecting the two. This is the basis for the position advanced by Argentina for their territorial claims; the Scotia Arc is the island arc system that links the mountains of the Antarctic Peninsula to those of Tierra del Fuego. There are various volcanoes in the islands around the Antarctic Peninsula; this volcanism is related to extensional tecton
Port William, Falkland Islands
Port William is a large inlet on the east coast of East Falkland island. A strait called. Port William has several other bays on it, namely Gypsy Cove and Yorke Bay, a noted beauty spot, Hearnden Water, the estuary of the Murrell River and Weir Creek, Blanco Bay and Sparrow Cove. Kidney Island is just north of Port William; the peninsula on which Canopus Hill, Stanley Airport and Gypsy Cove lie, together with a narrow spit of land known as Navy Point divides Port William from Stanley Harbour. As such this is the busiest waterway of the Falkland Islands and visited by cruise ships and navy vessels, although this has lessened since the building of the two airports at RAF Mount Pleasant and Stanley Airport, it was enlarged as the result of glacial action. It is mined due to the Falkland Crisis. At a meeting of the Executive Council of the Falkland Islands on 24 October 2012 Members of the Legislative Assembly of the Falkland Islands instructed officials of the Falkland Islands Government to proceed with costed proposals for a new deep water port and associated infrastructure at Port William
RAF Ascension Island
RAF Ascension known as Wideawake Airfield or Ascension Island Auxiliary Field, is a military airfield and facility located on Ascension Island in the Atlantic Ocean. The airfield is jointly operated by the United States Air Force; the facility is home to a USAF ground tracking station in support of the Eastern Range and rocket launches from Cape Canaveral in Florida. Ascension Island forms part of a British Overseas Territory together with Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha. In 1939 Ascension became important as a high-frequency direction finding radio station covering trade routes. Wideawake Airfield was built by the US military in 1942 by arrangement with the British government; the airfield was built using a US task force. The first aircraft to land on Ascension Island was a Fairey Swordfish from HMS Archer in June, 1942 and it went on to be used by more than 25,000 aircraft as a staging point during the war; the airfield fell into disuse. A USAF tracking station was activated as a satellite of Patrick Air Force Base in Florida on 25 June 1956.
The airfield's runway was extended in the Autumn of 1980. It was re-garrisoned by the RAF in 1982 and used extensively as a staging airfield during the Falklands War. A series of long-range bombing raids was carried out from there under the name Operation Black Buck; the Target Tracking Radar Station was a Nike Zeus test facility for tracking reentry vehicles from Cape Canaveral missile launches. Built from 1960-1961 for anti-ballistic missile measurement, the "Golf Ball" radar antenna was on Cat Hill, a collimation tower for radar calibration was towards English Bay; the facility is home to the Detachment 2 of the 45th Mission Support Group, part of the USAF 45th Space Wing. It operates a ground tracking station in support of the Eastern Range and rocket launches from Cape Canaveral in Florida; the NASA Tracking Station at Devil's Ashpit and the Cable & Wireless Earth Station at Donkey Plain were built in the mid-1960s for space operations and communications, including the latter's use for transmitting "microwave borne data via the Early Bird Satellite back to the NASA facility at Andover, Maine".
The station comes under the overall jurisdiction of the Commander British Forces South Atlantic Islands, an officer of one-star rank. As of December 2018, the incumbent is Brigadier Nick Sawyer; the RAF airfield on Ascension Island is run on a day-to-day basis by around 19 RAF personnel, headed by a wing commander. RAF Ascension Island is the refuelling point for the Ministry of Defence's South Atlantic air bridge flights to RAF Mount Pleasant, on the Falkland Islands, from RAF Brize Norton in Oxfordshire, in the UK. Beginning in November 2017, the Ascension Island Government has contracted South African Carrier Airlink to conduct scheduled charter flights between Saint Helena Airport and Ascension Island on a monthly basis. Flights are scheduled on the second week of every month, arriving at Ascension on Saturday afternoon and returning to Saint Helena on Sunday morning; the first of these flights are scheduled for 18 and 19 November 2017. Ascension serves as a diversion airport for ETOPS aircraft crossing the Atlantic.
In January 2013, a Delta Air Lines Boeing 777-200LR en route from Johannesburg to Atlanta diverted to Ascension as a result of engine problems. The site is home to a high frequency radio station forming part of the Defence High Frequency Communications Service; the station is operated by Babcock International Group on behalf of the Ministry of Defence. Potholes on the runway led to the suspension in April 2017 of all Ministry of Defence South Atlantic Air Bridge Flights between RAF Mount Pleasant and RAF Brize Norton until at least 2019/2020. An Airbus A330 aircraft operated by AirTanker Services on behalf of the Ministry of Defence carried out those flights although a limited number of commercial passenger tickets were available; those flights now travel via Cape Verde. Planes for emergency medical evacuation flights and the newly established monthly charter flight to Saint Helena Airport are not impacted given the size of aircraft used. Essential personnel and equipment are exempt from the suspension.
While A330s are for now unable to land at the airport, the United States military continues to maintain a weekly flight between the island and Patrick Air Force Base in Florida, only for the use of its personnel, while the MV Ascension supply ship services US facilities. A C-17 for the UK's MoD lands there at Ascension once a month for its own personnel. On 18 November 2017, SA Airlink started a scheduled weekly charter from Jamestown St Helena to the island. Saint Helena Airport List of Royal Air Force stations This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Media related to Wideawake Field at Wikimedia Commons RAF Ascension Island James Rogers and Luis Simón; the Status and Location of the Military Installations of the Member States of the European Union and Their Potential Role for the European Security and Defence Policy. Brussels: European Parliament, 2009. 25 pp
Titan Airways is a British charter airline founded in 1988 and based at London Stansted Airport. The carrier specialises in short notice ACMI and wet lease operations as well as ad-hoc passenger and cargo charter services to tour operators, corporations and the sports and entertainment sectors; the company holds a United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority Type A Operating Licence, permitting it to carry passengers and mail on aircraft with 20 or more seats and operates a fleet of 12 aircraft. Founded in 1988 as a subsidiary of the Artac Freight and Shipping Group, Titan Airways was named after its first aircraft type, a Cessna 404 Titan; the aircraft was used to carry car parts between various Ford/General Motors facilities in the UK and Europe, but it was available for ad hoc freight charters and passenger charters. By 1993, the fleet had grown to include an Embraer Emb 110 Bandeirante, two Short SD 330s and three SD 360s; the airline’s success attracted investment group 3i which took a stake in the company in 1995.
Two ATR 42s were added before the first jet – a BAe146-200QC – was acquired in 1996. This was the first containerised jet used by the Royal Mail, but it operated many passenger charter flights and airline sub-services; as the Mail contract grew in size, the first of five Boeing 737-300s was introduced in 1999. The airline has been profitable, turning a profit in 24 of its 27-year history and has ranked in the Sunday Times Profit Track 100 league table on four occasions since the year 2000. In the early 2000s Titan Airways found an additional niche in the market, pioneering a rapid response Go Now sub-charter service for airlines experiencing operational problems; the innovative concept earned the company Queen’s Award for Enterprise in 2001. Demand by customer airlines for more seats and greater range led to the acquisition of two 757-200s in 2003 and 2005, with one aircraft having a VIP interior for corporate use. In 2006 Titan achieved ETOPS rating for the aircraft, enabling long haul charters to the USA and Middle East.
The largest aircraft in the Titan family, a 265-seat B767-300, joined the fleet in 2009, the smallest, a new Cessna Citation CJ2+ arrived in December 2011. In 2012 Titan became an independent company, following a management buyout that leaves Gene Willson, Managing Director and one of the original founders, as the sole share holder. Titan added its first Airbus aircraft, a Airbus A320, to its fleet in early Spring 2013; this addition was the first step in its long-term fleet strategy which will see Titan's current fleet of Boeing aircraft being replaced by Airbus aircraft over the next five to six years. Two additional A320s joined the fleet in early 2015. September 2015 saw Titan announce that they plan to add a Airbus A319 and a Airbus A321 to the fleet before the start of Summer 2016 and that they are considering adding the smallest member of the Airbus A320 family, a Airbus A318, to their fleet. Titan Airways provides short, medium or long term wet and damp lease operations worldwide to third party carriers.
The UK carrier operates short notice sub-charter services, with the ability to launch aircraft within 60 minutes when airline customers experience unexpected operational problems. Titan Airways operates charter flights on a seasonal basis to a number of destinations on behalf of UK-based tour operators and cruise companies. Longstanding tour operator partnerships include regular operations from UK airports to Calvi in Corsica and Chambéry in France, Turin in Italy, Dalaman in Turkey, Preveza in Greece and Banjul in the Gambia. Aside from these regular seasonal routes, Titan Airways operates long and short haul flights on an ad hoc basis on behalf of individuals, blue chip companies, Premier League football teams, high-profile personalities and pop/rock groups. Titan Airways sometimes uses their aircraft in product launches, trade shows, promotional events and hospitality trips for other companies. Titan Airways’ cooperation with the Royal Mail dates back to the early 1990s when operations began with the carrier’s Shorts 360 and ATR42 aircraft.
In 1996 the carrier’s BAe 146-200 fleet superseded the smaller aircraft before being joined, replaced, by Titan’s Boeing 737-300QC’s. The aircraft operated on behalf of the Royal Mail with nightly flights from Stansted to Edinburgh and to Belfast. Titan Airways carries out flights for the FCO and flights for the Home Office Titan Airways' Boeing 767 operated to the Falkland Islands on behalf of the UK Ministry of Defence for two years until September 2012. Titan Airways' RJ100 aircraft has been based in Sharjah on contract to the UK MoD since 2011; the RJ100 superseded Titan Airways' BAe 146 operations in the Persian Gulf region which dated back to 2009. As of 28 October 2018, the Titan Airways fleet consists of the following aircraft: Eastwood and Roach, John. Turbo Prop Airliner Production List; the Aviation Hobby Shop, 1998, ISBN 0-907178-69-3. Media related to Titan Airways at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Berkeley Sound is an inlet, or fjord in the north east of East Falkland in the Falkland Islands. The inlet was the site of the first attempts at colonisation of the islands, at Port Louis, by the French. Berkeley Sound has several smaller bays within it - Uranie Bay, Port Louis harbour and Johnson's Harbour bay, separated by Grave Point, includes islands such as Hog Island, Kidney Island and Long Island, it was enlarged as the result of glacial action. Berkeley Sound was visited by Charles Darwin during his voyage on HMS Beagle in 1834, he found it an "undulating land, with a desolate and wretched aspect". Berkeley Sound is used by the fishing industry as a designated locality for the transshipment of fish, with accidental oil spills having occurred in the process. Green Patch Johnson's Harbour Port Louis Port Louis South
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world. Following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history. In particular, it played a large part in the Second World War where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain; the RAF's mission is to support the objectives of the British Ministry of Defence, which are to "provide the capabilities needed to ensure the security and defence of the United Kingdom and overseas territories, including against terrorism. The RAF describes its mission statement as "... an agile and capable Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission". The mission statement is supported by the RAF's definition of air power.
Air power is defined as "the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events". Today the Royal Air Force maintains an operational fleet of various types of aircraft, described by the RAF as being "leading-edge" in terms of technology; this consists of fixed-wing aircraft, including: fighter and strike aircraft, airborne early warning and control aircraft, ISTAR and SIGINT aircraft, aerial refueling aircraft and strategic and tactical transport aircraft. The majority of the RAF's rotary-wing aircraft form part of the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command in support of ground forces. Most of the RAF's aircraft and personnel are based in the UK, with many others serving on operations or at long-established overseas bases. Although the RAF is the principal British air power arm, the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm and the British Army's Army Air Corps deliver air power, integrated into the maritime and land environments. While the British were not the first to make use of heavier-than-air military aircraft, the RAF is the world's oldest independent air force: that is, the first air force to become independent of army or navy control.
Following publication of the "Smuts report" prepared by Jan Smuts the RAF was founded on 1 April 1918, with headquarters located in the former Hotel Cecil, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service. At that time it was the largest air force in the world. After the war, the service was drastically cut and its inter-war years were quiet, with the RAF taking responsibility for the control of Iraq and executing a number of minor actions in other parts of the British Empire; the RAF's naval aviation branch, the Fleet Air Arm, was founded in 1924 but handed over to Admiralty control on 24 May 1939. The RAF developed the doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became its main bombing strategy in the Second World War; the RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War. Under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of December 1939, the air forces of British Commonwealth countries trained and formed "Article XV squadrons" for service with RAF formations.
Many individual personnel from these countries, exiles from occupied Europe served with RAF squadrons. By the end of the war the Royal Canadian Air Force had contributed more than 30 squadrons to serve in RAF formations approximately a quarter of Bomber Command's personnel were Canadian. Additionally, the Royal Australian Air Force represented around nine percent of all RAF personnel who served in the European and Mediterranean theatres. In the Battle of Britain in 1940, the RAF defended the skies over Britain against the numerically superior German Luftwaffe. In what is the most prolonged and complicated air campaign in history, the Battle of Britain contributed to the delay and subsequent indefinite postponement of Hitler's plans for an invasion of the United Kingdom. In the House of Commons on 20 August, prompted by the ongoing efforts of the RAF, Prime Minister Winston Churchill eloquently made a speech to the nation, where he said "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few".
The largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command. While RAF bombing of Germany began immediately upon the outbreak of war, under the leadership of Air Chief Marshal Harris, these attacks became devastating from 1942 onward as new technology and greater numbers of superior aircraft became available; the RAF adopted night-time area bombing on German cities such as Hamburg and Dresden, developed precision bombing techniques for specific operations, such as the "Dambusters" raid by No. 617 Squadron, or the Amiens prison raid known as Operation Jericho. Following victory in the Second World War, the RAF underwent significant re-organisation, as technological advances in air warfare saw the arrival of jet fighters and bombers. During the early stages of the Cold War, one of the first major operations undertaken by the Royal Air Force was in 1948 and the Berlin Airlift, codenamed Operation Plainfire. Between 26 June and the lifting of the Russian blockade of the city on 2 May, the RAF provided 17% of the total supplies delivered du
Land Rover is a luxury car brand that specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles, owned by British multinational car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, owned by India's Tata Motors since 2008. The Land Rover is regarded as a British icon, was granted a Royal Warrant by King George VI in 1951; the Land Rover name was used by the Rover Company for the Land Rover Series, launched in 1948. It developed into a brand encompassing a range of four-wheel-drive models, including the Defender, Freelander, Range Rover, Range Rover Sport, Range Rover Evoque. Land Rovers are assembled in England, India and other markets; the design for the original vehicle was started in 1947 by Maurice Wilks. It was called Land Rover. Wilks, chief designer at the Rover Company, on his farm in Newborough, working in conjunction with his brother Spencer, the managing director of Rover; the design may have been influenced by the Jeep and the prototype nicknamed Centre Steer, was built on a Jeep chassis and axles. The early choice of colour was dictated by military surplus supplies of aircraft cockpit paint, so early vehicles only came in various shades of light green.
Early vehicles like the Series I were field-tested at Long Bennington and designed to be field-serviced. Land Rover as a company has existed since 1978. Prior to this, it was a product line of the Rover Company, subsequently absorbed into the Rover-Triumph division of the British Leyland Motor Corporation following Leyland Motor Corporation’s takeover of Rover in 1967; the ongoing commercial success of the original Land Rover series models, latterly the Range Rover in the 1970s in the midst of BL's well-documented business troubles prompted the establishment of a separate Land Rover company but still under the BL umbrella, remaining part of the subsequent Rover Group in 1988, under the ownership of British Aerospace after the remains of British Leyland were broken up and privatised. In 1994 Rover Group plc, including Land Rover, was acquired by BMW. In 2000, Rover Group was broken up by BMW and Land Rover was sold to Ford Motor Company, becoming part of its Premier Automotive Group. In 2006 Ford purchased the Rover brand from BMW for around £6 million.
BMW had retained ownership of the brand to protect the integrity of the Land Rover brand, with which'Rover' might be confused in the US 4x4 market and allowed it to be used under licence by MG Rover until it collapsed in 2005, at which point it was offered to the Ford Motor Company, who by owned Land Rover. On 11 June 2007, Ford announced. Private equity firms such as Alchemy Partners of the UK, TPG Capital, Ripplewood Holdings, Cerberus Capital Management and One Equity Partners of the US, Tata Motors of India and a consortium comprising Mahindra & Mahindra of India and Apollo Management all expressed interest in purchasing the marques from the Ford Motor Company. On 1 January 2008, Ford formally declared. In 2008, On 26 March 2008, Ford announced that it had agreed to sell its Jaguar and Land Rover operations to Tata Motors, that it expected to complete the sale by the end of the second quarter of 2008. On 18 January 2008, Tata Motors, a part of the Tata Group, established Jaguar Land Rover Limited as a British-registered and wholly owned subsidiary.
The new company was to be used as a holding company for the acquisition of the two businesses from Ford - Jaguar Cars Limited and Land Rover. That acquisition was completed on 2 June 2008 at a cost of £1.7 billion. Included in the deal to buy Land Rover and Jaguar Cars were the rights to three other British brands: the Daimler marque, as well as two dormant brands Lanchester and Rover. On 1 January 2013, the group, operating as two separate companies, although on an integrated basis, underwent a fundamental restructuring; the parent company was renamed to Jaguar Land Rover Automotive PLC, Jaguar Cars Limited was renamed to Jaguar Land Rover Limited and the assets of Land Rover were transferred to it. The consequence was that Jaguar Land Rover Limited became responsible in the UK for the design and marketing of both Jaguar and Land Rover branded products, Land Rover and Jaguar Cars ceased to be separate vehicle producing entities. 1947: Rover's chief designer Maurice Wilks and his associates create a prototype using Jeep chassis and components 1948: The first Land Rover was launched 30 April 1948, at the Amsterdam Motor Show 1958: Series II launched 1961: Series IIA began production 1967: Rover becomes part of Leyland Motors British Leyland as Rover Triumph 1970: Introduction of the Range Rover 1971: Series III launched 1974: Land Rover abandons US market facing competitive pressure from Japanese 4x4 brands 1975: BL collapses and is nationalised, publication of the Ryder Report recommends that Land Rover be split from Rover and be treated as a separate company within BL and becomes part of the new commercial vehicle division called the Land Rover Leyland Group 1976: One-millionth Land Rover leaves the production line 1978: Land Rover Limited formed as a separate subsidiary of British Leyland 1980: Rover car production ends at Solihull with the transfer of SD1 production to Cowley, Oxford.
5-door Range Rover introduced 1983: Land Rover 90 /110 /127 introduced 1986: BL plc becomes Rover Group plc.