Downtown Dallas is the Central Business District of Dallas, Texas USA, located in the geographic center of the city. The area termed "Downtown" has traditionally been defined as bounded by the downtown freeway loop: bounded on the east by I-345 (although known and signed as the northern terminus of I-45 and the southern terminus of US 75, on the west by I-35E, on the south by I-30, on the north by Spur 366; the square miles and density figures in the adjacent table represent the data for this traditional definition. However, the strong organic growth of Downtown Dallas since the early 2000s and continuing into the present has now resulted in Downtown Dallas, Inc.'s expansion of the term "Downtown" to include the explosive growth occurring north of the Woodall Rodgers Freeway in the Victory Park and Uptown/ Turtle Creek Districts as well as past Central Expressway to the east in the Deep Ellum and Bryan Place Districts, past Interstate 30 to the south with the Cedars District, jumping over Interstate 35E to the west to include the Design District and Lower Oak Lawn.
In total there are 15 districts that now form the definition of "Downtown"."Downtown Dallas" is now viewed as an interconnected grouping of dense and urban center city districts, that while unique in their own right share strong urban linkages to each other and collectively participate in their role as Downtown Dallas. Downtown Dallas achieved notoriety on November 22, 1963, with the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Both President Kennedy and Texas Governor John Connally were shot as their motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in what is now the West End Historic District. Part of the former Texas School Book Depository is now the Sixth Floor Museum, with exhibits about Kennedy and the assassination. Nearby is the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial; the building boom of the 1970s and 1980s produced a distinctive contemporary profile for the downtown skyline influenced by nationally prominent architects. At the same time, the establishment of the West End Historic District in the 1980s preserved a large group of late 19th century brick warehouses that have been adapted for use as restaurants and shops.
With the construction of the Dallas Center for the Performing Arts in the Arts District of Downtown, Dallas will be the only city in the world that has four buildings within one contiguous block designed by four separate and distinguished Pritzker Architecture Prize winners. Downtown Dallas has gained more recent national attention, as it was the location of the 2016 shooting of 14 Dallas police officers The area is undergoing a transition as dozens of residential conversions and new high rise condos bring more permanent residents to the downtown area; as of, 2017 there were an estimated 10,766 people. Its redeveloped Main Street has become more of a place for Dallasites to play after several restaurants and residential towers opened their doors along the strip. Downtown's growth can be attributed to Dallas Area Rapid Transit's three Light rail lines and the one commuter line that run through Downtown and an aggressive stance taken by the city to drive development at all costs; the city has invested $160 million of public funds in downtown Dallas for residential development that attracted $650 million of private investment.
Two of the first new-construction office building projects downtown in over 20 years broke ground in 2005—One Arts Plaza, a 24 story mixed use office, residential development in the Arts District, the new home of 7-Eleven's World Headquarters. Additionally, the $200 million 42-story Museum Tower residential skyscraper in the Downtown Dallas Arts District was completed in 2013; the Trinity River Corridor is poised to undergo a significant transformation into a giant urban park. The park is expected to include an equestrian center, lakes and three bridges designed by Santiago Calatrava. Funding over the years, has been a constant problem. Though serious work on the project now appears eminent, with the first two bridges having received significant private backing. Downtown Dallas has undergone a series of important changes that city officials believe will drastically improve the city's core; these changes are located in four downtown areas: Victory Park, the Arts District, the Trinity River, the Convention center corridor.
Victory Park, named one of the nation's most successful Brownfield reclamation projects, is home to the American Airlines Center, built in 2001, as well as several new high-rise hotels, residential towers and office buildings including the 33 story "W Dallas Victory Hotel and Residences", the 28 story "Cirque" residential tower, the 29 story "The House" residential tower, the 20 story "One Victory Park" office tower, among others. Under construction in Victory Park is the new "Perot Museum of Nature and Science", a $185 million 14 story ultra-modern addition to Downtown Dallas that opened in late 2012; the Dallas Arts District one of the world's largest completed the final stages of a massive ten year construction project that resulted in a 2,300 seat opera house, a series of theaters, residential space, parks, a gleaming 42 story residential tower known as Museum Tower that opened in 2013. One of the prominent attractions in the Arts District is the Dallas Museum of Art. Of all the changes in downtow
Dallas the City of Dallas, is a city in the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Dallas County, with portions extending into Collin, Denton and Rockwall counties. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,341,075, it is the ninth most-populous city in the U. S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. It is the eighteenth most-populous city in North America as of 2015. Located in North Texas, the city of Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States and the largest inland metropolitan area in the U. S. that lacks any navigable link to the sea. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country at 7.3 million people as of 2017. The city's combined statistical area is the seventh-largest in the U. S. as of 2017, with 7,846,293 residents. Dallas and nearby Fort Worth were developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton and oil in North and East Texas.
The construction of the Interstate Highway System reinforced Dallas's prominence as a transportation hub, with four major interstate highways converging in the city and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas developed as a strong industrial and financial center and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world. A "beta" global city, the economy of Dallas has been considered diverse with dominant sectors including defense, financial services, information technology, telecommunications, transportation. Dallas is home to 9 Fortune 500 companies within the city limits; the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex hosts additional Fortune 500 companies, including American Airlines, ExxonMobil and J. C. Penney. Over 41 colleges and universities are in its metropolitan area, the most of any metropolitan area in Texas; the city has a population from a myriad of ethnic and religious backgrounds and the sixth-largest LGBT population in the United States as of 2016.
WalletHub named Dallas the fifth most-diverse city in the U. S. in 2018. Preceded by thousands of years of varying cultures, the Caddo people inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. France claimed the area but never established much settlement. In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain defined the Red River as the northern boundary of New Spain placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory; the area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, with a majority of Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico and formed the Republic of Texas. Three years after Texas achieved independence, John Neely Bryan surveyed the area around present-day Dallas, he established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841.
The origin of the name is uncertain. The official historical marker states it was named after Vice President George M. Dallas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. However, this is disputed. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, Commodore Alexander James Dallas, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas or James R. Dallas. A further theory gives the origin as the village of Dallas, Scotland, similar to the way Houston, Texas was named after Sam Houston whose ancestors came from the Scottish village of Houston, Renfrewshire; the Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856. With the construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century, it became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South, the Midwest. The Praetorian Building in Dallas of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas for some time.
It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth; the rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing. In 1921, the Mexican president Álvaro Obregón along with the former revolutionary general visited Downtown Dallas's Mexican Park in Little Mexico; the small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to a Latin American population, drawn to Dallas by factors including the American Dream, better living conditions, the Mexican Revolution. On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in Downtown Dallas; the upper two floors of the building from which alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, the Texas School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president's life and accomplishments. On July 7, 2016, multiple shots were fired at a peaceful protest in Downtown Dallas, held against the police killings of two black men from other states.
The gunman identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m. killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were injured; this marked the deadliest day for U. S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks. Johnson told police during a standoff that he
Southwest Airlines Co. is a major United States airline headquartered in Dallas, is the world's largest low-cost carrier. The airline was established in 1967 by Herb Kelleher as Air Southwest Co. and adopted its current name, Southwest Airlines Co. in 1971, when it began operating as an intrastate airline wholly within the state of Texas, first flying between Dallas and San Antonio. The airline has about 58,000 employees as of September 2018 and operates about 4,000 departures a day during peak travel season; as of April 2019, Southwest carries the most domestic passengers of any United States airline. The airline has scheduled services to 100 destinations in the United States and ten additional countries. Service to Hawaii has started in March 2019. Southwest Airlines was founded in 1966 by Herbert Kelleher and Rollin King, in 1967 it was incorporated as Air Southwest Co. Three other airlines took legal action to try to prevent the company from its planned strategy of undercutting their prices by flying only within Texas and thus being exempt from various regulations.
The lawsuits were resolved in 1970, in 1971 the airline began operating scheduled flights between Dallas Love Field and Houston and between Love Field and San Antonio, adopted the name Southwest Airlines Co. In 1975, Southwest began operating flights to various additional cities within Texas, in 1979 it began flying to neighboring states. Service to the East and the Southeast started in the 1990s; as of April 2019, Southwest Airlines has scheduled flights to 102 destinations in 41 states, Puerto Rico, Central America and the Caribbean. It operates crew bases at the following airports: Atlanta, Chicago–Midway, Dallas–Love, Houston–Hobby, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Oakland and Phoenix–Sky Harbor. Southwest does not use the "hub and spoke" system of other major airlines, preferring the "point-to-point" system, combined with a "rolling hub" model in its larger cities. In 2018, Gary Kelly – the airline's chief executive – suggested that the airline may be considering potential route expansions to Canada and Europe.
Southwest does not partner with any other airline. Icelandair: In 1997, Southwest and Icelandair entered into interline and marketing agreements allowing for joint fares, coordinated schedules, transfer of passenger luggage between the two airlines in Baltimore and a place connecting passengers between several U. S. cities and several European cities. The frequent flyer programs were not included in the agreement; this arrangement lasted for several years but ended when Icelandair's service from BWI to KEF ended in January 2007. ATA Airlines: In a departure from its traditional "go it alone" strategy, Southwest entered into its first domestic codesharing arrangement with ATA, which enabled Southwest Airlines to serve ATA markets in Hawaii, Washington, D. C. and New York City. At the time of ATA's demise in April 2008, the airline offered over 70 flights a week to Hawaii from Southwest's focus cities in PHX, LAS, LAX and OAK with connections available to many other cities across the United States.
The ATA/Southwest codeshare was terminated when ATA filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy on April 3, 2008. Southwest acquired the operating certificate and some of the landing rights of ATA in the ensuing proceedings. WestJet: On July 8, 2008, Southwest Airlines signed a codeshare agreement with WestJet of Canada, giving the two airlines the ability to sell seats on each other's flights; the partnership was to be finalized by late 2009, but had been postponed due to economic conditions. On April 16, 2010, Southwest and WestJet airlines amicably agreed to terminate the implementation of a codeshare agreement between the two airlines. Volaris: Southwest signed its second international codeshare agreement on November 10, 2008, with Mexican low-cost carrier Volaris; the agreement allowed Southwest to sell tickets on Volaris flights. However, on February 22, 2013, the connecting agreement was terminated, it was said to be mutual between the airlines. Most industry experts believe that the expansion of the subsidiary of Southwest, AirTran Airways, into more Mexican markets, was a main reason for the termination of the agreement.
AirTran Airways: After acquiring AirTran Airways in 2011, Southwest Airlines and AirTran Airways took the first step in connecting their networks on January 26, 2013, by offering a small number of shared itineraries in five markets. The agreement ended after AirTran became integrated into Southwest on December 28, 2014. Southwest Airlines has only operated Boeing 737 jetliner models, except for a period from 1979 to 1987 when it leased and operated several Boeing 727-200s from Braniff International Airways. Southwest is the largest operator of the Boeing 737 worldwide, with 750 in service, each averaging six flights per day. While most U. S. airlines now charge passengers for checked luggage, Southwest continues to permit 2 free checked bags per passenger. Regarding last-minute itinerary changes, Southwest does not charge any change fees. In the event of a cancellation, passengers are refunded a travel credit in the amount spent on their ticket, the credit may be used toward any other Southwest Airlines or Southwest Vacations purchase within a year of the original ticket purchase.
Southwest offers free in-flight non-alcoholic beverages and offers alcoholic beverages for sale for $6–7/beverage, with Rapid Rewards members eligible to receive drinks vouchers with their tickets. Free alcoholic drinks are offered on popular holidays su
Public transport is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, that charge a posted fee for each trip. Examples of public transport include city buses, trolleybuses and passenger trains, rapid transit and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines and intercity rail. High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Most public transport systems run along fixed routes with set embarkation/disembarkation points to a prearranged timetable, with the most frequent services running to a headway. However, most public transport trips include other modes of travel, such as passengers walking or catching bus services to access train stations. Share taxis offer on-demand services in many parts of the world, which may compete with fixed public transport lines, or compliment them, by bringing passengers to interchanges. Paratransit is sometimes used for people who need a door-to-door service.
Urban public transit differs distinctly among Asia, North America, Europe. In Asia, profit-driven, privately-owned and publicly traded mass transit and real estate conglomerates predominantly operate public transit systems In North America, municipal transit authorities most run mass transit operations. In Europe, both state-owned and private companies predominantly operate mass transit systems, Public transport services can be profit-driven by use of pay-by-the-distance fares or funded by government subsidies in which flat rate fares are charged to each passenger. Services can be profitable through high usership numbers and high farebox recovery ratios, or can be regulated and subsidised from local or national tax revenue. Subsidised, free of charge services operate in some towns and cities. For geographical and economic reasons, differences exist internationally regarding use and extent of public transport. While countries in the Old World tend to have extensive and frequent systems serving their old and dense cities, many cities of the New World have more sprawl and much less comprehensive public transport.
The International Association of Public Transport is the international network for public transport authorities and operators, policy decision-makers, scientific institutes and the public transport supply and service industry. It has 3,400 members from 92 countries from all over the globe. Conveyances designed for public hire are as old as the first ferries, the earliest public transport was water transport: on land people walked or rode an animal. Ferries appear in Greek mythology—corpses in ancient Greece were buried with a coin underneath their tongue to pay the ferryman Charon to take them to Hades; some historical forms of public transport include the stagecoach, traveling a fixed route between coaching inns, the horse-drawn boat carrying paying passengers, a feature of European canals from their 17th-century origins. The canal itself as a form of infrastructure dates back to antiquity – ancient Egyptians used a canal for freight transportation to bypass the Aswan cataract – and the Chinese built canals for water transportation as far back as the Warring States period which began in the 5th century BCE.
Whether or not those canals were used for for-hire public transport remains unknown. The omnibus, the first organized public transit system within a city, appears to have originated in Paris, France, in 1662, although the service in question failed a few months after its founder, Blaise Pascal, died in August 1662; the omnibus was introduced to London in July 1829. The first passenger horse-drawn railway opened in 1806: it ran between Swansea and Mumbles in southwest Wales in the United Kingdom. In 1825 George Stephenson built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in northeast England, the first public steam railway in the world; the first successful electric streetcar was built for 12 miles of track for the Union Passenger Railway in Richmond, Virginia in 1888. Electric streetcars could carry heavier passenger loads than predecessors, which reduced fares and stimulated greater transit use. Two years after the Richmond success, over thirty two thousand electric streetcars were operating in America.
Electric streetcars paved the way for the first subway system in America. Before electric streetcars, steam powered subways were considered. However, most people believed that riders would avoid the smoke filled subway tunnels from the steam engines. In 1894, Boston built the first subway in the United States, an electric streetcar line in a 1.5 mile tunnel under Tremont Street’s retail district. Other cities such as New York followed, constructing hundreds of miles of subway in the following decades. Aerial lift Aerial tramway Funifor Chairlift Detachable chairlift Funitel Gondola lift Maritime transport Ferry Cable ferry Reaction ferry Water taxi Land transport Personal public transport Bicycle-sharing system Carsharing Personal rapid transit Rail transport Inter-city rail High-speed rail Maglev Urban rail transit Airport rail link Atmospheric railway Automated guideway transit Cable car Cable railway Commuter rail Elevated railway Funicular Inclined elevator Light rail Medium-capacity rail system Mono
El Paso International Airport
El Paso International Airport is four miles northeast of downtown El Paso, in El Paso County, Texas. It is the largest civil airport in West Texas and southern New Mexico, handling 2,957,629 passengers in 2017; the City of El Paso built the first El Paso Municipal Airport near the east side of the Franklin Mountains in 1928. The airport was closed by 1945 and in more recent times has been home to the Jobe Concrete Products "Planeport" cement factory. In 1934 Varney Speed Lines operated at the original El Paso Municipal Airport; the original El Paso Municipal Airport construction was inspired by a visit from Charles Lindbergh. What became today's El Paso International Airport was built as Standard Airport by Standard Airlines in 1929 for transcontinental air mail service. Standard Airlines became a division of American Airlines in the 1930s. In 1936 American Airlines "swapped" airports with the City of El Paso and El Paso International Airport was born. During World War II, the airport was a United States Army Air Forces training base.
Units which trained at El Paso Army Airfield were: 385th Bombardment Group December 21, 1942 – February 1, 1943 Served with the 8th Air Force in England. 491st Bombardment Group November 11, 1943 – January 1, 1944 Served with the 8th Air Force in England. 497th Bombardment Group November 20–December 1, 1943 Served with the 20th Air Force at Saipan. At the end of the war the airfield was deemed excess by the military and returned to the local government for civil use; the April 1952 C&GS diagram shows each 7001 to 7062 ft long. El Paso was the last stop of the first hijacking of a jetliner, a Boeing 707 owned by Continental Airlines. Before airline deregulation in the United States, El Paso was a focus city for Continental but was soon demoted to a standard station in a hub-and-spoke system under Frank Lorenzo; the airline had a pilot base, closed in 1963 but re-opened in 1977. The passenger concourses were built in 1971 as part of an expansion that tripled the size of the terminal, it was designed by Hilles.
Serving general aviation at El Paso International Airport, Cutter Aviation established a fixed-base operation in 1982. Cutter Aviation moved to a new facility on Shuttle Columbia Drive in 2006. Atlantic Aviation serves general aviation at ELP. El Paso International Airport covers 6,670 acres and has three runways: 4/22: 12,020 ft × 150 ft Asphalt 8R/26L: 9,025 ft × 150 ft Asphalt 8L/26R: 5,499 ft × 75 ft Asphalt The terminal is a pier-satellite layout, it has the gates branch out east to west on the two concourses. The airport has West Concourses. Gates A1–A4 are located on the West Concourse and Gates B1–B11 is located on the East Concourse; the airport has a total of 15 gates. There is a lower and upper level; the gates are located on the upper level and the ticketing, baggage claim, rental car, main entrance are located on the lower level of the terminal. The meeter/greeter area is located on the lower level just behind the escalators that lead to the Transportation Security Administration checkpoint leading to the gates.
Major terminal renovations have been made over the past several years and managed by the local architectural firm MNK Architects. The airport access road is Convair Road. Convair Road splits into four lanes with the left two lanes reserved for commercial vehicles and the right two lanes utilized for pickup and drop-off of passengers. In between the split road there is a waiting area where passengers can wait for commercial vehicles to arrive. Gates: Generally, these gates are used by: Gates A1–A3: American Airlines and American Eagle. Gate B1: Delta Air Lines. Gates B3–B7: Southwest Airlines Gates B8 and B9:United Express. Gate B10: Allegiant. Frontier: B11 Food court: The food court is between gates B6 and B11. El Paso International Airport has 15 gates on 2 concourses: Concourse A has gates A1–A4 and Concourse B has gates B1–B11. On July 20, 1982, Douglas C-47D N102BL of Pronto Aviation Services was damaged beyond repair in a crash landing near El Paso International Airport following an engine failure shortly after take-off.
The aircraft was on a domestic non-scheduled passenger flight to Tucson International Airport in Arizona when the engine failed and the decision was made to return to El Paso. A single engine go-around was attempted following an unsafe landing gear warning. On February 19, 1988, Don McCoy, a private pilot, the owner of El Paso Sand and Gravel, took off in a newly acquired Rockwell Aero Commander 680 in a snowstorm, attempted to land again after encountering mechanical trouble in instrument meteorological conditions; the aircraft crashed, killing two acquaintances. Some attempted to attribute the accident to US Senator Phil Gramm, as it was alleged that McCoy planned to testify against Senator Gramm's shakedown of campaign contributions made by the El Paso Small Business Administration office. On January 16, 2006, a mechanic employed by a contractor of Continental Airlines was killed when he was sucked into the right engine of a Boeing 737–524 while investigating an oil leak; the aircraft was preparing to depart as Continental Airlines Flight 1515 to George Bush Intercontinental Airport in Houston.
In April 2015, a Southwest Airlines jet was directed by the tower at ELP to land on a closed runway under construction. The aircraft landed safely but missed constructio
William P. Hobby Airport
William P. Hobby Airport is an international airport in Houston, Texas, 7 miles from downtown Houston. Hobby is Houston's oldest commercial airport and was its primary commercial airport until Houston Intercontinental Airport, now George Bush Intercontinental Airport, opened in 1969. After the opening of Houston Intercontinental, Hobby was closed for several years before it became apparent it needed to be reopened, it became a secondary airport for domestic airline service as well as a regional center for corporate and private aviation. Houston Hobby is a major focus city for Southwest Airlines, which operates international and domestic flights from HOU. Houston Hobby is the fifth largest airport in Southwest's network as of December 2017. Hobby is classified as a medium-sized airport, is the third-largest of this airport classification in terms of passengers. Southwest opened its first international terminal at Houston Hobby, began service from Houston Hobby to Mexico and Central and South America on October 15, 2015.
The airport has four runways. Its original art deco terminal building, the first passenger airline terminal in Houston, now houses the 1940 Air Terminal Museum. Hobby Airport opened in 1927 as a private landing field in a 600-acre pasture known as W. T. Carter Field; the airfield was served by Eastern Air Lines. The site was acquired by the city of Houston and was named Houston Municipal Airport in 1937; the airport was renamed Howard R. Hughes Airport in 1938. Howard Hughes was responsible for several improvements to the airport, including its first control tower, built in 1938; the airport's name changed back to Houston Municipal because Hughes was still alive at the time and regulations did not allow federal improvement funds for an airport named after a living person. The city of Houston opened and dedicated a new air terminal and hangar in 1940; the first three Women Airforce Service Pilots training classes were held at the Houston Municipal Airport in 1943. In 1948, Braniff International Airways was flying its first international service from Houston with Douglas DC-4 and DC-6 propliner service to South America via Cuba and Panama.
According to the June 4, 1948 Braniff timetable, the airline was operating three international flights a week from Hobby. Routings included Houston - Havana, Cuba - Panama City, Panama - Guayaquil, Ecuador - Lima, Peru with Havana, Balboa, C. Z. and Lima being served three times a week while Guayaquil was served twice a week. By 1949, Braniff had extended its international service from Houston with direct flights via Lima to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and La Paz, Bolivia. In 1950, Pan American World Airways initiated nonstop Douglas DC-4 service to Mexico City. On October 1, 1950, Chicago and Southern Air Lines began flying new Lockheed Constellation propliners nonstop to St. Louis on a daily basis with direct one stop service to Chicago Midway Airport. At this same time, Chicago & Southern was operating nonstop service between the airport and New Orleans with the sole purpose of these flights being the ability to connect passengers to and from the airline's daily Douglas DC-4 "Caribbean Comet" flights between New Orleans and Havana, Cuba.
By 1953, Chicago & Southern had been acquired by and merged into Delta Air Lines thus giving Delta access to Houston for the first time. In 1954, operating as "Delta C&S", was flying daily international service with a "Super" Convair 340 on a routing of Houston - New Orleans - Havana, Cuba - Port au Prince, Haiti - Ciudad Trujillo, Dominican Republic - San Juan, Puerto Rico. In 1954 an expanded terminal building opened to support the 53,640 airline flights that carried 910,047 passengers; the airport was renamed Houston International Airport the same year. The April 1957 Official Airline Guide lists 26 weekday departures on Eastern, 20 on Braniff, nine on Continental Airlines, nine on Delta Air Lines, nine on Trans-Texas Airways, four on National Airlines, two on Pan American World Airways and one on American Airlines. There were nonstops to New York City and Washington D. C. but not to Chicago or Denver or anywhere further west of Colorado at this time. In 1957, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines started Douglas DC-7C propliner flights to Amsterdam via an intermediate stop in Montreal.
In 1958, Delta was operating daily nonstop Douglas DC-7 service to New York City as well as weekly DC-7 service direct to Caracas, Venezuela via an intermediate stop in New Orleans while Eastern was operating Douglas DC-7 and Lockheed Constellation aircraft nonstop to New York City as well. Braniff International introduced Boeing 707 jet service in April 1960 nonstop to Dallas Love Field with direct one stop jet service to Chicago O'Hare Airport and was operating Lockheed L-188 Electra turboprop service nonstop to Chicago Midway Airport and Dallas Love Field with direct flights to Denver, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Kansas City and Lubbock being operated with the Electra. In June 1960, Eastern Airlines was operating Douglas DC-8 jets nonstop to New York City Idlewild Airport and to Atlanta in addition to flying Lockheed L-188 Electra propjets nonstop to Washington D. C. National Airport with direct one stop Electra service to Newark. KLM introduced jet service as well in July 1960 with Dougl
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails known as tracks. It is commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks consist of steel rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a rail transport system encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars can be coupled into longer trains; the operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power by diesel engines.
Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport, when lower traffic levels are considered; the oldest known, man/animal-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC in Greece. Rail transport commenced in mid 16th century in Germany in the form of horse-powered funiculars and wagonways. Modern rail transport commenced with the British development of the steam locomotives in the early 19th century, thus the railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world. Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, the Locomotion No. 1 is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George Stephenson built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use only the steam locomotives all the time, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution. Railways reduced the costs of shipping, allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships; the change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices varied little from city to city. The spread of the railway network and the use of railway timetables, led to the standardisation of time in Britain based on Greenwich Mean Time. Prior to this, major towns and cities varied their local time relative to GMT; the invention and development of the railway in the United Kingdom was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century. The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway, opened in 1863. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, leading to electrification of tramways and rapid transit systems. Starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being complete by the 2000s.
During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and in some other countries. Many countries are in the process of replacing diesel locomotives with electric locomotives due to environmental concerns, a notable example being Switzerland, which has electrified its network. Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. Following a decline after World War II due to competition from cars, rail transport has had a revival in recent decades due to road congestion and rising fuel prices, as well as governments investing in rail as a means of reducing CO2 emissions in the context of concerns about global warming; the history of rail transport began in the 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of track material and motive power used. Evidence indicates that there was 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD; the paved trackways were later built in Roman Egypt. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists and is operational, although in updated form and is the oldest operational railway. Wagonways using wooden rails, hauled by horses, started appearing in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, soon became popular in Europe; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way.
The miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. There are many references to their use in central Europe in the 16th century; such a transport system was used by German miners at Cal