An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities for commercial air transport. Airports have facilities to store and maintain aircraft, a control tower. An airport consists of a landing area, which comprises an aerially accessible open space including at least one operationally active surface such as a runway for a plane to take off or a helipad, includes adjacent utility buildings such as control towers and terminals. Larger airports may have airport aprons, taxiway bridges, air traffic control centres, passenger facilities such as restaurants and lounges, emergency services. In some countries, the US in particular, they typically have one or more fixed-base operators, serving general aviation. An airport serving helicopters is called a heliport. An airport for use by seaplanes and amphibious aircraft is called a seaplane base; such a base includes a stretch of open water for takeoffs and landings, seaplane docks for tying-up. An international airport has additional facilities for customs and passport control as well as incorporating all of the aforementioned elements.
Such airports rank among the most complex and largest of all built typologies with 15 of the top 50 buildings by floor area being airport terminals. The terms aerodrome and airstrip may be used to refer to airports, the terms heliport, seaplane base, STOLport refer to airports dedicated to helicopters, seaplanes, or short take-off and landing aircraft. In colloquial use in certain environments, the terms airport and aerodrome are interchanged. However, in general, the term airport may imply or confer a certain stature upon the aviation facility that other aerodromes may not have achieved. In some jurisdictions, airport is a legal term of art reserved for those aerodromes certified or licensed as airports by the relevant national aviation authority after meeting specified certification criteria or regulatory requirements; that is to say, all airports are aerodromes, but not all aerodromes are airports. In jurisdictions where there is no legal distinction between aerodrome and airport, which term to use in the name of an aerodrome may be a commercial decision.
In United States technical/legal usage, landing area is used instead of aerodrome, airport means "a landing area used by aircraft for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo". Smaller or less-developed airfields, which represent the vast majority have a single runway shorter than 1,000 m. Larger airports for airline flights have paved runways of 2,000 m or longer. Skyline Airport in Inkom, Idaho has a runway, only 122 m long. In the United States, the minimum dimensions for dry, hard landing fields are defined by the FAR Landing And Takeoff Field Lengths; these include considerations for safety margins during takeoff. The longest public-use runway in the world is at Qamdo Bamda Airport in China, it has a length of 5,500 m. The world's widest paved runway is 105 m wide; as of 2009, the CIA stated that there were 44,000 "... airports or airfields recognizable from the air" around the world, including 15,095 in the US, the US having the most in the world. Most of the world's large airports are owned by local, regional, or national government bodies who lease the airport to private corporations who oversee the airport's operation.
For example, in the United Kingdom the state-owned British Airports Authority operated eight of the nation's major commercial airports – it was subsequently privatized in the late 1980s, following its takeover by the Spanish Ferrovial consortium in 2006, has been further divested and downsized to operating just Heathrow now. Germany's Frankfurt Airport is managed by the quasi-private firm Fraport. While in India GMR Group operates, through joint ventures, Indira Gandhi International Airport and Rajiv Gandhi International Airport. Bengaluru International Airport and Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport are controlled by GVK Group; the rest of India's airports are managed by the Airports Authority of India. In Pakistan nearly all civilian airports are owned and operated by the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority except for Sialkot International Airport which has the distinction of being the first owned public airport in Pakistan and South Asia. In the United States, commercial airports are operated directly by government entities or government-created airport authorities, such as the Los Angeles World Airports authority that oversees several airports in the Greater Los Angeles area, including Los Angeles International Airport.
In Canada, the federal authority, Transport Canada, divested itself of all but the remotest airports in 1999/2000. Now most airports in Canada are owned and operated by individual legal authorities or are municipally owned. Many U. S. airports still lease part or all of their facilities to outside firms, who operate functions such as retail management and parking. In the U. S. all commercial airport runways are certified by the FAA under the Code of Federal Regulations Title 14 Part 139, "Certification of Commercial Service Airports" but maintained by the local airport under the regulatory authority of the FAA. Despite the reluctance to privatize airports in the US, the government-owned, contractor-operated arrangement is the standard for the operation of commercial airports in the rest of the world. Airports are divided into airside areas; the landside area is open to the public, while access to the airside area is controlled. The airside area includes all parts of the airpo
Guam Memorial Hospital
Guam Memorial Hospital is located in Tamuning, Guam and is the public civilian hospital serving the island of Guam. The hospital has 158 licensed acute care beds, plus 40 beds at its off-site, long-term care Skilled Nursing Facility; the hospital offers pediatric medical services. These include 24-hour emergency services. Guam Memorial Hospital Authority was created prior to 1954 to administer and operate the Guam Memorial Hospital, its operations represent a major change in the history of the government's role in delivery of medical care to the community. The U. S. government provided free health care services to the people of Guam. The U. S. Naval forces assumed responsibility for the island's medical needs at the turn of the 20th century when the United States took formal possession of Guam; these services continued with the U. S. Navy's delivery of care after World War II, culminated with their donation of the first hospital facility of the Government of Guam's Department of Public Health and Welfare in the postwar era.
This "Quonset Hut" facility was replaced in 1956 with the construction of the Guam Memorial Hospital at Oka Point which served as a nurse training facility and tuberculosis hospital. As the need for hospital services increased, this Oka Point facility was renovated to serve as a 230-bed hospital that offered acute and long-term care services. In 1964, the Guam Memorial Hospital was established as a line agency of the Government of Guam's executive branch, its creation separated hospital services from community health services provided by the Department of Public Health and Welfare Corporation. Thirteen years in 1977, the Guam Memorial Hospital was created as a Public Corporation, has since been operating as a "governmental, non-profit institution serving the people of Guam, " under the governance of a Board of Trustees. Prior to August 19, 1983, Guam Memorial Hospital provided mental health services. On that day, the Guam Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, which took over the responsibility of providing mental health services, opened.
Guam Memorial Hospital closed their inpatient psychiatric unit and has no psychiatrists on staff. Guam Memorial Hospital Authority holds numerous certifications; the hospital is certified by the U. S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, as is the off-site Skilled Nursing Facility, its laboratory is accredited by the College of American Pathologists. Its blood bank is registered with the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, its mammography services are accredited and certified by the American College of Radiology and the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. Guam Memorial Hospital became accredited by The Joint Commission on July 9, 2010; the hospital lost its accreditation in 1983. Official website
Road speed limits are used in most countries to set the maximum speed at which road vehicles may travel on particular stretches of road. Speed limits may be variable and in some places speed is unlimited. Speed limits are indicated on a traffic sign. Speed limits are set by the legislative bodies of nations or provincial governments and enforced by national or regional police or judicial authorities; the first maximum speed limit was the 10 mph limit introduced in the United Kingdom in 1861. The highest posted speed limit in the world is 160 km/h, which applies to two motorways in the UAE. However, some roads have no speed limit for certain classes of vehicles. Most famous are Germany's less congested Autobahns, where automobile drivers have no mandated maximum speed. Measurements from the German state of Brandenburg in 2006 showed average speeds of 142 km/h on a 6-lane section of autobahn in free-flowing conditions. Rural roads on the Isle of Man and the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana lack speed limits.
In Europe, speed limits are considered as part of the speed management policy. There are several reasons for wanting to regulate speed on roads, it is done to improve road traffic safety and reduce the number of casualties from traffic collisions. In the World report on road traffic injury prevention report, the World Health Organization identify speed control as one of various interventions to contribute to a reduction in road casualties. Speed limits may be set to reduce the environmental impact of road traffic and to satisfy local community concerns for the safety of pedestrians; some cities have reduced limits to as little as 30 km/h for both efficiency reasons. Sometimes, however changing a speed limit has little effect on the average speed of cars. In situations where the natural road speed is considered too high by governments, notably in urban areas where speed limits are set below 50 km/h traffic calming is also used. For some classes of vehicle, speed limiters may be mandated to enforce compliance.
Since their introduction, speed limits have been opposed by some motoring advocacy groups. The United Kingdom Stage Carriage Act 1832 first introduced the offense of endangering the safety of a passenger or person by'furious driving'; the first numeric speed limits were created in the UK by a series of Locomotive Acts. The Locomotives on Highways Act 1896, which raised the speed limit to 14 mph is celebrated to this day by the annual London to Brighton Veteran Car Run; the first person to be convicted of speeding is believed to be Walter Arnold of East Peckham, who on 28 January 1896 was fined for speeding at 8 mph. He was fined 1 shilling plus costs. In the UK 20 mph speed was allowed in 1903. In Australia, during the early 20th century, there were people reported for "furious driving" offences. One conviction in 1905 cited furiously driving 20 mph when passing a tram traveling at half that speed. In the 1960s, in continental Europe, some speed limit were established based on the V85 speed. Sweden defined the Vision Zero program.
Most jurisdictions use the metric speed unit of kilometers per hour for speed limits, while some the United States and the United Kingdom, use speed limits given in miles per hour. There is an ongoing discussion as to whether they should follow the lead of other countries and switch to using metric units. Main article: Basic Speed Law or Rule. In countries bounded by Vienna Convention on Road Traffic, article 13 defines a basic rule for Speed and distance between vehicles: Every driver of a vehicle shall in all circumstances have his vehicle under control so as to be able to exercise due and proper care and to be at all times in a position to perform all manœuvres required of him, he shall, when adjusting the speed of his vehicle, pay constant regard to the circumstances, in particular the lie of the land, the state of the road, the condition and load of his vehicle, the weather conditions and the density of traffic, so as to be able to stop his vehicle within his range of forward vision and short of any foreseeable obstruction.
He shall slow down and if necessary stop whenever circumstances so require, when visibility is not good. Drivers are required to drive at a safe speed for conditions. In the United States, this requirement is referred to as the basic rule, but more in Britain and elsewhere in common law as the reasonable man requirement; the German Highway Code section on speed begins with a statement which may be rendered in English: Any person driving a vehicle may only drive so fast that the car is under control. Speeds must be adapted to the road, traffic and weather conditions as well as the personal skills and characteristics of the vehicle and load. In France the law clarifies that if speed is limited by law and by local authority, the driver assumes the responsibility to control his vehicle's speed, to reduce speed in various circumstances, such as overtaking a pedestrian, or bicycles, individually or in a group, when overtaking a stoppe
A merchant navy or merchant marine or mercantile marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a specific country. On merchant vessels, seafarers of various ranks and sometimes members of maritime trade unions are required by the International Convention on Standards of Training and Watchkeeping for Seafarers to carry Merchant Mariner's Documents. King George V bestowed the title of the "Merchant Navy" on the British merchant shipping fleets following their service in the First World War; the following is a partial list of the merchant navies or merchant marines of various countries. In many countries the fleet's proper name is the capitalized version of the common noun; the British Merchant Navy comprises the British merchant ships that transport cargo and people during time of peace and war. For much of its history, the merchant navy was the largest merchant fleet in the world, but with the decline of the British Empire in the mid-20th century it slipped down the rankings.
In 1939, the merchant navy was the largest in the world with 33% of total tonnage. By 2012, the merchant navy—still remaining one of the largest in the world—held only 3% of total tonnage; as of the year ending 2012, British Merchant Marine interests consists of 1,504 ships of 100 GT or over. This includes parent owned or managed by a British company; this amounts to: 59,413,000 GT or alternatively 75,265,000 DWT. This is according to the annual maritime shipping statistics provided by the British government and the Department for Transport. British shipping is globally by the UK Chamber of Shipping. Canada, like several other Commonwealth nations, created its own merchant navy in a large-scale effort in World War II. Established in 1939, the Canadian Merchant Navy played a major role in the Battle of the Atlantic bolstering the Allies' merchant fleet due to high losses in the British Merchant Navy. Thousands of Canadians served in the merchant navy aboard hundreds of Canadian merchant ships, notably the "Park Ship", the Canadian equivalent of the American "Liberty Ship".
A school at St. Margarets Bay, Nova Scotia, trained Canadian merchant mariners. "Manning pools", merchant navy barracks, were built in Canadian ports. The Greek maritime fleet is today engaged in commerce and transportation of goods and services universally, it consists of the merchant vessels owned by Greek civilians, flying either the Greek flag or a flag of convenience. Greece is a maritime nation by tradition, as shipping is arguably the oldest form of occupation of the Greeks and a key element of Greek economic activity since ancient times. In 2015, the Greek Merchant Navy controlled the world's largest merchant fleet in terms of tonnage with a total DWT of 334,649,089 tons and a fleet of 5,226 Greek owned vessels, according to Lloyd's List. Greece is ranked regarding all types of ships, including first for tankers and bulk carriers; the birth of the modern Indian Merchant Navy occurred before independence from the United Kingdom, when in 1919 SS Loyalty sailed from India to Britain. Today, India ranks 15th in the world in terms of total DWT.
India supplies around 12.8% of officers and around 14.5% of ratings to the world seafaring community. This is one of the highest of any country. India trains its officers similar to coast guards with all equipment including combat training, they are trained to protect their vessels at all cost from pirates. In December 1939, 3,000 seafarers were employed and 186 merchant vessels were on the New Zealand Registry; some foreign vessels were impressed, including Pamir. New Zealand, like several other Commonwealth nations, created a merchant navy. However, the "wartime Merchant Navy was neither a military force nor a single coherent body", instead it was a "a diverse collection of private companies and ships". Although some ships were involved in the Atlantic and North Pacific trade this involved domestic and South Pacific cargos. New Zealand-owned ships were involved in trade with the United Kingdom and the majority of New Zealand seamen had served with the British Merchant Navy. Over the course of the war, 64 ships were sunk by enemy action on the New Zealand–UK route, 140 merchant seafarers lost their lives.
The Pakistan Merchant Navy was formed in 1947. The Ministry of Port and Shipping, Mercantile Marine Department and Shipping Office established by the Government of Pakistan were authorized to flag the ships and ensured that the vessels were sea worthy. All of the private shipping companies merged and formed the National Shipping Corporation and the Pakistan Shipping Corporation and as a result they had a common flag. Among these companies were the Muhammadi Steamship Company Limited and the East & West Steamship Company. In the Indo-Pak war of 1971 Pakistan suffered a great loss of its merchant vessels at the hands of Indians. On 1 January 1974, President of Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto nationalized the National Shipping Corporation and Pakistan Shipping Corporation, formed the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation with the intent of reestablishing the Pakistan Merchant Navy; the company was incorporated under the provisions of the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation Ordinance of 1979 and the Companies Ordinance of 1984.
Today, the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation is the national flag carrier. The corporation's head office is located in Karachi. A regional office based in Lahore caters for
Transport in Australia
There are many forms of transport in Australia. Australia is dependent on road transport. There are more than 300 airports with paved runways. Passenger rail transport includes widespread commuter networks in the major capital cities with more limited intercity and interstate networks; the Australian mining sector is reliant upon rail to transport its product to Australia's ports for export. Road transport is an essential element of the Australian transport network, an enabler of the Australian economy. There is a heavy reliance on road transport due to Australia's large area and low population density in considerable parts of the country. Another reason for the reliance upon roads is that the Australian rail network has not been sufficiently developed for a lot of the freight and passenger requirements in most areas of Australia; this has meant that goods that would otherwise be transported by rail are moved across Australia via road trains. Every household owns at least one car, uses it most days.
Australia has the second highest level of car ownership in the world. It has three to four times more road per seven to nine times more than Asia. Australia has the third highest per capita rate of fuel consumption in the world. Melbourne is the most car-dependent city in Australia, according to a data survey in the 2010s. Having over 110,000 more cars driving to and from the city each day than Sydney. Perth and Brisbane are rated as being close behind. All these capital cities are rated among the highest in this category in the world; the distance travelled by car in Australia is among the highest in the world, being exceeded by USA and Canada. There are 3 different categories of Australian roads, they are state highways and local roads. The road network comprises a total of 913,000 km broken down into: paved: 353,331 km unpaved: 559,669 km Victoria has the largest network, with thousands of arterial roads to add; the majority of road tunnels in Australia have been constructed since the 1990s to relieve traffic congestion in metropolitan areas, or to cross significant watercourses.
Sydney, Brisbane and Adelaide have extensive commuter rail networks which have grown and expanded over time. Australian commuter rail operates with bidirectional all day services with Sydney, to a lesser extent Perth’s systems operating with much higher frequencies in their underground cores. Sydney Trains operates the busiest system in the country with 1 million trips per day. Metro Trains Melbourne operates a larger system albeit with a lower number of trips. Trams have operated in many Australian towns and cities, with the majority of these being shut down before the 1970s in the belief that more widespread car ownership would render them unnecessary. Melbourne is a major today has the largest tram network of any city in the world. Adelaide retained one tram service - the Glenelg tram, since extended from 2008 onwards to Hindmarsh and the East End. Trams had operated in a number of major regional cities including Ballarat, Brisbane, Broken Hill, Geelong, Kalgoorlie, Maitland, Perth, Sorrento, Sydney and St Kilda.
A modern light rail system opened in Sydney in 1997 with the conversion of a disused section of a freight railway line into what is now part of the Dulwich Hill Line. A second CBD and South East Light Rail line in Sydney is under construction and is due to open in 2019. A light rail system opened on the Gold Coast in 2014. A line opened in Newcastle in February 2019, with a line Canberra scheduled to open in April 2019. Major cities in Australia do not have full-fledged rapid transit systems, however a driverless rapid transit system in Sydney is under construction with completion of its first stage in 2019. Sydney, Melbourne and Perth's commuter systems are all underground and reflect some aspects of typical rapid transit systems in the city centres; the following table presents an overview of multi-modal intra-city public transport networks in Australia's larger cities. The only Australian capital cities without multi-modal networks are Canberra and Darwin, which rely on buses. Canberra is building a light rail line, which will link with existing bus services, is scheduled to open in 2018.
The table does not include heritage transport modes. The railway network is large, comprising a total of 33,819 km of track: 3,719 km broad gauge, 15,422 km standard gauge, 14,506 km narrow gauge and 172 km dual gauge. Rail transport started in the various colonies at different dates. Owned railways started the first lines, struggled to succeed on a remote and sparsely populated continent, government railways dominated. Although the various colonies had been advised by London to choose a common gauge, the colonies ended up with different gauges; the Great Southern Rail, operates three trains: The Ghan and The Overland. NSW owned NSW TrainLink services link Brisbane and Melbourne to Sydney. Since the extension of the Ghan from Alice Springs to Darwin was completed in 2004, all mainland Australian capital cities are linked by standard gauge rail, for the first time. There are various state and city rail services operated by a combination of government and private entities, the most prominent of these include V/Line (regional
Tamuning known as Tamuning-Tumon-Harmon is a Municipality/Town/City or village located on the western shore of the United States territory of Guam. The village of Tamuning can be viewed as the economic center of Guam, containing Tumon, Harmon Industrial Park, commercial districts in other parts of the municipality, its central location along Marine Corps Drive has aided in its development. Tamuning is the site of the access roads and the old passenger terminal of Antonio B. Won Pat International Airport, the passenger airport for Guam. Fort Juan Muña, in Harmon, is a facility for the Guam Army National Guard; the present and former locations of Guam Memorial Hospital, Guam's only civilian and government operated hospital, are in Tamuning. With Guam's only private birthing center in the village, most modern civilian births on Guam take place in Tamuning. Beside the tourist district of Tumon, Tamuning is home to the Guam Premier Outlets, one of three major shopping centers of the island. Continental Micronesia, a subsidiary of Continental Airlines, is headquartered in the old terminal building at Antonio B.
Won Pat International Airport in Tamuning. Continental Micronesia, with about 1,400 jobs, is Guam's largest single employer; the Guam Department of Land Management and the Guam Economic Development Authority have their headquarters in the Guam International Trade Center Building in Tamuning. The Guam Power Authority has its headquarters in Tamuning; the Guam Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse has its main facility in Tamuning, across from Guam Memorial Hospital. The United States Postal Service operates the Tamuning Post Office at 143 Edward T. Calvo Memorial Parkway. Under the Köppen climate classification, Tamuning features a tropical rainforest climate. While the town does experience a noticeably drier season from February through April, it does not have a true dry season as all months average more than 60 mm of precipitation. Tamuning averages 2,300 mm of precipitation annually, while maintaining consistent temperatures throughout the course of the year. Guam Public School System serves the island.
Public schools serving Tamuning: Chief Brodie Memorial Elementary School Lyndon B. Johnson Elementary School Tamuning Elementary School Jose L. G. Rios Middle School John F. Kennedy High School St. John's School Saint Anthony Catholic School Five countries maintain consulates in Tamuning. Except for the Korean consulate, the other four are all located in the landmark Guam ITC building at 590 South Marine Corps Drive. F. S. Micronesia Japan Palau Philippines South Korea Simon A. Sanchez Jose P. Castro Eugenio I. San Nicolas Gregorio A. Calvo Gregorio A. Calvo Alfredo C. Dungca Luis S. N. Herrero Concepcion "Connie" Duenas Francisco "Frank" C. Blas Louise C. Rivera Maria S. N. Leon Guerrero Alfredo C. Dungca Peter S. Calvo Teresita C. Borja Concenpcion Duenas Nancy Leon Guerrero Louise C. Rivera Kenneth C. Santos Villages of Guam PEACE Project Profile on Tamuning
Cocos Island (Guam)
Cocos Island is an island 1 mile off the southern tip of the United States territory of Guam, located within the Merizo Barrier Reef, part of the municipality of Merizo. The island is uninhabited, 1,600 meters long in a southwest-northeast direction, between 200 m and 300 m wide, has an area of 386,303 m2, it sits atop the southwestern coral reef rim of Cocos Lagoon. The east coast of the island is a day resort with a pool, volleyball court, ice cream parlor and bar, water sports equipment rentals. Visitors to the resort can snorkel, kayak, dolphin watch, jet ski and bike; the west side is part of the Territorial Park System. Ferries run to Guam. During the Spanish times, the island was owned by Don Ignacio Mendiola Dela Cruz. In the late 1920s, the US Government acquired ⅔ of the island via Eminent Domain. In the mid-1930s Don Ignacio sold the remaining ⅓ to a Businessman named Gottwald. A Coast Guard long-range navigation station was built and operated on Cocos Island from 1944-1963. In the late 80s to early 90s, the US Govt. returned the larger portion of the island to the Guam Government, who turned it into a Park.
Military tests on soil from Cocos Island in late 2005 showed levels of polychlorinated biphenyls contamination 4,900 times higher than the federally recommended level. Tests on twelve species of fish in the lagoon showed all but one of those species had high levels of PCBs. One had 265 times the acceptable level; the contamination most originated from transformers and other electrical equipment at the Coast Guard station, but was not tested for earlier. Officials from the Guam Environmental Protection Agency, Guam Department of Public Health and Social Services, the Coast Guard announced their findings on 20 February 2006 and warned people not to eat fish caught in the lagoon. Cocos Island is one of the few locations to have had the endangered Guam rail reintroduced to it. Health effects of PCBs Pacific Daily News article Bendure, G. & Friary, N. Micronesia:A travel survival kit. South Yarra, VIC: Lonely Planet