A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl
Billings is the largest city in the U. S. state of Montana, with a population estimated at 109,642 as of 2017. Located in the south-central portion of the state, it is the seat of Yellowstone County and the principal city of the Billings Metropolitan Area, which has a total a population of 170,498, it has a trade area of over 500,000. Billings was nicknamed the "Magic City" because of its rapid growth from its founding as a railroad town in March 1882; the city is named for a former president of the Northern Pacific Railroad. With one of the largest trade areas in the United States, Billings is the trade and distribution center for much of Montana east of the Continental Divide, Northern Wyoming, western portions of North Dakota and South Dakota. Billings is the largest retail destination for much of the same area; the city is experiencing a strong economy. Parts of the metro area are seeing hyper growth. From 2000 to 2010 Lockwood, an eastern suburb of the city, saw growth of 57.8%, the largest growth rate of any community in Montana.
Billings has avoided the economic downturn that affected most of the nation 2008–2012 as well as avoiding the housing bust. With more hotel accommodations than any area within a five-state region, the city hosts a variety of conventions, sporting events, other rallies. With the Bakken oil development in eastern Montana and western North Dakota, the largest oil discovery in U. S. history, as well as the Heath shale oil discovery just north of Billings, the city's growth rate stayed high during the shale oil boom. Although the city is still growing, the rate of increase has diminished markedly with oil price declines in recent years. Area attractions include Pompey's Pillar, Pictograph Cave, Chief Plenty Coups State Park, Zoo Montana, Yellowstone Art Museum. Within 100 miles are Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area, Red Lodge Mountain Resort, the Beartooth Highway, which links Red Lodge to Yellowstone National Park; the downtown core and much of the rest of Billings is in the Yellowstone Valley, a canyon carved out by the Yellowstone River.
Around 80 million years ago, the Billings area was on the shore of the Western Interior Seaway. The sea deposited sand around the shoreline; as the sea retreated it left behind a deep layer of sand. Over millions of years this sand was compressed into stone, known as Eagle Sandstone. Over the last million years the river has carved its way down through this stone to form the canyon walls that are known as the Billings Rimrocks or the Rims. About five miles south of downtown are the Pictograph Caves; these caves contain over 100 pictographs, the oldest of, over 2,000 years old. 30,000 artifacts have been excavated from the site. These excavations have indicated that the area has been occupied since at least 2600 BCE until after 1800 CE; the Crow Indians have called the Billings area home since about 1700. The present-day Crow Nation is just south of Billings. In July 1806, William Clark passed through the Billings area. On July 25 he arrived at what is now known as Pompeys Pillar and wrote in his journal "... at 4 P M arrived at a remarkable rock... this rock I ascended and from its top had a most extensive view in every direction."
Clark carved his name and the date into the rock, leaving the only remaining physical evidence of the expedition, visible along their route. He named the place Pompy's Tower, naming it after the son of his Shoshone interpreter and guide Sacajawea. In 1965, Pompeys Pillar was designated as a national historic landmark, was proclaimed a national monument in January 2001. An interpretive center has been built next to the monument; the area where Billings is today was once known as Clark's Fork Bottom. Clark's Fork Bottom was to be the hub for hauling freight to Musselshell Basins. At the time these were some of the most productive areas of the Montana Territory; the plan was to run freight up Alkali Creek, now part of Billings Heights, to the basins and Fort Benton on the Hi-Line. In 1877 settlers from the Gallatin Valley area of the Montana Territory formed Coulson the first town of the Yellowstone Valley; the town was started when John Alderson built a sawmill and convinced PW McAdow to open a general store and trading post on land that Alderson owned on the bank of the Yellowstone River.
The store went by the name of Headquarters and soon other buildings and tents were being built as the town began to grow. At this time before the coming of the railroad, most goods coming to and going from the Montana Territory were carried on paddle riverboats, it is believed that it was decided to name the new town Coulson in an attempt to attract the Coulson Packet Company that ran riverboats between St Louis and many points in the Montana Territory. In spite of their efforts the river was traversed only once by paddle riverboat to the point of the new town. Coulson was a rough town of not a single church; the town needed the famous mountain man John "Liver-Eating" Johnson took the job. Many disagreements were settled with a gun in the coarse Wild West town. Soon a graveyard was needed and Boothill Cemetery was created, it was called Boothill. Boothill Cemetery today sits within the city limits of Billings and is the only remaining physical evidence of Coulson's existence; when the railroad came to the area Coulson residents were sure the town would become the railroads hub and Coulson would soon be the Territories largest city.
The railroad on
Marmarth, North Dakota
Marmarth is the largest city in Slope County in the U. S. State of North Dakota with a population of 143 as of 2014, it is situated in the southwestern part of Slope County, along the Bowman County-limits, in the southwestern part of North Dakota, just seven miles east of the state-border to Montana. Marmarth was founded as a railroad town along the Milwaukee Road from Seattle, WA to Chicago, IL, in order to develop a town for homesteaders. By its founding, the town population was over 5,000 people -- rail cattle ranchers. Despite a population boom caused by the opening of the Little Beaver Dome oil field in 1936, the town population declined during most of the 21st century and had a population of only 143 in 2014. There is one restaurant and one bar still located in Marmarth in 2013; the town is recognized for various historical events, including Native-American Lakota history, the discovery of the Dakota fossil and various other dinosaur skeletons, the attack on James L. Fisk by Sitting Bull, several visits by former president Theodore Roosevelt.
Roosevelt visited Marmarth on several occasions and killed both his first buffalo and his first grizzly bear by the Little Missouri River in Marmarth. The old ranch house on Hay Creek in which Roosevelt stayed during his visits are still standing. Another visited attraction in town is the “Woman in Stone”, a 50-foot rock depicting the face and hairline of a woman; the town is at the southern tip of Theodore Roosevelt National Park and the Little Missouri National Grassland, is the closest city to Big Gumbo, a 20,000 acre federally owned public wilderness area administrated by the Bureau of Land Management. Several movies and TV shows have been filmed in the Theodore Roosevelt National Park, including the Wooly Boys, History Hogs and The Indomitable Teddy Roosevelt, all which were filmed in neighboring Billings County north of town; the name comes from a combination of letters in the first and middle names of Margaret Martha Finch, granddaughter of Albert J. Earling, president of the railroad at the time.
It is nicknamed the “city of trees”, as a result of being one of few forested areas in the Badlands region of Southern North Dakota. It is located between Hughes township in the badlands region of North Dakota, it is situated adjacent to the Little Missouri River at the confluence of Little Missouri River, Hay Creek, Little Beaver Creek. It has an elevation of 2,709 feet and is nicknamed “the city of trees” for being an oasis of trees in the treeless Badlands region, is the only place in the State of North Dakota where limber pines grow. Marmarth is located at 46°17′41″N 103°55′23″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.52 square miles, of which 2.50 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Marmarth has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps; the area was inhabited by the Lakota- and Crow peoples, which may have been part of the 9th–12th centuries BCE Mound Builders civilization.
On September 2, 1864, Captain James L. Fisk of the Union Army was leading 200 gold-seekers in eighty-eight wagons from North Dakota to Montana. By the Deep Creek twelve miles east of today’s Marmarth, the group was attacked by over a hundred Hunkpapa Sioux Indians led by the chief Sitting Bull. Sitting Bull was wounded, but saved by Jumping Bull and White Bull, while six Hunkpapas, ten soldiers, two civilians were killed in the battle; the Site of Fort Dilts has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1980. Theodore Roosevelt was in Marmarth and it is credited as the place where the future president shot his first grizzly bear and his first buffalo; the old squat ranch house by Hay Creek where the president guested is still standing. Marmarth was a hugely popular place for homesteading during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, was founded in the fall of 1907 as a result of the new Milwaukee Road transcontinental rail line known as the Pacific Extension, as well as other factors such as agriculture, cheap land.
The town was laid out on the east side of the Little Missouri River, near where a post office known as Neva and a hotel had been established. However, due to problems with securing additional land on the east side of the river for a reasonable price, the city was moved to the opposite side in 1908. Many pioneers came here as a result of the Dust Bowl and in search of a new life in the American Midwest. Marmarth grew to serve the hundreds of homesteaders who flooded into the area; because the first two decades of the 20th century were unusually wet, the new settlers reaped harvests of wheat on a scale "that promised to turn owners of modest farms into wealthy men." By 1920, Marmarth had 1,318 inhabitants. An auditorium, a theater, a large train station, a newspaper, paved sidewalks were all established during this time. During a spring thaw in April 1920, rural Marmarth rancher Jack Miller fled his home on horseback to escape the flooding Beaver Creek; when his horse slipped Miller, who had just one arm, found himself swimming in icy waters until he was able to climb aboard an iceberg.
Miller managed to anchor the iceberg against a tree, he danced on the berg all night in order to stay awake and avoid freezing. In the morning, he found safety at a neighbor's house; the population here once reached 1,300 in the early 20th century, but is now at 140. The town was the largest town on the Milwaukee railroad line in North Dakota by 1911, was the fifth largest town west of the Missouri River. Another one of the first pioneers, Michael Zeis of Holdingford, Mi
Havre is the county seat and largest town in Hill County, Montana, in the United States. Havre is nicknamed the crown jewel of the Hi-Line, it is said to be named after the city of Le Havre in France. As of the 2010 census the population was 9,310, in 2016 the estimated population was 9,846. Havre was incorporated in north central Montana in 1893, it was founded to serve as a major railroad service center for the Great Northern Railway with its location midway between Seattle and Minneapolis-St. Paul. A statue of Hill stands near the Havre Amtrak station to commemorate the key contributions his railroad has made to Havre's and Montana's history. Named "Bullhook Bottoms", the town held a series of meetings to determine a new name; the original settlers were given the final decision, due to a strong French influence, the town was renamed "Havre". Simon Pepin, the "Father of Havre", was born in Quebec and emigrated to Montana in 1863, where he became a contractor, furnishing supplies for the construction of Fort Custer, Fort Assinniboine, Fort Maginnis.
Pepin purchased ranch land near Fort Assinniboine. When James J. Hill built the Great Northern Railway across northern Montana, he built several locomotive shops on property Pepin owned at the site of Havre. Pepin became a major contributor to Havre's economic growth through his cattle, real estate, banking enterprises. Havre is the eighth-largest city in Montana, the largest city in the Montana section of the Hi-Line. With the nearest larger city, Great Falls, about 120 miles to the south, Havre serves as a medical and business center for the Montana section of the Hi-Line. U. S. Highway 87 has its northern terminus at Havre. U. S. Highway 2, running east-west, is the city's main street; the largest employers are Northern Montana Hospital, Montana State University–Northern, the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway. Throughout much of the twentieth century, BNSF was the most prominent employer in the city, but the company scaled back its workforce in Havre in the 1990s; the Milk River runs through the town, the Bears Paw Mountains can be seen to the south.
Small grids of purple squares can be seen in some of the sidewalks downtown. These are skylights for an underground mall built in the city at least a hundred years ago. Throughout its history, this underground area has been host to a brothel, a Chinese laundromat, a saloon, a drugstore, at least three opium dens, rooms used for smuggling alcohol during Prohibition; when fire destroyed Havre's business district in 1904, legitimate above-ground businesses joined the illicit businesses operating in the underground while the new brick buildings were built in the streets above. The underground area, now designated "Havre Beneath the Streets" operates as a tourist attraction; the Wahkpa Chu'gn buffalo jump, or bison kill, is located behind the Holiday Village Shopping Center near the northwest corner of Havre. Over 2,000 years old, it is one of the best preserved buffalo jumps anywhere. In prehistoric times, Native Americans would drive bison over the edge of the cliff, killing or injuring the animals.
Afterwards, the Native Americans preserved the meat. The buffalo jump is now a small tourist attraction; the buffalo jump is located at the southern edge of the Havre Badlands, a badlands formation that runs alongside the Milk River to the west of the city. Small fossils, including seashells and petrified wood, can be found in the limestone sediment in this area. 6 miles southwest of Havre is Fort Assinniboine, which served as one of Montana's principal military posts from 1879 through the Prohibition era. The fort was one of many used by the United States to protect against potential attacks from Native Americans and to block incursions from Canada. At its peak, the fort employed 489 soldiers in 104 buildings. Near Havre is the Bear's Paw Battlefield site of the Battle of Bear Paw, where the Nez Perce were attacked and defeated by the U. S. Cavalry. Chief Joseph surrendered to the Cavalry and made a famous speech ending with the line, "From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever."
Havre is located in eastern Hill County at 48°33′N 109°41′W. U. S. Route 2 is the main road through the city, running east to west near the city's northern border. Route 2 leads east 87 miles to Malta and west 102 miles to Shelby and Interstate 15. U. S. Route 87 has its northern terminus in West Havre, 3 miles west of downtown Havre. US 87 leads southwest 110 miles to Great Falls. Montana Secondary Highway 234 leads south from the center of Havre 30 miles to the Bear Paw Ski Bowl in the Bears Paw Mountains. According to the United States Census Bureau, Havre has a total area of 3.28 square miles, all of it land. Havre experiences a semi-arid climate with long, dry winters and hot summers with cool nights. Winter weather can vary from brutal cold when Arctic air moves in from Canada, to temperatures far above 32 °F or 0 °C due to chinook winds – for instance the coldest month of January 1916 averaged −13.3 °F or −25.2 °C and February 1936 during a notorious cold wave −12.8 °F or −24.9 °C, but February 1954 averaged as high as 37.1 °F or 2.8 °C and January 1919, 34.1 °F or 1.2 °C.
The hottest temperature recorded in Havre is 111 °F or 43.9 °C on August 5, 1961, the coldest −57 °F or −49.4 °C on January 27, 1916. As of the census of 2010, there were 9,310 people, 3,900 households, 2,293 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,838.4 inhabitants per square mile. There w
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Montana is a landlocked state in the Northwestern United States. Montana has several nicknames, although none are official, including "Big Sky Country" and "The Treasure State", slogans that include "Land of the Shining Mountains" and more "The Last Best Place". Montana is the 4th largest in area, the 8th least populous, the 3rd least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The western half of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In all, 77 named; the eastern half of Montana is characterized by badlands. Montana is bordered by Idaho to the west, Wyoming to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the north; the economy is based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic resources include oil, coal, hard rock mining, lumber; the health care and government sectors are significant to the state's economy. The state's fastest-growing sector is tourism.
Nearly 13 million tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, the Beartooth Highway, Flathead Lake, Big Sky Resort, other attractions. The name Montana comes from the Spanish word Montaña, which in turn comes from the Latin word Montanea, meaning "mountain", or more broadly, "mountainous country". Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the entire mountainous region of the west; the name Montana was added to a bill by the United States House Committee on Territories, chaired at the time by Rep. James Ashley of Ohio, for the territory that would become Idaho Territory; the name was changed by Representatives Henry Wilson and Benjamin F. Harding, who complained Montana had "no meaning"; when Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. This time Rep. Samuel Cox of Ohio, objected to the name. Cox complained the name was a misnomer given most of the territory was not mountainous and that a Native American name would be more appropriate than a Spanish one.
Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but it was decided the Committee on Territories could name it whatever they wanted, so the original name of Montana was adopted. Montana is one of the nine Mountain States, located in the north of the region known as the Western United States, it borders North South Dakota to the east. Wyoming is to the south, Idaho is to the west and southwest, three Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, are to the north. With an area of 147,040 square miles, Montana is larger than Japan, it is the fourth largest state in the United States after Alaska and California. S. state. The state's topography is defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. Most of Montana's 100 or more named mountain ranges are in the state's western half, most of, geologically and geographically part of the Northern Rocky Mountains; the Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the state's south-central part are technically part of the Central Rocky Mountains.
The Rocky Mountain Front is a significant feature in the state's north-central portion, isolated island ranges that interrupt the prairie landscape common in the central and eastern parts of the state. About 60 percent of the state is part of the northern Great Plains; the Bitterroot Mountains—one of the longest continuous ranges in the Rocky Mountain chain from Alaska to Mexico—along with smaller ranges, including the Coeur d'Alene Mountains and the Cabinet Mountains, divide the state from Idaho. The southern third of the Bitterroot range blends into the Continental Divide. Other major mountain ranges west of the Divide include the Cabinet Mountains, the Anaconda Range, the Missions, the Garnet Range, Sapphire Mountains, Flint Creek Range; the Divide's northern section, where the mountains give way to prairie, is part of the Rocky Mountain Front. The front is most pronounced in the Lewis Range, located in Glacier National Park. Due to the configuration of mountain ranges in Glacier National Park, the Northern Divide crosses this region and turns east in Montana at Triple Divide Peak.
It causes the Waterton River and Saint Mary rivers to flow north into Alberta, Canada. There they join the Saskatchewan River, which empties into Hudson Bay. East of the divide, several parallel ranges cover the state's southern part, including the Gravelly Range, the Madison Range, Gallatin Range, Absaroka Mountains and the Beartooth Mountains; the Beartooth Plateau is the largest continuous land mass over 10,000 feet high in the continental United States. It contains Granite Peak, 12,799 feet high. North of these ranges are the Big Belt Mountains, Bridger Mountains, Tobacco Roots, several island ranges, including the Crazy Mountains and Little Belt Mountains. Between many mountain ranges are rich river valleys; the Big Hole Valley, Bitterroot Valley, Gallatin Valley, Flathead Valley, Paradise Valley have extensive agricultural resources and multiple opportunities for tourism and recreation. East and north of this transition zone are the expansive and sparsely populated Northern Plains, with tableland prairies, smaller island mountain ranges, badlands.
The isolated island ranges east of the Divide include the Bear Paw Mountains, Bull Mountains, Castle Mountains, Crazy Mountains, Highwood Mountains, Judi
Great Falls, Montana
Great Falls is a city in and the county seat of Cascade County, United States. The 2017 census estimate put the population at 58,638; the population was 58,505 at the 2010 census. It is the principal city of the Great Falls, Montana Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Cascade County and has a population of 82,278. Great Falls was the largest city in Montana from 1950 to 1970. Great Falls remained the second largest city in Montana until 2000. Since Great Falls has been the third largest city in the state. Great Falls takes its name from the series of five waterfalls in close proximity along the upper Missouri River basin that the Lewis and Clark Expedition had to portage around over a ten-mile stretch; each falls sports a hydroelectric dam today, hence Great Falls is nicknamed "the Electric City". There are two undeveloped parts of their portage route; the city is home to the C. M. Russell Museum Complex, the University of Providence, Great Falls College Montana State University, Giant Springs, the Roe River, the Montana School for the Deaf and the Blind, the Great Falls Voyagers minor league baseball team, is adjacent to Malmstrom Air Force Base.
The local newspaper is the Great Falls Tribune. The first human beings to live in the Great Falls area were Paleo-Indians who migrated into the region between 9,500 BCE and 8,270 BCE; the earliest inhabitants of North America entered Montana east of the Continental Divide between the mountains and the Laurentide ice sheet. The area remained only sparsely inhabited, however. Salish Indians would hunt bison in the region on a seasonal basis, but no permanent settlements existed at or near Great Falls for much of prehistory. Around 1600, Piegan Blackfeet Indians, migrating west, entered the area, pushing the Salish back into the Rocky Mountains and claiming the site now known as Great Falls as their own; the Great Falls location remained the tribal territory of the Blackfeet until long after the United States claimed the region in 1803. Meriwether Lewis was the first white person to visit the area, which he did on June 13, 1805, as part of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. York, an African American slave owned by William Clark and who had participated in the Expedition, was the first black American to visit the site of the future city.
Following the return passage of Lewis and Clark in 1806, there is no record of any white person visiting the site of the city of Great Falls until explorer and trapper Jim Bridger reached the area in 1822. Bridger and Major Andrew Henry led a fur-trading expedition to the future city location in April 1823. British explorer Alexander Ross trapped around Great Falls in 1824. In 1838, a mapping expedition sent by the U. S. federal government and guided by Bridger spent four years in the area. Margaret Harkness Woodman became the first white woman to visit the Great Falls area in 1862; the Great Falls of the Missouri River marked the limit of the navigable section of the Missouri River for non-portagable watercraft, the non-navigability of the falls was noted by the U. S. Supreme Court in its 2012 ruling against the State of Montana on the question of streambed ownership beneath several dams situated at the site of the falls; the first steamboat arrived at future site of the city in 1859. Politically, the future site of Great Falls passed through numerous hands in the 19th century.
It was part of the unincorporated frontier until May 30, 1854, when Congress established the Nebraska Territory. Indian attacks on white explorers and settlers dropped after Isaac Stevens negotiated the Treaty of Hellgate in 1855, white settlement in the area began to occur. On March 2, 1861, the site became part of the Dakota Territory; the Great Falls area was incorporated into the Idaho Territory on March 4, 1863, into the Montana Territory on May 28, 1864. It became part of the state of Montana upon that territory's admission to statehood on November 8, 1889. Great Falls was founded in 1883. Businessman Paris Gibson visited the Great Falls of the Missouri River in 1880, was impressed by the possibilities for building a major industrial city near the falls with power provided by hydroelectricity, he returned in 1883 with friend Robert Vaughn and some surveyors and platted a permanent settlement the south side of the river. The city's first citizen, Silas Beachley, arrived that year. With investments from railroad owner James J. Hill and Helena businessman Charles Arthur Broadwater, houses, a store, a flour mill were established in 1884.
The Great Falls post office was established on July 10, 1884, Paris Gibson was named the first postmaster. A planing mill, lumber yard, bank and newspaper were established in 1885. By 1887 the town had 1,200 citizens, in October of that year the Great Northern Railway arrived in the city. Great Falls was incorporated on November 28, 1888. Great Falls became a thriving industrial and supply center. In 1894, naturalist Vernon Bailey passed through and described Great Falls as "a good town, appears prosperous and booming & I should judge contains 15000 inhabitants." By the early 1900s, Great Falls was en route to becoming one of Montana's largest cities. The rustic studio of famed Western artist Charles Marion Russell was a popular attraction, as were the famed "Great Falls of the Missouri", after which the city was named. James Jerome Hill, primary stockhold