Hovensa was a petroleum refinery company located on the island of St. Croix in the United States Virgin Islands; the refinery was a joint venture between Petroleos de Venezuela. For most of its operating life as HOVENSA it supplied heating oil and gasoline to the U. S. Gulf Coast and the eastern seaboard with the crude sourced from Venezuela, it had sourced its crude feedstock from a number of other countries including Libya. At a capacity of about 500,000 barrels per day as of 2010 it was in the top 10 largest refineries in the world. Hess Oil Virgin Islands Corporation started refinery construction in January 1966 having purchased the property from Annie de Chabert and, in October of the same year, the refinery started operating. In 1974, the capacity of refinery was expanded up to its peak at 650,000 barrels per day. Hovensa LLC, which took over the refinery operatorship, was established in 1998. In January 2011, Hovensa paid a $5.3 million penalty for Clean Air Act violations. The company closed the refinery in 2012, operating the property continued as a storage terminal only until that closed in 2015.
A purchase proposal by Atlantic Basin Refining was vetoed by the USVI Senate, but in November 2015 a joint venture called Limetree Bay Terminals succeeding in purchasing the Refinery. On November 30, 2018 Limetree Bay announced it had closed on $1.25 billion dollars of financing for the refinery to reopen by the end of 2019. Puerto Rico – Virgin Islands pipeline Official website Multinational Monitor: Hess Oil Virgin Islands
Cyril E. King Airport
Cyril E. King International Airport is a public airport located two miles west of the central business district of Charlotte Amalie on the island of St. Thomas in the United States Virgin Islands, it is the busiest airport in the United States Virgin Islands, one of the busiest in the eastern Caribbean, servicing 1,403,000 passengers from July 2015 through June 2016. The airport serves nearby St. John and is used by those traveling to the British Virgin Islands. Although passports are not required for U. S. citizens who are visiting the U. S. Virgin Islands, all passengers bound for the United States and Puerto Rico must pass through U. S. Customs and Border Protection screening before boarding their flight. Private planes can either use CBP Preclearance or arrive in the United States as an international arrival; the airport operates 7,000 ft × 150 ft long. The terminal operates 11 gates. During World War II, the United States Army Air Forces Sixth Air Force 23rd Fighter Squadron deployed P-40 Warhawk fighters to the airport from March 1942 – May 1943.
A number of airlines operated scheduled passenger jet service into St. Thomas as well as St. Croix in the past; these air carriers included Air Florida with Douglas DC-9-10s, Caribair with McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30s, Eastern Airlines with Boeing 727-100s, 727-200s and 757-200s, Midway Airlines with Boeing 737-200s, MD-87s Pan Am with Boeing 727-200s as well as A300B4s, A310s and Trans Caribbean Airways with Boeing 727-200s. One air carrier that has served St. Thomas for many years is American Airlines. In 1974, American was serving the airport with Boeing 707 and Boeing 727-100 jetliners with nonstop flights to New York City. In 1994, American was operating Airbus A300-600R wide-body jets into St. Thomas with nonstop service to Miami; the airport hosted Air Force One and Two carrying Bill Clinton, Al Gore, Joseph Biden using Boeing 707s and Boeing 757s. Cyril E. King Airport hosted a number of charter airliners, from the 757 to the 767 to the DC-10, it was known as Harry S Truman Airport until 1984, when it was renamed to honor Cyril Emmanuel King, the second elected governor of the U.
S. Virgin Islands. A new passenger terminal retained the name. Cyril E. King Airport covers an area of 280 acres which contains one asphalt paved runway measuring 7,000 ft × 150 ft. For the 12-month period ending September 30, 2017, the airport had 61,255 aircraft operations, an average of 167 per day: 58% air taxi, 14% scheduled commercial, 27% general aviation and 1% military. During the same period, there were 98 aircraft based at this airport: 59% multi-engine, 35% single engine, 3% helicopters, 2% jet engine and 1% ultralight. There is one flight school at the airport, Ace Flight Center; the St. Thomas Jet Center, on the north side of the runway, handles private aviation; the two-story terminal has 11 gates in two departure areas. The main section serves flights bound for the United States and Puerto Rico, it contains a restaurant and bar, gift shop, duty-free store. Three smaller departure lounges serve St. Croix departures. Arriving passengers from the United States and Puerto Rico over the age of 18 are greeted with complimentary samples of Cruzan Rum.
There are plans to expand the Cyril E. King Airport terminal to include a second departure lounge on the second floor as well as install jet bridges and move airport offices to the third floor. Governor Kenneth E. Mapp will unveil a $230 Million modernization plan in June for Cyril E. King Airport. On Tuesday, June 26, 2018, at 5:30, there was a charrette about the modernization plans of the Cyril E. King Airport terminal; the unveiling of the modernization plans of the airport has been implemented, to include a pedestrian bridge as well as a ferry terminal to improve transportation.. The architectural firm awarded the task of redesigning and renovating the airport is Lemartec Corporation. Bidding for phase one for the Cyril E. King Airport, to build a parking garage and transportation center, will be in May; the airport project received 27 million dollars in grants, thanks to Senator At-Large Stacey Plaskett. ^a Sun Country flights from STT to MSP make a stop for fuel in San Juan. However, flights from MSP to STT are nonstop.
On December 28, 1970, Trans Caribbean Airways Flight 505 operated with a Boeing 727 jetliner made a hard landing and ran off the side of the runway. Two of the 48 passengers died in the subsequent fire, the aircraft was destroyed by the ensuing conflagration. On April 27, 1976, American Airlines Flight 625 operated with a Boeing 727 jetliner ran off the end of the runway, killing 37 of the 88 on board the aircraft. Following the crash, American Airlines suspended jet service to the airport and began operating Convair 440 propliners instead for service to nearby St. Croix and San Juan for connections to American mainline jet flights at these airports until the St. Thomas runway was extended to its present length; these CV-440 flights were flown by a division of AA, American Inter-Island, as an interim service until American elected to resume mainline jet aircraft operations into St. Thomas with the advent of the longer runway. On March 25, 1977, Douglas C-53 N692A of Island Traders was damaged beyond economic repair in a heavy landing.
On September 17, 1989, Douglas DC-3 N4425N, Douglas C-47s N100SD, N4471J and N4577Z. On December 30, 2003, Douglas DC-3C N781T of Tol-Air Services was substantially
Cruz Bay, U.S. Virgin Islands
Cruz Bay, U. S. Virgin Islands is the main town on the island of Saint John in the United States Virgin Islands. According to the 2000 census, Cruz Bay had a population of 2,743. Cruz Bay, located on the west coast of Saint John, is the island's largest commercial center and the location of the main port on Saint John; the primary access to Saint John is through Cruz Bay Harbor. Frequent barge and ferry, including car ferry, service connects Saint John to the neighboring more-developed island of Saint Thomas. Ferries run between Cruz Bay and Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Jost Van Dyke in the British Virgin Islands. Cruz Bay is home to numerous shops and restaurants which are frequented by tourists and locals alike; the Virgin Islands National Park Visitor Center, the Elaine Sprauve Library, a United States Post Office are located in Cruz Bay. Cruz Bay beach is lined with beach shops. There is a casino; the beach has soft white sand, a designated swimming area, space for day boaters to anchor. The National Park Service has its headquarters near the waterfront in Cruz Bay as does U.
S. Customs and Immigration; the Cruz Bay Town Historic District was listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places in 2016. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Cruz Bay has a tropical monsoon climate, abbreviated "Am" on climate maps. St. John: US Virgin Islands – Official site for United States Virgin Islands Department of Tourism Virgin Islands: American Paradise – Official site for National Park Service, US Department of the Interior Reef Fishes of St. John, U. S. Virgin Islands – Official site for US Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division Cruz Bay Visitor Center – Official site US Virgin Islands Tourism Association – Official site Friends of the VINP Archaeology Intern Blog
Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona and Vieques; the capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is 3.4 million. Spanish and English are the official languages. Populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was contested by French and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.
Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner; as residents of a U. S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for president and vice president of the United States, nor pay federal income tax on Puerto Rican income. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.
S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has been a matter of significant debate. In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government; the outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time with 12.4% unemployment. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession; this was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U. S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration. On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U. S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition, made under Title III of PROMESA. By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate. In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico; the island's electrical grid was destroyed, with repairs expected to take months to complete, provoking the largest power outage in American history.
Recovery efforts were somewhat slow in the first few months, over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland State of Florida alone by late November 2017. Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord"; the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen and are used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city; the island's name was changed to "Porto Rico" by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.
S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931; the official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The ancient history of the archipelago, now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all, known about them; the first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island. The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4,000 years. An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", dated to around 2000 BC; the Ortoiroid were displaced
Creque Marine Railway
The Creque Marine Railway the "St Thomas Marine Repair Facility", is an inclined-plane ship railway on Hassel Island, in the bay of Charlotte Amalie off the coast of St. Thomas Island, in the U. S. Virgin Islands, its site is within Virgin Islands National Park. The marine railway was constructed in the 1840s by Danish investors, at Little Careening Cove on Hassel Island in the colonial Danish West Indies, it entered commercial service in 1844. It is the world's oldest surviving marine railway. A large ship-cradle, built out of "greenheart" wood, ran on four rails, down a shallow incline into the water. A ship could be floated into the cradle drawn up the railway by a winch so that work could be done on the hull - or propellers - of the ship on dry land; the winch was driven by a beam engine. The beam engine and winch mechanism were manufactured by Boulton of Hamburg, around 1840; the marine railway was called the "St Thomas Marine Repair Facility". It fell into financial difficulties and was auctioned in 1910.
It was bought by Henry Creque. By 1912, the site was back in working order under the name Creque's Maritime Railway Dock. Under new ownership, the business succeeded again; the Creque Marine Railway continued service into the 1960s. During World War II, the U. S. military utilized Hassel Island including Careening Cove. The site was abandoned in the 1960s. In 1978 a large part of Hassel Island was donated to the U. S. Department of the Interior as part of the Virgin Islands National Park. Hassel Island is accessible to the public by boat from mainland St. Thomas. Hiking trails follow the historic routes on the island, passing Fort Shipley, the Creque Marine Railway, Hamburg American Line coaling station, West Indies headquarters of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, other historic sites. In 2006 the St. Thomas Historical Trust entered into a Memorandum of Understanding with Virgin Islands National Park, to repair and restore structures and areas on Hassel Island. Hassel Island, U. S. Virgin Islands Railway transportation in the United States Virgin Islands Danish West Indies topics National Register of Historic Places listings in the United States Virgin Islands Hassel Island.org: Creque Marine Railway Hassel Island.org: Danish colonial island history during the 17th-18th-centuries] Library of Congress: HAER−Historic American Engineering Record, Creque Marine Railway documentation archives
Frederiksted, U.S. Virgin Islands
Frederiksted is both the town and one of the two administrative districts of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, it is a grid-planned city, designed by surveyor Jens Beckfor to 14x14 blocks but built 7x7 to enhance the island commerce in the 1700s. Frederiksted has fewer than 1,000 people in the town proper, but nearly 10,000 in the greater western side of the island. Christiansted is about 30 years older but commerce was limited by its natural, shallow protective reef. Frederiksted was built in the leeward side of the island for calm seas and a deep port, it is home to Fort Frederik, constructed to protect the town from pirate raids and attacks from rival imperialist nations and named after Frederick V of Denmark, who purchased the Danish West Indies in 1754. Frederiksted is referred to as "Freedom City" by locals; this nickname has to do with the fact that the town was the site of the emancipation of slaves in the then-Danish West Indies. On July 3, 1848, freed slave and skilled craftsman Moses Gottlieb, known as "General Buddhoe," led the uprising, organized slaves on St. Croix's West End plantations, marched on the town of Frederiksted.
The emancipation of slaves was proclaimed on July 3, 1848, at Fort Frederik on the waterfront at the northern edge of Frederiksted by Governor-General Peter von Scholten. Frederiksted is home to one of two deep water ports on St. Croix and is the sole port for cruise ships visiting the island. Passengers disembark at the Frederiksted Pier, where they may explore the town, enjoy the beaches, rent a car, or catch a waiting taxi that will take them to other points of interest across St. Croix; the other deep water port is located at the South Port which includes the tank farm of the former Hovensa oil refinery as well as Renaissance Industrial Park. The territory's legislature is located in Frederiksted. There are several government offices that occupy historic buildings. In the early 2000s, Frederiksted was a port for Seaborne Airlines seaplanes, which are based in the town of Christiansted. Seaplane service ended after less than one year of service due to a tropical storm damaging the port facility.
Today, Frederiksted is a sleepy town. In its peak month, Frederiksted receives about 15 cruise ships, it receives 0-2 ships over the summer months compared to St. Thomas' 3-8 ships per day in January. Frederiksted has little in the way of retail shopping. Frederiksted Pier and the west end reefs offer tropical scuba diving in with the calm waters and many expansive beaches. Adjacent to the pier are several restaurants and beach bars, a few water sports companies, one cafe. Retail opens and livens up when a ship comes to port. Molly's tropical boutique and Franklin's gift store are near the Pier on Strand Street. On cruise ship days many vendors set up stalls near the Pier. Frederiksted is notable for a number of excellent vegetarian dining options. Uca's Kitchen, Roots and Kulchar Cafe, offer excellent "ital" meals. Lost Dog Bar on King Street, offers vegan pizza options. Polly's offers vegetarian meals including wraps. Louie and Nachos Beach Bar, offers other choices; the Fred is a luxury boutique hotel and spa on Strand Street, the first new hotel to be constructed on St Croix for more than 30 years.
Lyricsails offers popular sunset catamaran cruises with live entertainment that leave from Frederiksted Pier. The town was destroyed by a labor revolt in October 1878, led by four Crucian female laborers. Frederiksted was restored during the Victorian era, as reflected in the town's architecture. Modern Frederiksted operates at a slower pace than Christiansted, except for carnival in January and whenever cruise ships dock in Frederiksted's deepwater port. In recent years successful redevelopment efforts have begun to restore and revitalize this National Historic Site; the 2000 census population of the town was 732, that of the larger sub-district was 3,767. Frederiksted is rated one of the best scuba diving sites in the Virgin Islands. Frederiksted has more dive sites than most of the island combined, featuring the Frederiksted Pier, reef and underwater archaeology; the Pier in Frederiksted has been called the best night dive in the Caribbean. Scuba on the Frederiksted Pier is a shallow dive, ideal for trying scuba the first time course PADI Discover Scuba Diving, for extended shore diving, night diving, for underwater photography—rated one of the best dives in the territory.
The only dive shop in Frederiksted is N2theBlue Scuba Diving. Jazz in the Park is featured every third Friday of the month from 5:30-7:30pm. Admission is free; this event is not operating, but will return, funding permitting. Carnival is the biggest event of the year starting in late December and ending the first weekend of the New Year; the event starts with the construction of Carnival Village, the traditional county fair. The last weekend hosts the largest parties with J'ouvert at the crack of dawn, followed the next day with the Food Fair; the first Friday is the Children's Parade and the main event is the Adult Parade with its full festival status. Paddleboarding is popular with the calm waters on the Frederiksted side of the island. Weekly events for night boarding and general competitions are hosted by Freedom City Surf Shop, as well as the internationally recognized Coconut Cup. Freedom City Surf Sh
Left- and right-hand traffic
Left-hand traffic and right-hand traffic are the practice, in bidirectional traffic, of keeping to the left side or to the right side of the road, respectively. A fundamental element to traffic flow, it is sometimes referred to as the rule of the road. RHT is used in 165 countries and territories, with the remaining 75 countries and territories using LHT. Countries that use LHT account for about a sixth of the world's area with about 35% of its population and a quarter of its roads. In 1919, 104 of the world's territories were LHT and an equal number were RHT. From 1919 to 1986, 34 of the LHT territories switched to RHT. Many of the countries with LHT were part of the British Empire. In addition, Thailand and other countries have retained the LHT tradition. Conversely, many of the countries with RHT were part of the French colonial empire or, in Europe, were subject to French rule during the Napoleonic conquests. For rail traffic, LHT predominates in Western Europe, Latin America, in countries in the British and French Empires, whereas North American and central and eastern European train services operate RHT.
According to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, water traffic is RHT: a vessel proceeding along a narrow channel must keep to starboard, when two power-driven vessels are meeting head-on both must alter course to starboard also. For aircraft the US Federal Aviation Regulations suggest RHT principles, both in the air and on water. In LHT vehicles keep left, cars are RHD with the steering wheel on the right-hand side and the driver sitting on the offside or side closest to the centre of the road; the passenger sits on the nearside, closest to the kerb. Roundabouts circulate clockwise. In RHT everything is reversed: cars keep right, the driver sits on the left side of the car, roundabouts circulate anticlockwise. Ancient Greek and Roman troops kept to the left when marching. In 1998, archaeologists found a well-preserved double track leading to a Roman quarry near Swindon, in southern England; the grooves in the road on the left side were much deeper than those on the right side, suggesting LHT, at least at this location, since carts would exit the quarry loaded, enter it empty.
In the year 1300, Pope Boniface VIII directed pilgrims to keep left. Following the French Revolution, all traffic in France kept right; the first reference in English law to an order for LHT was with regard to London Bridge. The United Kingdom is LHT, but its overseas territories of Gibraltar and British Indian Ocean Territory are RHT. In the late 1960s, the UK Department for Transport considered switching to RHT, but declared it unsafe and too costly for such a built-up nation. Road building standards, for motorways in particular, allow asymmetrically designed road junctions, where merge and diverge lanes differ in length. Sweden switched to RHT in 1967, having been LHT since from about 1734 despite having land borders with RHT countries, 90 percent of cars being left-hand drive vehicles. A referendum was held in 1955, with an overwhelming majority voting against a change to RHT; some years the government ordered a conversion, which took place at 5 am on Sunday, 3 September 1967. The accident rate dropped after the change, but soon rose back to near its original level.
The day was known as the'H' being for Högertrafik. When Iceland switched the following year, it was known as H-dagurinn, again meaning "H-Day". Most passenger cars were LHD. LHT was used in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, when the empire was split up, the countries all changed to RHT. Austria switched sides in 1921 in Vorarlberg, 1930 in North Tyrol, 1935 in Carinthia and East Tyrol, in 1938 in the rest of the country. Partitions of Poland changed to RHT in the 1920s, Partitions belonging to the German Empire and the Russian Empire were RHT. Croatia-Slavonia switched to RHT on joining the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, although Istria and Dalmatia were RHT. Nazi Germany introduced the switch to right-hand traffic in Czechoslovakia and Slovakia in 1938–39. West Ukraine was LHT, although the rest of Ukraine, having been part of the Russian Empire drove on the right. In Romania Transylvania, the Banat and Bukovina were LHT until 1919, while Wallachia and Moldavia were RHT. In Italy the countryside was RHT while cities were LHT until 1927.
Rome changed to RHT in 1924 and Milan in 1926. Alfa Romeo and Lancia did produce RHD cars until as late as 1950 and 1953 only to special order, as many drivers favoured the RHD layout in RHT as this offered the driver a clearer view of the edge of the road in mountainous regions at a time when many such roads lacked barriers or walls; the Rome Metro uses LHT. Finland ruled as part of LHT Sweden, switched to RHT in 1858 as the Grand Duchy of Finland by Russian decree. Rotterdam was LHT until 1917, although the rest Today, four countries in Europe continue to use left-hand traffic, all island nations: the UK, Cyprus and Malta. LHT was introduced in British West Africa. All of the countries part of this colony have borders with former French RHT jurisdictions and have switched sides since decolonization; these include Ghana, The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria. LHT was introduced by the British in the East Africa Protectorate and the Cape Colony. All of these have remained LHT. Sudan part of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan switched to RHT in 1973, as it