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In cryptography, a transposition cipher is a method of encryption by which the positions held by units of plaintext are shifted according to a regular system, so that the ciphertext constitutes a permutation of the plaintext. That is, the order of the units is changed. Mathematically a bijective function is used on the characters' positions to encrypt and an inverse function to decrypt. Following are some implementations; the Rail Fence cipher is a form of transposition cipher that gets its name from the way in which it is encoded. In the rail fence cipher, the plaintext is written downwards and diagonally on successive "rails" of an imaginary fence moving up when we get to the bottom; the message is read off in rows. For example, using three "rails" and a message of'WE ARE DISCOVERED FLEE AT ONCE', the cipherer writes out: W... E... C... R... L... T... E. E. R. D. S. O. E. E. F. E. A. O. C... A... I... V... D... E... N.. Reads off: WECRL TEERD SOEEF EAOCA IVDEN The rail fence cipher was used by the ancient Greeks in the scytale, a mechanical system of producing a transposition cipher.

The system consisted of a cylinder and a ribbon, wrapped around the cylinder. The message to be encrypted was written on the coiled ribbon; the letters of the original message would be rearranged when the ribbon was uncoiled from the cylinder. However, the message was decrypted when the ribbon was recoiled on a cylinder of the same diameter as the encrypting cylinder. In a route cipher, the plaintext is first written out in a grid of given dimensions read off in a pattern given in the key. For example, using the same plaintext that we used for rail fence: W R I O R F E O E E E S V E L A N J A D C E D E T C X The key might specify "spiral inwards, starting from the top right"; that would give a cipher text of: EJXCTEDEC DAEWRIORF EONALEVSE Route ciphers have many more keys than a rail fence. In fact, for messages of reasonable length, the number of possible keys is too great to be enumerated by modern machinery. However, not all keys are good. Badly chosen routes will leave excessive chunks of plaintext, or text reversed, this will give cryptanalysts a clue as to the routes.

A variation of the route cipher was the Union Route Cipher, used by Union forces during the American Civil War. This worked much like an ordinary route cipher, but transposed whole words instead of individual letters; because this would leave certain sensitive words exposed, such words would first be concealed by code. The cipher clerk may add entire null words, which were chosen to make the ciphertext humorous. In a columnar transposition, the message is written out in rows of a fixed length, read out again column by column, the columns are chosen in some scrambled order. Both the width of the rows and the permutation of the columns are defined by a keyword. For example, the keyword ZEBRAS is of length 6, the permutation is defined by the alphabetical order of the letters in the keyword. In this case, the order would be "6 3 2 4 1 5". In a regular columnar transposition cipher, any spare spaces are filled with nulls; the message is read off in columns, in the order specified by the keyword. For example, suppose we use the keyword ZEBRAS and the message WE ARE DISCOVERED.

FLEE AT ONCE. In a regular columnar transposition, we write this into the grid as follows: 6 3 2 4 1 5 W E A R E D I S C O V E R E D F L E E A T O N C E Q K J E U providing five nulls, these letters can be randomly selected as they just fill out the incomplete columns and are not part of the message; the ciphertext is read off as: EVLNE ACDTK ESEAQ ROFOJ DEECU WIREE In the irregular case, the columns are not completed by nulls: 6 3 2 4 1 5 W E A R E D I S C O V E R E D F L E E A T O N C E This results in the following ciphertext: EVLNA CDTES EAROF ODEEC WIREE To decipher it, the recipient has to work out the column lengths by dividing the message length by the key length. He can write the message out in columns again re-order the columns by reforming the key word. In a variation, the message is blocked into segments that are the key length long and to each segment the same permutation is applied; this is equivalent to a columnar transposition. Columnar transposition continued to be used for serious purposes as a component of more complex ciphers at least into the 1950s.

A single columnar transposition could be attacked by guessing possible column lengths, writing the message out in its columns, looking for possible anagrams. Thus to make it stronger, a double transposition was used; this is a columnar transposition applied twice. The same key can be used for both transpositions; as an example, we can take the result of the irregular columnar transposition in the previous section, perform a second encryption with a different keyword, STRIPE, which gives the permutation "564231": 5 6 4 2 3 1 E V L N A C D T E S E A R O F O D E E C W I R E E As before, this is read off columnwise to give the ciphertext: CAEEN SOIAE DRLEF WEDRE EVTOC If multiple messa

Jánoshida is a village in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county, in the Northern Great Plain region of central Hungary. It has a population of 2394 people; the earliest signs are from archaeologic finds of Bronze Age. An Avarian flute was found from c. 6-7 AD. In 1186 Béla III of Hungary donated the village to the premontre priests and they built a monastery; the romanesque style of the monastery resembles to those of bishop of Vác, or archbishop of Esztergom. The patrocinium of the monastery was John the Baptist; the name of the village had been at that time Szentkereszt, has got the name of Jánoshida. The monastery was the centre of the provostry. In 1536 the village and the monastery was destroyed in the Turkish wars. Only after 1688, the year of liberation from the Turkish occupation could the village and monastery have benn rebuilt. In 1715 the village belonged to Pest County; the church have been rebuilt in barock style. The monastery has got classicist style facade in 1830. In 1854 Jánoshida has been moved to Heves County.

In 1876 it was moved to Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County. The church with details remained and preserved in romanesque style is the most attractive tourist sightseeing in Jánoshida; the southern doorway of the chapel is in romanesque style and the monastery can be visited. Gerevich Tibor: Magyarország románkori emlékei, Királyi Magyar Egyetemi Nyomda, Budapest, 1938. Gerő László: Magyar műemléki ABC. Budapest, Henszlmann Imre: Magyarország ó-keresztyén, román és átmeneti stylü mű-emlékeinek rövid ismertetése, Királyi Magyar Egyetemi Nyomda, Budapest, 1876. Official site in Hungarian Heritage of Jánoshida

People is best known for its yearly special issues naming the "World's Most Beautiful", "Best & Worst Dressed", "Sexiest Man Alive". The magazine's headquarters are in New York, it maintains editorial bureaus in Los Angeles and in London. For economic reasons, it closed bureaus in Austin and Chicago in 2006; the concept for People has been attributed to Andrew Heiskell, Time Inc.'s chief executive officer at the time and the former publisher of the weekly Life magazine. The founding managing editor of People was Richard B. "Dick" Stolley, a former assistant managing editor at Life and the journalist who acquired the Zapruder film of the John F. Kennedy assassination for Time Inc. in 1963. People's first publisher was another Time Inc. veteran. Stolley characterized the magazine as "getting back to the people who are causing the news and who are caught up in it, or deserve to be in it. Our focus is on people, not issues." Stolley's religious determination to keep the magazine people-focused contributed to its rapid early success.

It is said that although Time Inc. pumped an estimated \$40 million into the venture, the magazine only broke 18 months after its debut in March 1974. The magazine was sold on newsstands and in supermarkets. To get the magazine out each week, founding staff members slept on the floor of their offices two or three nights each week and limited all non-essential outside engagements; the premier edition for the week ending March 4, 1974, featured actress Mia Farrow starring in the film The Great Gatsby, on the cover. That issue featured stories on Gloria Vanderbilt, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and the wives of U. S. Vietnam veterans; the magazine was, apart from its cover, printed in black-and-white. The initial cover price was 35 cents; the core of the small founding editorial team included other editors, writers and photo editors from Life magazine, which had ceased publication just 13 months earlier. This group included managing editor Stolley, senior editors Hal Wingo, Sam Angeloff and Robert Emmett Ginna.

Many of the noteworthy Life photographers contributed to the magazine as well, including legends Alfred Eisenstaedt and Gjon Mili and rising stars Co Rentmeester, David Burnett and Bill Eppridge. Other members of the first editorial staff included editors and writers Ross Drake, Ralph Novak, Bina Bernard, James Jerome, Sally Moore, Mary Vespa, Lee Wohlfert, Joy Wansley, Curt Davis, Clare Crawford-Mason, Jed Horne an editor of The Times-Picayune in New Orleans. In 1996, Time Inc. launched a Spanish-language magazine entitled People en Español. The company has said that the new publication emerged after a 1995 issue of the original magazine was distributed with two distinct covers, one featuring the murdered Tejano singer Selena and the other featuring the hit television series Friends. Although the original idea was that Spanish-language translations of articles from the English magazine would comprise half the content, People en Español over time came to have original content. In 2002, People introduced People Stylewatch, a title focusing on celebrity style and beauty – a newsstand extension of its Stylewatch column.

Due to its success, the frequency of People Stylewatch was increased to 10 times per year in 2007. In spring 2017, People Stylewatch was rebranded as PeopleStyle. In late 2017, it was announced that there would no longer be a print version of PeopleStyle and it would be a digital-only publication. In Australia, the localized version of People is titled Who because of a pre-existing lad's mag published under the title People; the international edition of People has been published in Greece since 2010. On July 26, 2013, Outlook Group announced that it was closing down the Indian edition of People, which began publication in 2008. In September 2016, in collaboration with Entertainment Weekly, People launched the People/Entertainment Weekly Network; the network is "a free, ad-supported online-video network

Great Isaac Cay is a small Bahamian island located about 20 miles NNE of the Bimini Islands. It is accessible only by boat; the most prominent feature of the island is its lighthouse, erected in 1859, stands about 151 feet tall. It has been claimed. In the late 19th century local lore tells of a ship wreck on the island with one survivor, an infant; the child's distraught mother, known as the Grey Lady, is said to haunt the island to this day, wailing in sorrow during the full moon. On August 4, 1969, the station was discovered to have been abandoned by its two keepers, who were never found. Many believers in the Bermuda Triangle claim that the keepers were two more victims lost to its mysterious forces. However, the hurricane record from 1969 indicates that Hurricane Anna, the first hurricane of 1969, on 1–2 August, passed close enough to Great Isaac Island to cause dangerous weather for the tiny rock island. By the 4th of August, the hurricane was well into the Atlantic Ocean; the grounds are open to the public, although the lighthouse itself has had stairs removed to block access to the interior of that structure.

The keepers’ house and assorted buildings are crumbling into ruins. The derelict collection of abandoned buildings make Great Isaac Cay a popular destination for boaters. List of lighthouses in the Bahamas

Maurice II de Craon was Lord of Craon, Governor of Anjou and Maine under Henry II, a military figure and Anglo-Norman of the 12th century. Maurice II possessed fiefs in England which he held courtesy of Henry II. Maurice II, son of Hugues I de Craon and of Marquise, his second wife, succeeded his brother around 1150. Still a minor, he received his knighthood on acceptance of the fief. Maurice II's earliest military action was his participation in the siege staged by Henry II of the city of Thouars, taken 10 October 1158. A few years Maurice II left for the Crusade; this act, known from the reference in charter 231 of La Roë Abbey of the first court held by him at Poiltrée at Christmas time, after his return from Jerusalem, is furthermore attested by ten items of the Cartulaire de Craon. Maurice II thus returned to France after the month of March 1170, he took several risks whilst in the Orient and, in executing an oath made abroad, in Egypto, he established an annuity of two sous for the benefit of the Collégiale Saint-Nicolas de Craon to contribute towards the chapel lamp.

He married Isabelle de Meulan, daughter of Galéran IV de Meulan, widow from her first marriage to Geoffroy III de Mayenne on his return from the Holy Land about 1170 This alliance brought him the double support of the lords of Meulan and those of Mayenne. From his marriage, contracted around 1170 with Isabelle de Mayenne, Maurice II had four sons and three daughters: Renaud; the time of Maurice II saw the rise of the house of Anjou. From 1152 the Lords of Anjou became vassals of Henry II of England, under his standard, obliged to combat France. In 1174, following the revolt of the sons of Henry II against their father, Maurice II counted amongst the lords that had remained faithful to the King. Charged with leading the Angevins, he seized Chantoceaux and Sablé, destroyed Sablé's two neighbouring fortresses; the same year he figured amongst the witnesses of the Treaty of Falaise establishing peace between Henry II and his sons. In 1177, following the agreement made between Louis VII and Henri II, he was predesignated as one of the arbitrators who would rule in the event of difficulties.

He was nominated the 28 June 1180 for the peace signed at Gisors between Philippe-Auguste and Henri II. Richard the Lionheart, successor to Henry II, took with him a great number of his vassals but others were not going to join him until later. We find no acts emanating from him at the time of the departure for his first voyage to the Holy Land. For the second, many are known. Including a testament dated 1191; the testament portrays the state of the family of Maurice II in 1191. He identifies six children: three daughters, the eldest, three sons; the eldest daughter Avoise de Craon, married Guy V de Laval. The third, Agnès, is named, her dowry of Craon and Chantocé is specified, but the name of her husband is not given. Maurice II founded the priory of Bonshommes de Ballots near to Craon, he died 12 July 1196. The location of his tomb is not known. Maurice II was not only a man of faith. Maurice II de Craon is the central character of the anonymous Middle High German verse romance Moriz von Craûn dated between 1187 and 1250.

This, in turn, derives from a French fabliau: Du chevalier qui recovra l'amour de sa dame. The story tells of Maurice's attempts to woo "Isabel", depicted as the wife of his neighbour, Richard de Beaumont. Craon family derived from: de Broussillon, Bertrand. Sigillographie des Seigneurs de Craon. ASIN B000X8QFLW. OCLC 557290989. 2 volumes

The Almada River is a river of Bahia state in eastern Brazil. The Almada River basin is in the southern region of Bahia State, covering the municipalities of Almadina, Ibicaraí, Barro Preto, Itajuípe, Ilhéus and Uruçuca, it has a perimeter of 332 kilometres. It is in the cocoa-growing region of Bahia, it includes significant fragments of Atlantic Forest, as well as mangroves. The climate of the basin is humid. According to the Köppen climate classification, there are three climate domains. In the west it is Aw - tropical climate with winter dry season, in the center in is Am - monsoon climate and on the coast it is Af - humid tropical climate; the Almada River has a length of 138 kilometres from its source in the Serra do Chuchu in Almadina to its mouth at the Itaípe bar in Ilheus. Its mouth is near the Trincheiras Cove; the lower section of the river runs through the 157,745 hectares Lagoa Encantada e Rio Almada Environmental Protection Area, created in 1993, where it drains the Lagoa Encantada.

In the APA it passes the communities of Castelo Novo and Aritaguá. From Aritaguá the river flows south parallel to the sea shore past Iguape, empties into the Atlantic Ocean near the town of Ilhéus; the Almada River supplies water to the towns of Coaraci. It supplies about 70% of the water used by residents of Itabuna. In the summer of 2015–16 water rationing was imposed due to low levels in the river, which had dried up in some sections; as of 2010 half the domestic sewage from Aritaguá was released directly into the river, while 25% went into pits in backyards, indirectly contaminated the river. Garbage was dumped in the river. List of rivers of Bahia