Transport in Costa Rica
There are many modes of transport in Costa Rica but the country's infrastructure has suffered from a lack of maintenance and new investment. There is an extensive road system of more than 30,000 kilometers, although much of it is in disrepair. According to a 2016 U. S. government report, investment from China which attempted to improve the infrastructure found the "projects stalled by bureaucratic and legal concerns". Most parts of the country are accessible by road; the main highland cities in the country's Central Valley are connected by paved all-weather roads with the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and by the Pan American Highway with Nicaragua and Panama, the neighboring countries to the North and the South. Costa Rica's ports are struggling to keep pace with growing trade, they have insufficient capacity, their equipment is in poor condition. The railroad didn't function for several years, until recent government effort to reactivate it for city transportation. An August 2016 OECD report provided this summary: "The road network is extensive but of poor quality, railways are in disrepair and only being reactivated after having been shut down in the 1990s, seaports quality and capacity are deficient.
Internal transportation overly relies on private road vehicles as the public transport system railways, is inadequate." Total: 278 km narrow gauge: 278 km of 3 ft 6 in gauge The road system in Costa Rica is not as developed as it might be expected for such a country. However, there are some two-lane trunk roads with restricted access under development. Total: 35,330 km paved: 8,621 km unpaved: 26,709 km The Ministry of Public Works and Transportation, along with the National Road Council, are the government organizations in charge of national road nomenclature and maintenance. There are three level of nationwide roads: These are trunk roads devised to connect important cities, most of the national roads are connected to the capital city, San José. Numbered from 1 to 39. Route 1, part of the Pan-American Highway. Connects San José, Palmares San Ramón, Esparza, Cañas, Liberia and La Cruz. There are two toll booths, in Naranjo, it consists of the following named segments: Autopista General Cañas: San José to Juan Santamaría International Airport.
Autopista Bernardo Soto: From Juan Santamaría International Airport to San Ramón. Interamericana Norte: San Ramón to Peñas Blancas. Route 2, part of the Pan-American Highway. Connected cities include San José, San Pedro, Tres RíosCartago, Tejar del Guarco San Isidro de El General, Buenos Aires, Palmar Norte, Paso Canoas. There is one toll booth in Tres Ríos de La Unión, it consists of the following named segments: Autopista Florencio del Castillo: San José to Cartago. Interamericana Sur: Cartago to Paso Canoas. Route 27, is operated by Autopistas del Sol, it connects San José, Santa Ana, Ciudad Colón, Atenas and Puntarenas. There are four toll booths at San Rafael de Escazú, San Rafael de Alajuela and Orotina, it consists of the following named segments: Autopista Próspero Fernández: San José to Santa Ana. Autopista José María Castro Madriz: Santa Ana to Caldera. Route 32 Connects San José, Tibás, Guápiles, Guácimo, Limón. One toll booth in San Isidro, Heredia, it consists of the following named segments: Autopista Braulio Carrillo, San José to San Juan de Tibás.
Carretera Braulio Carrillo, San Juan de Tibás to Siquirres. Carretera José Joaquin Trejos Fernández, Siquirres to Limón. Route 34, Pacífica Fernández. Algunas ciudades que comunica: Pozón - Tárcoles - Herradura - Jacó - Parrita - Quepos - Dominical- Puerto Cortés - Palmar Norte Route 39, Paseo de la Segunda República, is an incomplete ring road that distributes traffic around the eastern and western areas of the capital city, it connects to Route 1, Route 27 and Route 2. There are many elevated access roads, some roundabouts, it has as much as 6 lanes but most of the road is only 4 lanes wide. There is a pending work in progress to complete the north section of the ring road, which will enable the Route 32 to be connected directly as well, as of the moment, drivers must go to downtown San José to connect to the Route 39; these are roads. Numbered from 100 a 255; these roads connect main cities to villages or residential areas, numbered from 301 to 935. 730 km, seasonally navigable by small craft refined products 242 km In 2016, the government pledged ₡93 million for a new cruise ship terminal for Puerto Limón.
Moín Puerto Limón Golfito Puerto Quepos Puntarenas Port of Caldera total: 2 ships 2,308 GT/743 tonnes deadweight ships by type: passenger/cargo ships 2 Total: 161 total: 47 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 27 under 914 metres: 16 total: 114 914 to 1,523 m: 18 under 914 metres: 96 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html
Transport in Dominica
Dominica is an island nation in the Windward islands in the Lesser Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean Sea. Most people arrive in Dominica via Douglas–Charles Airport, where most commercial flights to the island land. Dominica utilizes sea transport and a roadway network. There are two regional, no international airports on the island; the primary airport, Douglas-Charles Airport, is on the northeast coast and is about a 45-minute drive from Portsmouth. The second is about 15 minutes from Roseau on the southwest coast. Airlines which serve the Canefield Airport are Winair using DHC6-300 Series Twin Otters, Coastal Air using Cessna aircraft, Anguilla Air Services, Airawak, VI Airlink, Fly BVI, SVG Air and and many other regional airlines and charters. Douglas-Charles Airport is suitable for limited use of commercial jets because of runway length. Douglas-Charles has regular service by Air Sunshine, Seaborne Airlines and LIAT using twin turboprop aircraft like the ATR & Saab 340, as well as Conviasa and Amerijet, using Boeing 727 Freighters, is the only airline with jet service to the republic.
Since the passing of tropical storm Erika Amerijet has stopped all flight to the Douglas Charles Airport. A runway extension and service upgrade project began at Douglas-Charles Airport around 2006 and was finished in 2010. In March 2013, airline American Eagle halted flights to the island citing high labour costs; the only direct flights to Dominica are from other Caribbean islands. Douglas-Charles houses the Dominica Outstation of the Eastern Caribbean Civil Aviation Authority. Dominica has 1,512 kilometres of roadways, 762 kilometres of these roadways are paved. Dominica's road network runs along the coastline and along river valleys. Major roads are two-lane highways which connect the capital, with Portsmouth and the Douglas Charles Airport, it takes about 45 minutes to drive from Portsmouth to Roseau. Private minibuses form the major public transport system; these major roads were reconstructed with assistance from the People's Republic of China and the European Union. Due to Tropical Storm Erika, several road surfaces and bridges were damaged by flooding and landslides, including on the newly completed E.
O. LeBlanc and Dr. Nicholas Liverpool Highways; the only railway known to have operated on the island is a short-lived 36” gauge forestry railway which ran inland from the port of Portsmouth on the northern Leeward coast, 45 km north of Roseau from 1910 until 1913/14. Dominica provides ports for large cruise ships and transportation of goods into and out of the country; the main ports reside in Portsmouth. These are regulated by the Dominica Sea Ports Authority. Http://www.dominica.gov.dm/ - Government of Dominica https://www.facebook.com/dominicaports/ - Dominica Air and Sea Ports Authority
Transport in the Bahamas
This article talks about transportation in the Bahamas, a North American archipelagic state in the Atlantic Ocean. 2,718 kilometres of road in the Bahamas is classified as highway. Of these 1,560 kilometres are paved; as a former British colony, drivers drive on the left. Marinas and harbours are plentiful on The Bahamas islands, making aquatic travel an easy way to navigate between the islands group. Boat travel can be the only way to reach some of the smaller islands. Travelers entering the island will need to clear customs first, but boatsmen can enter any of the following ports of entry and harbours in The Bahamas: Abaco Islands: Green Turtle Cay, Marsh Harbour, Spanish Cay, Treasure Cay, or Walker's Cay Berry Islands: Chub Cay and Great Harbour Cay Bimini: Alice Town Cat Cays: Hawksnest Marina Eleuthera: Governor's Harbour, Harbour Island, Rock Sound, or Spanish Wells Exuma: George Town Grand Bahama Island: Freeport Harbour, Lucayan Marina Village and Port Lucaya, or Old Bahama Bay at West End Inagua: Matthew Town Long Island: Stella Maris Airport Mayaguana: Abraham's Bay Nassau/New Providence Island: Any marina San Salvador: Cockburn TownFacilities catering to large passenger cruise ships are located on Grand Bahama Island and New Providence.
The Lucayan Harbour Cruise Facility in Freeport and Nassau harbour's Prince George Wharf are built to handle multiple modern cruise ships at one time. Additionally, several major cruise line corporations have each purchased an uninhabited island which they now operate as private island destinations available to their respective ships; these include Great Stirrup Cay, owned by Norwegian Cruise Line, Little Stirrup Cay otherwise known as Royal Caribbean International's "Coco Cay", Carnival Corporation's Little San Salvador Island or "Half Moon Cay", Castaway Cay, of Disney Cruise Line. Of these, only Castaway Cay offers ships an actual pier for docking; the others use tender boats to service ships anchored off shore. Total: 1,440 By type: bulk carrier 335, container ship 53, general cargo 98, oil tanker 284, other 670 The Bahamas are one of the world's top five flag of convenience shipping registries; the main airports on the islands are Lynden Pindling International Airport on New Providence, Grand Bahama International Airport on Grand Bahama Island, Marsh Harbour International Airport on Abaco Island.
Out of 62 airports in all, 23 have paved runways, of which there are two that are over 3,047 meters long. Airports with paved runways: total: 23 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 914 to 1,523 m: 6 Airports with unpaved runways: total: 39 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 12 under 914 m: 22 Bahamasair is the national flag carrier airline of the Bahamas. A heliport is located on Paradise Island, as well as other smaller islands, such as the various cruise line private islands. There are no railways in the Bahamas. Transportation in the Bahamas Road Traffic Department of the Bahamas
Transport in Martinique
As of 2000, Martinique had 2,105 km of paved highways. There is a part of the N5 road, upgraded as a motorway, running from the capital Fort-de-France through Lamentin and Rivière Salée until Les Coteaux. Martininique has now only one railway line in operation: The little-known 2.5 km long Le Train des Plantations is a heritage railway that runs from the Rhum Museum in Sainte-Marie through some sugarcane and banana plantations over two Bailey bridges to the Banana Museum. In former times several narrow gauge sugarcane railways existed. Saint-Pierre had horse-drawn trams. At least two steam locomotives are preserved in an optically refurbished condition, but not operational. There are harbours at Fort-de-France and La Trinité, it has the main one being Martinique Aimé Césaire International Airport. See List of Airports in Martinique
Transport in Bermuda
Bermuda consists of several islands with an area of 53.2 km2 with 447 km of paved roads — 225 km of which are public roads and 222 km are private paved roads. A former railway track has been converted into a walking trail. There are two marine ports, an airport, the L. F. Wade International Airport, located at the former U. S. Naval Air Station. A causeway links Hamilton Bermuda to St. George's and the airport. Traffic drives on the left. Bermuda's Ministry of Tourism and Transport manages the public ferry service, "SeaExpress", the public bus system. Bermuda is serviced by a bus system. From the main bus terminal in Hamilton eleven bus routes spread out in all directions of the island; as the island is narrow and in most sections has a northern and southern route that are serviced, access to the system is within a short distance. The MAN buses stop at pink or blue markers. Fares are based on sections traveled, transfers are available. SeaExpress operates four routes for ferries and boats that originate from the ferry terminal in Hamilton.
The "Blue Route" services the West End and the Dockyard of Sandys, the "Orange Route" links to the Dockyard and St. George's, the "Green Route" travels to Rockaway of Southampton, the "Pink Route" brings passengers to points in Paget and Warwick. Fare for travelling by ferry is inexpensive, allow travel for frequent travel at most hours. In 2003, high-speed catamaran ferry service was introduced. Cars were not allowed in Bermuda until 1946. Today, Bermuda has a large number of private cars one for every two inhabitants; this is because, with close to 300,000 visitors a year, allowing car rental on one of the world's most densely populated islands would bring traffic to a standstill, as well as bankrupt the island's taxi industry. Car prices are much higher than in the United States and Europe, due to heavy import duties, residents are limited to one car per household; the size of cars is restricted, meaning that many models popular in the United States and Europe are not available in Bermuda.
Only the Governor and Premier are exempt from these restrictions. There is no car hire; the highest speed limit anywhere on the island is 35 km/h, it is lower in built-up and other congested areas. Between 1931 and 1948, Bermuda Railway provided rail passenger and freight services between St George's and Somerset in Sandys Parish, via Hamilton; the railway was replaced by a bus service and the line dismantled in 1948. Much of the old railway right-of-way has been converted to the "Bermuda Railway Trail" for hiking and biking; as at 2007, Bermuda had 447 km of paved roads — of which 225 km were public roads and 222 km were private paved roads. There are ports in Hamilton, St George's, Dockyard. During summer months, large cruise ships dock at the Dockyard at the northwestern end of the island; the only airport in Bermuda is L. F. Wade International Airport located in the parish of St. George's, 11 km northeast of Hamilton. In 2006, the airport handled about 900,000 passengers, it has one passenger terminal, one cargo terminal, eight aircraft stands and can support all aircraft sizes up to the Airbus A380.
As at 2006, seven airlines operated seasonal or year-round scheduled services to Bermuda from Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. It has a 3,048 m paved runway; the airport is served by taxis. There is no car hire in Bermuda. Bermuda is a flag of convenience, with 160 vessels on its registry as at 2016. Much of the material in this article is adapted from the CIA World Factbook 2009. Travel: Transport on Bermuda - Discover Bermuda, Official Site of the Bermuda Department of Tourism
Transport in Cuba
Transportation in Cuba is composed of a system of railways, airports, waterways and harbours: total: 8,285 km standard gauge: 8,125 km 1,435 mm gauge narrow gauge: 160 km gaugeCuba built the first railway system in the Spanish empire, before the 1848 start in the Iberian peninsula. While the rail infrastructure dates from colonial and early republican times, passenger service along the principal Havana to Santiago corridor is reliable and popular with tourists who can purchase tickets in Cuban convertible pesos; as with most public transport in Cuba, the vehicles used are second hand, the flagship Tren Francés between Havana and Santiago de Cuba is operated by coaches used in Europe between Paris and Amsterdam on the ex-TEE. The train is formed by a Chinese-built locomotive. With the order of 12 new Chinese locomotives, built specially for Cuban Railways at China Northern Locomotives and Rolling Stock Works, services have been improving in reliability; those benefiting the most are long distance freight services with the French train Havana-Santiago being the only passenger train using one of the new Chinese locomotives regularly.
Various orders are in place for 100 locomotives from China and various freight wagons and passenger coaches. Metro systems are not present in the island. Urban tramways were in operation between 1858 and 1954 as horse drawn systems. In the early 20th century electric trolley or storage battery powered tramways were introduced in seven cities. Of these overhead wire systems were adopted in Havana, Matanzas, Camagüey and Santiago de Cuba; the total length of Cuba's highways is 60,858 km, including paved: 29,820 km unpaved: 31,038 km Expressways include: the Autopista Nacional from Havana to Santa Clara and Sancti Spiritus, with additional short sections near Santiago and Guantanamo the Autopista Este-Oeste from Havana to Pinar del Río the Autopista del Mediodia from Havana to San Antonio de los Baños an autopista from Havana to Melena del Sur an autopista from Havana to Mariel the Havana ring road, which starts at a tunnel under the entrance to Havana Harbor the section of the Via Blanca from Matanzas to Varadero an autopista from Nueva Gerona to Santa Fe, in the Isla de la JuventudOlder roads include the Carretera Central, the Via Blanca from Havana to Matanzas.
There are several national bus companies in Cuba. Viazul operate a fleet of modern and comfortable coaches on longer distance routes designed principally for tourists. Schedules and ticket booking can be done on line, at any of the major international airports or National Terminals across Cuba. There are other bus lines operated by tourism companies. AstroBus, a bus service in Cuban National Pesos, designed to bring comfortable air conditioned coaches to Cuban locals at an affordable price; the AstroBus lines operate with modern Chinese YUTONG buses, are accessible to Cuban Residents of Cuba with their ID Card, is payable in Cuba Pesos. Routes that have benefited most so far are those from Havana to each of the 13 provincial capitals of the country. In Havana, urban transportation used to be provided by a colourful selection of buses imported from the Soviet Union or Canada. Many of these vehicles were second hand and despite the United States trade embargo, American-style yellow school buses are common sights.
On seven key lines in and out of the city, service is provided by Chinese Zhengzhou Yutong Buses. They replaced from 2008 the famous camellos, trailer buses that hauled as many as two hundred passengers in a passenger carrying trailer. After the upgrading of Seville's public bus fleet to CNG-powered and new vehicles, many of the decommissioned ones were donated to the city of Havana; these bright orange buses still display the name of Transportes Urbanos de Sevilla, S. A. M, their former owner, Seville's coat of arms as a sign of gratitude. In recent years, urban transport in Havana consists of modern Yutong diesel buses. Seville and Ikarus buses are gone. Since 2009, Cuba has imported sedans from Chinese automaker Geely to serve as police cars and rental vehicles; the Soviet Union supplied Volgas and Ladas, as well as heavy trucks like the ZIL and the KrAZ. It is estimated. Most new vehicles came to Cuba from the United States until the 1960 United States embargo against Cuba ended importation of both cars and their parts.
As many as 60,000 American vehicles are in nearly all in private hands. Of Cuba's vintage American cars, many have been modified with newer engines, disc brakes and other parts scavenged from Soviet cars, most bear the marks of decades of use. Pre-1960 vehicles remain the property of their original owners and descendants, can be sold to other Cubans providing the proper traspaso certificate is in place. In 2011, the Cuban government legalized the sale of used post-1959 autos. In December 2013, Cubans were allowed to buy new cars from state-run dealerships - this had not been permitted. However, the old American cars on the road today have "relatively high inefficiencies" due in large part to the lack of modern technology; this has resulted in increased fuel consumption as well as adding to the economic plight of its owners. With these inefficiencies, noticeable drop in tra
Transportation in Puerto Rico
Transportation in Puerto Rico includes a system of roads, freeways, airports and harbors, railway systems, serving a population of 4 million year-round. It is funded with both local and federal government funds. Puerto Rico has a total of 30 airports, including one in each of the smaller islands of Vieques and Culebra; the main airport is Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport, consists of two runways and three concourses. It is by far the busiest airport in Puerto Rico, with direct connections to most major cities in the mainland United States, Latin America, the Caribbean Madrid, Germany. Puerto Rico has 21 airports with paved runways, of which: 3 airports with more than 10,000 ft of runway. 3 airports with runways ranging between 5,000 ft and 8,000 ft. 15 airports with less than 5,000 ft of runway. Puerto Rico has 8 airports with unpaved runways, all of which have less than 5,000 ft of runway; the following are current and former passenger and cargo airlines based in Puerto Rico or with flights to Puerto Rico: Aerovías Nacionales de Puerto Rico Prinair Puertorriqueña de Aviación Pan American World Airways Mexicana de Aviacion Lufthansa Viasa Aerolineas Argentinas KLM TWA Sea-based transportation of any merchandise or persons shipped or partly by water between U.
S. points—either directly or indirectly via one or any number of foreign points—U. S. Federal Law requires that said items or persons must travel in U. S.-built, U. S.-crewed, U. S.-citizen owned vessels that are U. S.-documented by the Coast Guard for such maritime "cabotage" carriage. This transportation/trade restriction includes Puerto Rico under the Jones Act of 1920; the Jones Act and various other United States laws that govern the domestic and domestic-foreign-domestic transportation of merchandise and passengers by water between two points in the United States, including Puerto Rico, have been extended to that island-territory since the initial years of United States' political relations. The only providers who ship from the United States to Puerto Rico are Crowley Maritime, TOTE Maritime, Trailer Bridge. Construed, the Jones Act refers only to Section 27 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920, which has come to bear the name of its original sponsor, Sen. Wesley L. Jones. Another law, enacted in 1886 requires the same standards for the transport of passengers between U.
S. points, indirectly transported through foreign ports or foreign points. However, since the mid-1980s, as part of a joint effort between the cruise ship industry that serves Puerto Rico and Puerto Rican politicians such as Resident Commissioner, U. S. non-voting Representative Baltasar Corrada del Río, obtained a limited-exception since no U. S. cruise ships that were Jones Act-eligible were participating in said market. The application of these coastwise shipping laws and their imposition on Puerto Rico consist in a serious restriction of free trade and have been under scrutiny and controversy due to the apparent contradictory rhetoric involving the United States Government's sponsorship of free trade policies around the world, while its own national shipping policy is mercantilist and based on notions foreign to free-trade principles. San Juan Port - Mainly divided in three: one in Old San Juan which includes cargo/freight and cruise ships, the Pan American Port Terminal in Isla Grande section for cruise ships, Puerto Nuevo Bay for freight/cargo ships the belong to Guaynabo City not to San Juan.
It is the main port of the island. Port of Ponce - The second largest port in Puerto Rico and can handle both freight/cargo and cruise ships, it is undergoing a significant expansion, with plans to convert it to an international shipping hub. Port of Mayagüez - The third largest port in Puerto Rico, it is used for freight/cargo ships but is home to the Dominican Republic-Puerto Rico passenger ferry and has been used for cruise ships. The following are minor ports and harbors used for small freight/cargo ships, fishing vessels, private boats/yachts: Guánica, Guayama, Fajardo and Vieques. There are ferries between Ceiba-Vieques. There are several private marinas in Puerto Rico for boats and yachts, the largest being Puerto del Rey in Fajardo and Club Naútico de Ponce; the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 prevents foreign-flagged ships from carrying cargo between two American ports. Because of the Jones Act, foreign ships inbound with goods from Central and South America, Western Europe, Africa cannot stop in Puerto Rico, offload Puerto Rico-bound goods, load mainland-bound Puerto Rico-manufactured goods, continue to U.
S. ports. Instead, they must proceed directly to U. S. ports, where distributors break bulk and send Puerto Rico-bound manufactured goods to Puerto Rico across the ocean by U. S.-flagged ships. Puerto Rican consumers bear the expense of transporting goods again across the Atlantic and Caribbean Sea on U. S.-flagged ships subject to the high operating costs imposed by the Jones Act. This makes Puerto Rico less competitive with Caribbean ports as a shopping destination for tourists from home countries with much higher taxes though prices for non-American manufactured goods in theory should be cheaper since Puerto Rico is much closer to Central and South