The Congo–Ocean Railway links the Atlantic port of Pointe-Noire with Brazzaville, a distance of 502 kilometres. It bypasses the rapids on the lower Congo River; as of 2012 the railroad was operating freight and passenger services along the length of the line despite the poor state of the track. A luxury passenger train, La Gazelle, using Korean-manufactured passenger cars, was introduced in 2012. Under French colonial administration, in 1921 they contracted Société de Construction des Batignolles to construct the railway using forced labour, recruited from what is now southern Chad and the Central African Republic. Like Spain and Portugal, France did not ratify the International Labour Organization Forced Labour Convention of 1930, No. 29. Disdain among the native population towards this conscripted labour and other forms of oppression lead to the Kongo-Wara rebellion between 1928 and 1931. Through the period of construction until 1934 there was a continual heavy cost in human lives, with total deaths estimated in excess of 17,000 of the construction workers, from a combination of both industrial accidents and diseases including malaria.
In 1946, France ratified ILO No.29, in light of a permanent state of emergency, due to indigenous revolt. The line includes 14 large reinforced concrete viaducts; the steepest eastbound gradients are 1 in 67, the steepest westbound 1 in 50. The initial locomotives were 2-8-2 tender and articulated tank engines with six driving axles. There were 2 4-wheel petrol cars for engineers and an 18-passenger Micheline and another Micheline for the Governor General. In 1962, a branch was constructed to Mbinda near the border with Gabon, to connect with the COMILOG Cableway and thus carry manganese ore to Pointe-Noire; the Cableway closed in 1986. The branch line remains active nonetheless; the Congo–Ocean Railway was a user of the Golwé locomotive. Motive power is now provided by diesel locomotives. From the start of the civil war in 1997, the line was closed for six years. COR is a state-owned enterprise whose privatization was planned as part of the commitments made by the Congolese government to the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
Among the candidates were several consortia, including Congo-Rail, the South African consortium Sheltam Mvela. Operations restarted in 2004, but in August 2007 BBC News reported that COR was in a "decrepit state, with the majority of trains now broken", after UNICEF had organised a train to distribute malaria nets. In 2007, a Korean-led consortium CMKC Group signed a deal to build railway extensions to Ouesso and Djambala for timber traffic. On 22 June 2010, a train of the Congo–Ocean Railroad was involved in a major incident, in which at least 60 people were killed; the train is believed to have derailed as it went round a curve in a remote area between Bilinga and Tchitondi, throwing four carriages into a ravine. The dead and wounded were taken to morgues in Pointe-Noire. In 2011, it was announced that Africa Iron was close to concluding a 25-year ore transport deal with Congo–Ocean. In early 2015 the Congo-Ocean Railway purchased 10 EMD GT38AC locomotives from Electro-Motive Diesel in Muncie, Indiana.
They were put into service by the summer of 2015. In 2012 the Congo–Ocean Railway was featured in an episode of the television series Chris Tarrant: Extreme Railways. Track gauge: 3 ft 6 in gauge Brake: Vacuum brake Coupler: SA3 coupler Democratic Republic of the Congo - no - same gauge 1,067 mm Angola - no - same gauge 1,067 mm Gabon - no - break of gauge 1,067 mm /1,435 mm Cameroon - no - break of gauge 1,067 mm /1,000 mm Central African Republic - no - no railways UN Map UNJLC Rail map of Southern Africa Gide, André. Voyage au Congo. Londres, Albert. Terre d'Ébène. Sautter, Gilles. "Notes sur la construction du chemin de fer Congo-Océan". Cahiers d'Études Africaines. 7: 219–299. Doi:10.3406/cea.1967.3098 – via Persee.fr. CFCO website
Transport in Chad
Transport infrastructure within Chad is poor in the north and east of the country. River transport is limited to the south-west corner; as of 2011 Chad had no railways though two lines are planned - from the capital to the Sudanese and Cameroonian borders.during the wet season in the southern half of the country. In the north, roads are tracks across the desert and land mines continue to present a danger. Draft animals remain important in much of the country. Fuel supplies can be erratic in the south-west of the country, are expensive. Elsewhere they are non-existent; as of 2011 Chad had no railways. Two lines are planned to Sudan and Cameroon from the capital, with construction expected to start in 2012. Chad has a total of 33,400 km of roads of which 500 km are paved. Some, but not all of the roads in the capital N'Djamena are paved. Outside of N'Djamena there is one paved road which runs from Massakory in the north, through N'Djamena and south, through the cities of Guélengdeng, Bongor, Kélo and Moundou, with a short spur leading in the direction of Kousseri, near N'Djamena.
Expansion of the road towards Cameroon through Pala and Léré is in the preparatory stages. Most rivers flow but intermittently. On the Chari, between N’Djamena and Lake Chad, transportation is possible all year round. In September and October, the Logone is navigable between N’Djamena and Moundou, the Chari between N’Djamena and Sarh. Total waterways cover 4,800 km. Chari and Logone Rivers are navigable only in wet season. Both flow northwards, into Lake Chad. Since 2003, a 1,070 km pipeline has been used to export crude oil from the oil fields around Doba to offshore oil-loading facilities on Cameroon's Atlantic coast at Kribi. None. Chad's main routes to the sea are: From N'Djamena and the south west of Chad: By road to Ngaoundéré, in Cameroon, by rail to Douala By road to Maiduguri, in Nigeria, by rail to Port Harcourt From the north and east of Chad: By road across the Sahara desert to LibyaIn colonial times, the main access was by road to Bangui, in the Central African Republic by river boat to Brazzaville, onwards by rail from Brazzaville to Pointe Noire, on Congo's Atlantic coast.
This route is now little used. There is a route across Sudan, to the Red Sea, but little trade goes this way. Links with Niger, north of Lake Chad, are nonexistent; as of 2012 Chad had an estimated 58 airports, only 9 of which had paved runways. Air Tchad suffers from lack of fuel and equipment; the international airport at N’Djamena was damaged in fighting in 1981, but is now served by several international carriers including Air Afrique, owned by Chad. Another major airport, developed as a military staging area, is located at Sarh. In 2003, scheduled airlines in Chad carried about 46,000 passengers on domestic and international flights. Statistics on airports with paved runways as of 2012: List of airports with paved runways: Abeche Airport Bol Airport Faya-Largeau Airport Moundou Airport N'Djamena International Airport Sarh Airport Statistics on airports with unpaved runways as of 2012: SAGA Airline of Chad - see http://www.airsaga.com The Ministry is represented at the regional level by the Regional Delegations, which have jurisdiction over a part of the National Territory as defined by Decree No. 003 / PCE / CTPT / 91.
Their organization and responsibilities are defined by Order No. 006 / MTPT / SE / DG / 92. The Regional Delegations are: The Regional Delegation of the Center covering the regions of Batha, Guéra and Salamat with headquarters in Mongo; each Regional Delegation is organized into regional services, namely: the Regional Roads Service, the Regional Transport Service, the Civilian Buildings Regional Service and, as needed, other regional services may be established in one or more Delegations. Chad Economy of Chad "Réseaux des transports en République du Tchad". Www.comcec.org. Ministère des Infrastructures et Equipements, Republique du Tchad. September 2011. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2012. MapsUN Map UNHCR Atlas Map This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html
Republic of the Congo
The Republic of the Congo known as Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or the Congo, is a country located in the western coast of Central Africa. It is bordered by five countries: Gabon to its west; the region was dominated by Bantu-speaking tribes at least 3,000 years ago, who built trade links leading into the Congo River basin. Congo was part of the French colony of Equatorial Africa; the Republic of the Congo was established on the 28th of November 1958 but gained independence from France in 1960. The sovereign state has had multi-party elections since 1992, although a democratically elected government was ousted in the 1997 Republic of the Congo Civil War, President Denis Sassou Nguesso, who first came to power in 1979, has ruled for 33 of the past 38 years; the Republic of the Congo has become the fourth-largest oil producer in the Gulf of Guinea, providing the country with a degree of prosperity despite political and economic instability in some areas and unequal distribution of oil revenue nationwide.
Congo's economy is dependent on the oil sector, economic growth has slowed since the post-2015 drop in oil prices. Bantu-speaking peoples who founded tribes during the Bantu expansions displaced and absorbed the earliest inhabitants of the region, the Pygmy people, about 1500 BC; the Bakongo, a Bantu ethnic group that occupied parts of present-day Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formed the basis for ethnic affinities and rivalries among those countries. Several Bantu kingdoms—notably those of the Kongo, the Loango, the Teke—built trade links leading into the Congo River basin; the Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão reached the mouth of the Congo in 1484. Commercial relationships grew between the inland Bantu kingdoms and European merchants who traded various commodities, manufactured goods, people captured from the hinterlands. After centuries as a major hub for transatlantic trade, direct European colonization of the Congo river delta began in the late 19th century, subsequently eroding the power of the Bantu societies in the region.
The area north of the Congo River came under French sovereignty in 1880 as a result of Pierre de Brazza's treaty with King Makoko of the Bateke. This Congo Colony became known first as French Congo as Middle Congo in 1903. In 1908, France organized French Equatorial Africa, comprising Middle Congo, Gabon and Oubangui-Chari; the French designated Brazzaville as the federal capital. Economic development during the first 50 years of colonial rule in Congo centered on natural-resource extraction; the methods were brutal: construction of the Congo–Ocean Railroad following World War I has been estimated to have cost at least 14,000 lives. During the Nazi occupation of France during World War II, Brazzaville functioned as the symbolic capital of Free France between 1940 and 1943; the Brazzaville Conference of 1944 heralded a period of major reform in French colonial policy. Congo benefited from the postwar expansion of colonial administrative and infrastructure spending as a result of its central geographic location within AEF and the federal capital at Brazzaville.
It received a local legislature after the adoption of the 1946 constitution that established the Fourth Republic. Following the revision of the French constitution that established the Fifth Republic in 1958, the AEF dissolved into its constituent parts, each of which became an autonomous colony within the French Community. During these reforms, Middle Congo became known as the Republic of the Congo in 1958 and published its first constitution in 1959. Antagonism between the Mbochis and the Laris and Kongos resulted in a series of riots in Brazzaville in February 1959, which the French Army subdued. New elections took place in April 1959. By the time the Congo became independent in August 1960, the former opponent of Youlou, agreed to serve under him. Youlou became the first President of the Republic of the Congo. Since the political tension was so high in Pointe-Noire, Youlou moved the capital to Brazzaville; the Republic of the Congo received full independence from France on 15 August 1960. Youlou ruled as the country's first president until labour elements and rival political parties instigated a three-day uprising that ousted him.
The Congolese military took charge of the country, installed a civilian provisional government headed by Alphonse Massamba-Débat. Under the 1963 constitution, Massamba-Débat was elected President for a five-year term. During Massamba-Débat's term in office the regime adopted "scientific socialism" as the country's constitutional ideology. In 1965, Congo established relations with the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, North Korea and North Vietnam. Massamba-Débat's regime invited several hundred Cuban army troops into the country to train his party's militia units and these troops helped his government survive a coup d'état in 1966 led by paratroopers loyal to future President Marien Ngouabi. Massamba-Débat was unable to reconcile various institutional and ideological factions within the country and his regime ended abruptly with a bloodless coup in September 1968. Ngouabi, who had participated in the coup, assumed the presidency on 31 December 1968. One year President Ngouabi proclaimed Congo Africa's first "people's republic"
Dolisie, known as Loubomo between 1975 and 1991, is a city in the western province of Niari in the Republic of the Congo. It is the country's third largest city, an important commercial centre; the city lies on the eastern edge of the coastal rainforest, has a population of 83,798. The city was founded as a station on the Congo-Ocean Railway, it was named after Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza's lieutenant Albert Dolisie, it became a thriving city thanks to the wealth of the railway, it had 20,000 inhabitants in 1972. The city's name changed to Loubomo in 1975, soon it became the third largest city in Congo-Brazzaville; the civil war of the late 1990s caused an exodus of rural people towards cities, Loubomo's population has increased since then. Dolisie is a major rail center, its location marks the link between the east-west Congo-Ocean Railway and the Mbinda line which runs north to the border with Gabon at Mbinda. Dolisie is home to numerous small industries. Dolise is home to Dolisie Airport. Dolisie-Loubomo railway station on the Congo–Ocean Railway provides daily rail service to Pointe-Noire and intermediate points.
Dolisie is twinned with: Riom, France Railway stations in Congo Transport in the Republic of the Congo Decalo S. Thompson V. & Adloff R. 1984. Historical dictionary of Congo Pg 180. USA: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Dolisie travel guide from Wikivoyage
Ouésso is a town in the northern Republic of the Congo, lying on the Sangha River and surrounded by rainforest. It is known for the pygmy people who live nearby, it is the capital of the Sangha Region. It is served by Ouésso Airport. Ouésso has a tropical monsoon climate. In April 2007, a Korean consortium proposed to build a railway to Ouésso from Brazzaville, in exchange for a concession to harvest timber
Pointe-Noire is the second largest city in the Republic of the Congo, following the capital of Brazzaville, an autonomous department since 2004. Before this date it was the capital of the Kouilou region, it is situated on a headland between the Atlantic Ocean. Pointe-Noire is the main commercial centre of the country and has a population of 715,334, expanding to well over 1 million when the entire metropolitan area is taken into account. Pointe-Noire features a tropical savanna climate under the Köppen climate classification; the city features a wet season that spans from October through April, while the remaining 6 months form the dry season. Pointe-Noire receives 1,000 millimetres of precipitation annually. Temperatures are somewhat cooler during the dry season with average temperatures at 24 degrees Celsius. During the wet season, average temperatures hover around 28 degrees Celsius; the coat of arms of the city of Pointe-Noire is: "Gold at the point of sand accompanied by two silver oars, the handle gules, laid in chevron poured, the tip and oars moving from a sea of azure wavy three streams of silver" Pointe-Noire is a commune divided into six urban districts: Patrice Emery Lumumba district, the oldest area.
It is the commercial centre. Mvou-Mvou Tié-Tié Loandjili district Mongo-Pokou district Ngoyo district The name Pointe-Noire originated with Portuguese navigators who saw a block of black rocks on the headland in 1484. From on, Pointe-Noire, called Ponta Negra, became a maritime point of reference, a small fishing village starting in 1883, after the French signed a treaty with local people, the Loangos. In 1910, French Equatorial Africa was created, French companies were allowed to exploit the Middle Congo, it soon became necessary to build a railroad that would connect Brazzaville, the terminus of the river navigation on the Congo River and the Ubangui River, with the Atlantic coast. As rapids make it impossible to navigate on the Congo River past Brazzaville, the coastal railroad terminus site had to allow for the construction of a deep-sea port, authorities chose the site of Ponta Negra instead of Libreville as envisaged. Construction of the Congo-Ocean Railway began in 1921, led to the foundation of Pointe-Noire on 22 May 1922.
In 1927, drinking water became available in the city. The airport was built in 1932. In 1934, Governor Raphael Antonetti inaugurated the Congo-Ocean Railway; the first hospital was built in 1936. That same year, Bank of West Africa opened its first branch in the city. In 1942, the Pointe-Noire Harbour welcomed its first ship, made the city the AEF's seaport. In 1950, Pointe-Noire had 20,000 inhabitants, became the capital of the Middle Congo, while Brazzaville was the capital city of the AEF. In 1957, the Middle-Congo became the Republic of Congo. Incidents which occurred during 1958 legislative elections led the leaders of the Democratic Union for the Defence of African Interests to transfer the capital to Brazzaville, since Pointe-Noire was under the influence of the political opposition. Pointe-Noire continued growing, was the most modern city in 1960, when Congo gained independence; the oil discovery around 1980 re-attracted people and Elf-Aquitaine factories. The population doubled by 1982, reached 360,000 in 1994.
Civil wars in 1997 and 1999 caused an influx of refugees from the surrounding provinces towards Pointe-Noire, causing the population to climb to over 1 million inhabitants. The Government has proposed the development of a new bulk resource port to be constructed at Point Indienne, 30 kilometres to the north of the Port of Pointe-Noire. A meeting was held on 18 December 2012 with a collective of 10 Congo government ministries and invited mining companies to discuss future development opportunities. Pointe-Noire is the essential centre of the oil industry of the Republic of Congo, one of the main oil producers in Central Africa. Congolese oil has been exploited by the French company Elf Aquitaine since its discovery around 1980. Pointe-Noire is known for its fishing industry, at odds with the oil development. Pointe-Noire was home to a potash exploitation which led to the construction of a wharf closed to the public. Lycée Français Charlemagne, a French international school for primary and secondary school children, is in Pointe-Noire.
The city is home to the École Supérieure de Technologie du Littoral the École supérieure de commerce et de gestion, Institut UCAC-ICAM and the Centre d’éducation, de formation et d’apprentissage en mécanique auto. The Higher Institute of Technology of Central Africa has a campus in the city. There are several other institutions of higher education in the city. Pointe-Noire is home to Agostinho-Neto International Airport which as of May 2015 had direct flights to Abidjan, Addis Ababa, Casablanca, Douala, Kinshasa–N'Djili, Lomé, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Port-Gentil, Johannesburg–O. R. was second busiest airport in the country. Pointe-Noire is the terminus of the Congo-Ocean Railway, the railway station being a notable building; as of 2014 the railway was operating the La Gazelle train service every other day to Brazzaville and intermediate destinations. Thanks to its rapid growth, the city now includes Tié-Tié Railway Station and Ngondji Railway Station, the next rail
Transport in Egypt
Transport in Egypt is centered in Cairo and follows the pattern of settlement along the Nile. The Ministry of Transportation and other government bodies are responsible for transportation in Egypt, whether by sea, land or air. With regards to rail and waterway travel, the main line of the nation's rail system follows along the Nile river and is operated by Egyptian National Railways. In addition to overseas routes, Egypt Air provides domestic air service to major tourist destinations from its Cairo hub; the Nile River system and the principal canals are important locally for transportation. People still travel via the Nile between Cairo and Aswan; the Suez Canal is a major waterway for international commerce and navigation, linking the Mediterranean and Red Sea. Major ports are Alexandria, Port Said, Damietta on the Mediterranean and Suez and Safaga on the Red Sea. With regards to driving, Egypt has one of the highest incidents of road fatalities, per miles driven, in the world; the badly maintained road network has expanded to over 21,000 miles, covering the Nile Valley and Nile Delta and Red Sea coasts, the Sinai and the Western oasis.
Traffic rules are ignored by impatient drivers. Two routes in the Trans-African Highway network originate in Cairo. Egypt has multiple highway links with Asia through the Arab Mashreq International Road Network. Egypt has connecting Cairo with Alexandria and other cities. Though most of the transport in the country is still done on the national highways, motorways are becoming an option in road transport within the country; the existing motorways in the country are: Cairo - Alexandria Desert Road: It runs between Cairo and Alexandria, with an extension of 215 km, it is the main motorway in Egypt. International Coastal Road: It runs from Alexandria to Port Said, along the Northern Nile Delta, it has a length of 280 km. Amongst other cities, it connects Damietta and Baltim. Geish Road: It runs between Helwan and Asyut, along the Nile River connecting Beni Suef and Minya, its length is 306 km. Ring Road: It serves as an inner ring-road for Cairo, it has a length of 103 km. Regional Ring Road: It serves as an outer ring road for Cairo connecting its suburbs like Helwan and 10th of Ramadan City.
Its length is 130 km. Plus, Egypt has developed an extensive system of 4-lane highways that can be classified as freeways, because they serve as normal roads and do not discriminate the traffic on it, thus rendering them slower than motorways; the Egyptian railway system is the oldest railway network in the Middle East. The first line between Alexandria and Kafer Eassa was opened in 1854. In 2018, the system is operated by the Egyptian National Railways. ENR carries 12 million tonnes of freight annually. A major investment programme was planned to begin in 2007 with the aim of modernizing the rail network and improving safety standards. Trains are a safe means of transportation in Egypt; the city of Cairo is served by the Cairo Metro, run by the National Authority for Tunnels. In addition to the city of Alexandria, served by the Alexandria Tram There are 3,500 km of waterways in Egypt, including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, many smaller canals in the Nile Delta; the Suez Canal, 193.5 km, is used by oceangoing vessels, drawing up to 17.68 m of water.
As of 2018 the information in the CIA World Factbook states the following regarding Egypt's pipelines: "condensate 486 km. The specialized ports include 5 tourist seaports, 12 petroleum seaports, 6 mining seaports, 6 fishing seaports. Alexandria Port El-Dekheila Port Damietta Port Port Said Port East Port Said Port Arish Port Suez Port Petroleum Dock Port Adabiya Port Sokhna Port Nuwaiba Port Al-Tour Port Sharm El Sheikh Port Hurghada Port Safaga Port In 2018, the number of Egypt's sea vessels, according to the CIA World Factbook is 399 as follows: bulk carrier: 14 container ship: 8 general cargo: 33 petroleum tanker: 36 Other: 308 Cairo International Airport is used by numerous international airlines, including the country's own Egypt Air. In 2003, about 4.2 million passengers were carried on scheduled international flights. Total: 72 over 3,047 m: 15 2,438 to 3,047 m: 36 1,524 to 2,437 m: 15 914 to 1,523 m: 0 under 914 m: 6 total: 11 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 3 7 Superjet Lines The Holding Company for Maritime and Land Transport List of bus companies in Egypt List of lighthouses in Egypt Map Egyptian National Railways The Holding Company for Maritime and Land Transport This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html