Hapeville is a city in Fulton County, United States, located adjacent to the city of Atlanta. The population was 6,373 at the 2010 census, it is named for one of the area's original landowners and its first mayor. During the 1950s and 1960s, Hapeville was a thriving part of the Tri-City area and its post-World War II population supported three elementary schools and one high school. During the 40 years following, it became regarded as a somewhat depressed industrial area. Since 2005, Hapeville has seen significant gentrification, beginning with the Virginia Park neighborhood and spreading throughout the city. Hapeville has been discovered by young professionals seeking historic neighborhoods close to downtown Atlanta, there has been a great deal of new residential construction, including single-family homes and upscale apartments; this new residential development has led to a revived historic downtown. Hapeville has been discovered by metro Atlanta's arts community, the beginnings of an artist colony have taken shape with the formation of the Hapeville Arts Alliance.
The Hapeville Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. From 1947 until 2006, Hapeville was home to the Ford Atlanta Assembly Plant manufacturing the Taurus. There are development plans to open a multi-use development, Aerotropolis Atlanta, on the site, adjacent to Atlanta Airport. Porsche North America is building its North America Headquarters on the Ford site. Hapeville is home to the Dwarf House - the first Chick-fil-A restaurant and the first Johnny's Pizza. Hapeville is located at 33°39′45″N 84°24′37″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.4 square miles, all land. As of 2010 Hapeville had a population of 6,373; the racial and ethnic composition of the population was 42.8% white, 28.8% black or African American, 1.1% Asian Indian, 4.6% other Asian, 0.6% Native American, 18.8% from some other race and 3.3% from two or more races. 35.1% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. At the 2000 census there were 2,375 households, out of which 26.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.2% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.3% were non-families.
32.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.29. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 33.4% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 108.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,158, the median income for a family was $37,647. Males had a median income of $25,127 versus $23,766 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,793. About 13.7% of families and 17.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.1% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over. Korean Air Cargo's U. S. headquarters are in Hapeville, near the northeast corner of the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport.
It is home to the Delta Air Lines headquarters and Porsche's US headquarters. Arches Brewing is located in Hapeville, serving as Hapeville's first brewery with a focus on Old World Beers. Hapeville is a part of Fulton County Schools. Residents are zoned to Hapeville Elementary School, Paul D. West Middle School in East Point, Tri-Cities High School in East Point. In addition, Hapeville Charter Middle School is located in Hapeville. Private schools include St. John the Evangelist Catholic School; the Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System operates the Hapeville Branch. Comedian Jeff Foxworthy was graduated from Hapeville High School. City of Hapeville official website Hapeville Living Hapeville Georgia historical marker
Roswell is a city in north Fulton County, United States. In the official 2010 U. S. Census it had a population of 88,346; the 2017 estimated population was 94,786. A suburb of Atlanta, Roswell has an affluent historic district. In 1830, while on a trip to northern Georgia, Roswell King passed through the area of what is now Roswell and observed the great potential for building a cotton mill along Vickery Creek. Since the land nearby was good for plantations, his idea was to put cotton processing near cotton production. Toward the middle of the 1830s, King returned to build a mill that would soon become the largest in north Georgia – Roswell Mill, he brought with him 36 African slaves from his own coastal plantation, plus another 42 skilled carpenter slaves bought in Savannah to build the mills. The slaves built the mills, houses, mill worker apartments, supporting buildings for the new town; the Africans brought their unique Geechee culture and religious traditions from the coast to north Georgia.
King invited investors from the coast to join him at the new location. He was joined by Barrington King, one of his sons, who succeeded his father in the manufacturing company. Archibald Smith was one of the planters who migrated there to establish a new plantation bringing enslaved African Americans from the coastal areas. Shortly after 1832 a survey of the area was conducted by Nathan Crawford Barnett as part of the Cherokee Purchase in preparation for the sixth state administrated land lottery culminating in the Cherokee removal. Barrington Hall, Smith Plantation and Bulloch Hall have been restored, they are now open to the public. According to the 1850 Slave Schedules, these three "founding families", together with the next three largest planters, held 192 slaves, 51% of the total 378 slaves held in Roswell District. Archibald Smith had a 300-acre cotton plantation. According to the 1850 Census, Barrington King held 70 slaves. Half of these slaves were under the age of 10; these slaves worked in Barrington's household.
Barrington King "leased" or "rented" some of his adult male slaves to the Roswell Manufacturing Company, but they did not work around the mill machinery. The Roswell area was part of Cobb County when first settled, the county seat of Marietta was a four-hour horseback ride to the west. Since Roswell residents desired a local government, they submitted a city charter for incorporation to the Georgia General Assembly; the charter was approved on February 16, 1854. By the time of the Civil War, the cotton mills employed more than 400 people women. Given settlement patterns in the Piedmont region, they were of Scots-Irish descent; as the mill increased in production, so did the number of people living in the area. During the Civil War, the city was captured by Union forces under the leadership of General Kenner Garrard. Under orders of General Sherman, Garrard shipped the mill workers north to prevent them from returning to work if the mills were rebuilt; this was a common tactic of Sherman to economically disrupt the South.
The mill was burned. The ruins of the mill and the 30-foot dam, built for power still remain. Most of the town's property was confiscated by Union forces; the leading families had left the town to go to safer places well before the Federal invasion, arranged for their slaves to be taken away from advancing Federal troops, as was the practice. Some slaves may have escaped to Union lines. After the war, Barrington King resumed production. While many freedmen stayed in the area to work as paid labor on plantations or in town, others migrated to Fulton County and Atlanta for new opportunities; the South suffered an agricultural depression resulting from the effects of the war and labor changes. According to the census, the population of Cobb County decreased from 14,242 in 1860, to 13,814 in 1870; the proportion of African-Americans decreased more, from 27% to 23%. During those years, nearby Fulton County more than doubled in population, from 14,427 to 33,336; the effects of dramatic African-American migration can be seen by the increase in Fulton County from 20.5% slave in 1860 to 45.7% colored in 1870.
At the end of 1931, the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression. The difficult economic conditions drove Milton County, Roswell's neighboring county to the north, to merge in its entirety with Fulton County, Roswell's neighboring county to the south. To facilitate the merger, Roswell was ceded from Cobb County to become part of Fulton County; this became effective the 9th day of May in 1932. Roswell filed all legal records, including vital statistics, real estate, the results of torts with the county clerk of Cobb before this date. Roswell is now one of the largest cities in the state. Lori Henry, has served as mayor of Roswell since 2018, she is the first woman to assume the office. See also: List of Mayors of Roswell, Georgia Roswell is located in northern Fulton County at 34°2′2″N 84°20′39″W, it is bordered to the north by Milton, to the northeast by Alpharetta, to the east by Johns Creek, to the southeast by Peachtree Corners in Gwinnett County, to the south by Sandy Springs, to the west by unincorporated land in Cobb County, to the northwest by the city of Mountain Park and by unincorporated land in Cherokee County.
The southern boundary of the
Toccoa is a city in, the county seat of, Stephens County, United States, located about 50 miles from Athens and about 90 miles northeast of Atlanta. The population was 8,491 as of the 2010 census. Native Americans, including the Mississippian culture mound builders and the Cherokee, were the original inhabitants in what is now Toccoa and the surrounding area. Indian agent Col. George Chicken was one of the first people to mention Toccoa in his journal from 1725; the first residents of European descent were a small number of American Revolutionary War veterans led by Col. William H. Wofford who moved to the area when the war ended; the area was referred to Wofford's Settlement. Col. Wofford is buried near Toccoa Falls, his son, William T. Wofford, was born near Toccoa, was an officer during the Mexican–American War and a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War; the Georgia Land Lottery of 1820 spurred the migration of Scots-Irish from North Carolina and the Georgia coast.
The Georgia Gold Rush, starting in 1828, the 1838 removal of the Cherokee on the infamous "Trail of Tears" further changed settlement patterns in the area. Toccoa means "beautiful" in the Cherokee language, is derived from the Cherokee term for "where the Catawbas lived." The city was established in 1873 around an area called Dry Pond, named for a pond, waterless most of the time. Three investors - Dr. O. M. Doyle of Oconee County, South Carolina, B. Y. Sage of Atlanta, Thomas Alexander of Atlanta - anticipated the construction of a new railroad through Dry Pond, they purchased 1,765 acres. The City of Toccoa was chartered in 1874 and the names of downtown streets reflect the visionary trio. According to historical accounts, the Johns House, a Victorian cottage near Prather Bridge Road, was built in 1898. Nearby, on a hill overlooking the valley of the upper Tugalo River, is Riverside, a Greek revival antebellum home, built in 1850 by James D. Prather with slave labor and timber from his plantation.
The Prather family cemetery is about fifteen yards from the porch. During the Civil War, General Robert Toombs, a close friend of Prather, used the house as a refuge from northern troops; the soldiers pursued him to Riverside, where he was able to hide in a double closet and escape capture. The first Prather's Bridge was a swinging bridge built in 1804 by James Jeremiah Prather; until travelers crossed the Tugalo River at fords and by ferries. The first bridge was washed away during a freshet. A more substantial bridge was built in 1850, but was burned in 1863 during the Civil War to keep the enemy from crossing. James Jeremiah and his son, James Devereaux, rebuilt the bridge in 1868; this bridge was washed away in 1918, was rebuilt in 1920 by James D. Prather, it was afterwards replaced by a concrete bridge, but was kept as a landmark until burned by vandals in 1978. The Georgia General Assembly created Stephens County in 1905, Toccoa was established as the county seat. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt visited Toccoa on March 23, 1938.
Roosevelt's train made a brief stop in Toccoa, where he made remarks from the rear platform of the presidential train before moving on to Gainesville to deliver a major speech on to Warm Springs for a vacation. Camp Toccoa, a World War II paratrooper training base, was located nearby, it was the first training base for the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment of the Army's 101st Airborne Division, whose Easy Company was subject of the non-fiction book and subsequent HBO miniseries Band of Brothers. Toccoa is home to Travelers Rest, known locally as Jarrett Manor. Toccoa is home of Toccoa Falls College. On November 6, 1977, the Kelly Barnes Dam, located above the college, failed; the resulting flood killed 39. First Lady Rosalynn Carter visited Toccoa the next day. Toccoa Falls is located on the campus of Toccoa Falls College. Toccoa is located at 34°34′29″N 83°19′12″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.4 square miles, of which 8.3 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water.
Altitude is 313 m. As of the census of 2010, Toccoa had a total population of 8,491; the 2014 population estimate was 8,257. The median age of a Toccoa resident is 35.4. The number of companies in Toccoa is 1,135. In educational attainment, high school graduate or higher percentage was 84.1%. The total housing units in Toccoa is 4,009; the median household income was $34,047. The foreign-born population was 213; the percentage of individuals below poverty level was 24.4%. Stephens County Development Authority was established in 1965 to continue and sustain the growth of Northeast Georgia. SCDA is responsible for the recruitment of new businesses such as industrial, distribution and regional headquarters and customer service centers. SCDA serves the following cities: Toccoa, Eastanollee and Avalon. Major industrial parks in the area are Toccoa Industrial Park, Meadowbrook Industrial Park, Hayestone Brady Business Park; the top Stephens County employers in descending order are the Stephens County School System, Patterson Pump, ASI, American Woodmark Corp.
Standard Register, Sage Automotive Interiors, Habersham Plantation, Toccoa Falls College, Coats & Clark, Eaton Corporation, PTL Company. Founded
Light rail, light rail transit, or fast tram is a form of urban rail transit using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, on an exclusive right-of-way. There is no standard definition, but in the United States, light rail operates along exclusive rights-of-way and uses either individual tramcars or multiple units coupled to form a train, lower capacity and lower speed than a long heavy-rail passenger train or metro system. A few light rail networks tend to have characteristics closer to rapid transit or commuter rail. Other light rail networks are tram-like in nature and operate on streets. Light rail systems are found on all inhabited continents, they have been popular in recent years due to their lower capital costs and increased reliability compared with heavy rail systems. Many original tram and streetcar systems in the United Kingdom, United States, elsewhere were decommissioned starting in the 1950s as the popularity of the automobile increased. Britain abandoned its last tram system, except for Blackpool, by 1962.
Although some traditional trolley or tram systems exist to this day, the term "light rail" has come to mean a different type of rail system. Modern light rail technology has West German origins, since an attempt by Boeing Vertol to introduce a new American light rail vehicle was a technical failure. After World War II, the Germans retained many of their streetcar networks and evolved them into model light rail systems. Except for Hamburg, all large and most medium-sized German cities maintain light rail networks; the basic concepts of light rail were put forward by H. Dean Quinby in 1962 in an article in Traffic Quarterly called "Major Urban Corridor Facilities: A New Concept". Quinby distinguished this new concept in rail transportation from historic streetcar or tram systems as: having the capacity to carry more passengers appearing like a train, with more than one car connected together having more doors to facilitate full utilization of the space faster and quieter in operationThe term light rail transit was introduced in North America in 1972 to describe this new concept of rail transportation.
The first of the new light rail systems in North America began operation in 1978 when the Canadian city of Edmonton, adopted the German Siemens-Duewag U2 system, followed three years by Calgary and San Diego, California. The concept proved popular, although Canada has few cities big enough for light rail, there are now at least 30 light rail systems in the United States. Britain began replacing its run-down local railways with light rail in the 1980s, starting with the Tyne and Wear Metro and followed by the Docklands Light Railway in London; the historic term light railway was used because it dated from the British Light Railways Act 1896, although the technology used in the DLR system was at the high end of what Americans considered to be light rail. The trend to light rail in the United Kingdom was established with the success of the Manchester Metrolink system in 1992; the term light rail was coined in 1972 by the U. S. Urban Mass Transportation Administration to describe new streetcar transformations that were taking place in Europe and the United States.
In Germany the term Stadtbahn was used to describe the concept, many in UMTA wanted to adopt the direct translation, city rail. However, UMTA adopted the term light rail instead. Light in this context is used in the sense of "intended for light loads and fast movement", rather than referring to physical weight; the infrastructure investment is usually lighter than would be found for a heavy rail system. The Transportation Research Board defined "light rail" in 1977 as "a mode of urban transportation utilizing predominantly reserved but not grade-separated rights-of-way. Electrically propelled. LRT provides a wide range of passenger capabilities and performance characteristics at moderate costs." The American Public Transportation Association, in its Glossary of Transit Terminology, defines light rail as:...a mode of transit service operating passenger rail cars singly on fixed rails in right-of-way, separated from other traffic for part or much of the way. Light rail vehicles are driven electrically with power being drawn from an overhead electric line via a trolley or a pantograph.
However, some diesel-powered transit is designated light rail, such as the O-Train Trillium Line in Ottawa, Canada, the River Line in New Jersey, United States, the Sprinter in California, United States, which use diesel multiple unit cars. Light rail is similar to the British English term light railway, long-used to distinguish railway operations carried out under a less rigorous set of regulation using lighter equipment at lower speeds from mainline railways. Light rail is a generic international English phrase for these types of rail systems, which means more or less the same thing throughout the English-speaking world; the use of the generic term light rail avoids some serious incompatibilities between British and American English. T
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
Savannah is the oldest city in the U. S. is the county seat of Chatham County. Established in 1733 on the Savannah River, the city of Savannah became the British colonial capital of the Province of Georgia and the first state capital of Georgia. A strategic port city in the American Revolution and during the American Civil War, Savannah is today an industrial center and an important Atlantic seaport, it is Georgia's fifth-largest city, with a 2017 estimated population of 146,444. The Savannah metropolitan area, Georgia's third-largest, had an estimated population of 387,543 in 2017; each year Savannah attracts millions of visitors to its cobblestone streets and notable historic buildings: the birthplace of Juliette Gordon Low, the Georgia Historical Society, the Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, the First African Baptist Church, Temple Mickve Israel, the Central of Georgia Railway roundhouse complex. Savannah's downtown area, which includes the Savannah Historic District, the Savannah Victorian Historic District, 22 parklike squares, is one of the largest National Historic Landmark Districts in the United States.
Downtown Savannah retains the original town plan prescribed by founder James Oglethorpe. Savannah was the host city for the sailing competitions during the 1996 Summer Olympics held in Atlanta. On February 12, 1733, General James Oglethorpe and settlers from the ship Anne landed at Yamacraw Bluff and were greeted by Tomochichi, the Yamacraws, Indian traders John and Mary Musgrove. Mary Musgrove served as an interpreter; the city of Savannah was founded on that date, along with the colony of Georgia. In 1751, Savannah and the rest of Georgia became a Royal Colony and Savannah was made the colonial capital of Georgia. By the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, Savannah had become the southernmost commercial port in the Thirteen Colonies. British troops took the city in 1778, the following year a combined force of American and French soldiers, including Haitians, failed to rout the British at the Siege of Savannah; the British did not leave the city until July 1782. In December 1804 the state legislature declared Milledgeville the new capital of Georgia.
Savannah, a prosperous seaport throughout the nineteenth century, was the Confederacy's sixth most populous city and the prime objective of General William T. Sherman's March to the Sea. Early on December 21, 1864, local authorities negotiated a peaceful surrender to save Savannah from destruction, Union troops marched into the city at dawn. Savannah was named for the Savannah River, which derives from variant names for the Shawnee, a Native American people who migrated to the river in the 1680s; the Shawnee destroyed another Native people, the Westo, occupied their lands at the head of the Savannah River's navigation on the fall line, near present-day Augusta. These Shawnee, whose Native name was Ša·wano·ki, were known by several local variants, including Shawano, Savano and Savannah. Another theory is that the name Savannah refers to the extensive marshlands surrounding the river for miles inland, is derived from the English term "savanna", a kind of tropical grassland, borrowed by the English from Spanish sabana and used in the Southern Colonies.
Still other theories suggest that the name Savannah originates from Algonquian terms meaning not only "southerners" but "salt". Savannah lies on the Savannah River 20 mi upriver from the Atlantic Ocean. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 108.7 square miles, of which 103.1 square miles is land and 5.6 square miles is water. Savannah is the largest port in the state of Georgia, it is located near the U. S. Intracoastal Waterway. Georgia's Ogeechee River flows toward the Atlantic Ocean some 16 miles south of downtown Savannah, forms the southern city limit. Savannah is prone to flooding, due to abundant rainfall, an elevation at just above sea level, the shape of the coastline, which poses a greater surge risk during hurricanes; the city uses five canals. In addition, several pumping stations have been built to help reduce the effects of flash flooding. Savannah's climate is classified as humid subtropical. In the Deep South, this is characterized by long and tropical summers and short, mild winters.
Savannah records few days of freezing temperatures each year. Due to its proximity to the Atlantic coast, Savannah experiences temperatures as extreme as those in Georgia's interior; the extreme temperatures have ranged from 105 °F, on July 20, 1986, down to 3 °F during the January 1985 Arctic outbreak. Seasonally, Savannah tends to have hot and humid summers with frequent thunderstorms that develop in the warm and tropical air masses, which are common. Although summers in Savannah are sunny, half of Savannah's annual precipitation falls during the months of June through September. Average dewpoints in summer range from 67.8 to 71.6 °F. Winters in Savannah are mild and sunny with average daily high temperatures close to 60 °F. November and December are the driest months re
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl