Bophuthatswana the Republic of Bophuthatswana, was a Bantustan, declared nominally independent by the apartheid regime of South Africa in 1977. However, its independence, like the other Bantustans was not recognized by any country other than South Africa. Bophuthatswana was the second Bantustan to be declared an independent state, after Transkei, its territory constituted a scattered patchwork of enclaves spread across what was Cape Province, Orange Free State and Transvaal. Its seat of government was Mmabatho. During its last days of existence, events taking place within its borders led to the weakening and split of right-wing Afrikaner resistance towards democratizing South Africa. On 27 April 1994, it was reintegrated into South Africa with the coming into force of the country's interim constitution, its territory was distributed between the new provinces of the Free State and North West Province. The area comprising former native reserves was set up as the only homeland for Tswana-speaking people in 1961 and administered by the Tswana Territorial Authority.
It was given nominal self-rule in 1971, elections were held the following year. Following the 1977 elections, Lucas Mangope became president after his Bophuthatswana Democratic Party won a majority of seats; the territory became nominally independent on 6 December 1977. Bophuthatswana's independence was not recognized by any government other than those of South Africa and Transkei, the first homeland to gain nominal independence. In addition, it was internally recognized by the two additional countries within the TBVC-system and Venda. Arguing in favour of independence, President Mangope claimed that the move would enable its population to negotiate with South Africa from a stronger position: "We would rather face the difficulties of administering a fragmented territory, the wrath of the outside world, accusations of ill-informed people. It's the price we are prepared to pay for being masters of our own destiny."United Nations Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim stated that he "strongly deplored" the establishment of "another so-called independent tribal homeland in pursuance of the discredited policies of apartheid," and in resolution A/RES/32/105N, passed on 14 December 1977, the United Nations General Assembly linked Bophuthatswana's "so-called'independence'" to South Africa's "stubborn pursuit" of its policies, called upon all governments to "deny any form of recognition to the so-called'independent' bantustans."During a parliamentary debate in the UK on 6 December 1977, Foreign Secretary David Owen replied in the negative when asked "whether Her Majesty's Government intend to recognise travel documents issued by the authorities of Bophuthatswana for the purpose of admitting visitors to the United Kingdom."While the majority of news reports echoed these official declarations, there were others which opined that Western critics should "suspend judgment for a time," and despite its critical stance on South Africa's policies, Time magazine wrote that Bophuthatswana had "considerable economic potential" with an expected $30 million a year coming from mining revenues.
Despite its official isolation, the government in Mmabatho managed to set up a trade mission in Tel Aviv and conducted some business with neighbouring Botswana in an effort to sway attitudes. Bophuthatswana maintained an unofficial embassy in Israel during the 1980s, located next to the British embassy in Tel Aviv; the Israeli Foreign Ministry objected to the embassy's presence, as Israel did not recognize Bophuthatswana as a country. The bantustan's president, Lucas Mangope, was able to meet with prominent figures such as Moshe Dayan during visits to Israel. In the 1982 elections, the Democratic Party won all 72 elected seats, it won a large majority in the 1987 elections. On 10 February 1988 Rocky Malebane-Metsing of the People's Progressive Party became the President of Bophuthatswana for one day when he took over the government through a military coup, he accused Mangope of corruption and charged that the recent election had been rigged in the government's favour. A statement by the defence force said "serious and disturbing matters of great concern" had emerged, citing Mangope's close association with a multimillionaire Soviet emigre.
Subsequently, the South African Defence Force invaded Bophuthatswana and Mangope was reinstated and continued his term unabated. P. W. Botha, president of South Africa at the time, justified the reinstatement by saying that "he South African Government is opposed in principle to the obtaining or maintaining of power by violence."In 1990, a second coup attempt took place in which an estimated 50,000 protesters demanded the president's resignation over his handling of the economy. The New York Times reported that seven people had been killed and 450 wounded "after police officers in armoured cars fired their rifles into the crowds and used tear gas and rubber bullets." After Mangope had asked for help from the South African government, he declared a state of emergency and cut telephone links to the territory "for political reasons," claiming that "normal laws had become inadequate." Human Rights Watch put the number of protesters at 150,000. In the beginning of 1994 with South Africa heading for democratic elections, the President Lucas Mangope resisted the elections taking place in Bophuthatswana and opposed reincorporation o
KwaNdebele was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government as a semi-independent homeland for the Ndebele people. The homeland was created when the South African government purchased nineteen white-owned farms and installed a government; the homeland was granted self-rule in April 1981. Siyabuswa was designated as its capital; the KwaNdebele legislature expressed interest in seeking independence in May 1982 and some preparations were made, but an exceptional lack of viability in economic affairs along with land disputes prevented this from occurring. KwaNdebele was re-integrated into South Africa after the first democratic election of 27 April 1994, it now forms part of the Mpumalanga province. Districts of the province and population at the 1991 census. Mdutjana: 125,485 Mkobola: 212,771 Mbibana: 65,989 Chief Ministers of KwaNdebele South Africa 1980/81 – Official Yearbook of the Republic of South Africa ISBN 0-908393-51-2, ISSN 0302-0681
Vereeniging is a city in Gauteng province, South Africa, situated where the Klip River empties into the northern loop of the Vaal River. It is one of the constituent parts of the Vaal Triangle region and was situated in the Transvaal province; the name Vereeniging is derived from the Dutch word meaning "association" or "union". Vereeniging is situated in the southern part of Gauteng Province, forms the southern portion of the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeninging conurbation, its neighbors are Vanderbijlpark, Three Rivers and Sasolburg; the city is one of the most important industrial manufacturing centres in South Africa, with its chief products being iron, pipes, bricks and processed lime. The predominant language in Vereeniging is Afrikaans, followed by English and Sesotho. In 1879, George William Stow was commissioned by the Orange Free State government to look for coal deposits in the Bethlehem district With no deposits found he moved northwards to Maccauvlei on the Vaal River and crossed the river to the Transvaal side.
On the farm Leeuwkuil, he found a coal deposits twelve feet thick. But the Orange Free State government believed that it was too far away and there was a lack of transport so turned down the idea of mining. Stow settled in Kimberley in order to find a job where he met Samuel Marks who realized after hearing the formers story, the opportunity for coal at the Kimberley diamond fields for energy generation. Marks formed the De Zuid Afrikaanshe en Oranje Vrystaatsche Kolen and Mineralen Vereeniging and sent Stow to purchase the farms where the coal was found. On the 25 November 1880 he purchased the farm Leeuwkuil for £ 12,000 acres. Marks' agent J. G. Fraser would purchase the farm Klipplaatdrift of 6,000 acres from Karl August Pretorius in October 1881 for ₤15,500; this was opposite the farm Maccauvlei. From 1881, coal was taken by ox-wagon to Kimberley and by 1882 there was so much development that there was a need to survey a village on the two farms and the Volksraad agreed naming it after the company's shortened name Vereeniging.
The city is the location where the Treaty of Vereeniging ending the Second Boer War was negotiated by the delegates of the South African Republic, Orange Free State and the British Empire. During this conflict, a concentration camp was set up by the British military in the area; the concentration camp at Vereeniging was set up in September 1900, by October 1901 housed 185 men, 330 women, 452 children. Conditions at the camp were poor: water was brought by cart and there were only 24 latrines. Most inmates lived in bell-tents but there was a dispensary and a school. Today, the Maccauvlei Golf Course is on the site of the concentration camp. Vereeniging was one of the first municipalities in South Africa to provide better housing for Africans. Near Vereeniging is the predominantly black community of Sharpeville, the site of the Sharpeville massacre in 1960; the city's motto is Per Pacem ad Industriam. It is one of the most important industrial manufacturing centres in South Africa, with its chief products being iron, pipes, bricks and processed lime.
Several coal mines are still situated in the area, with reserves being estimated at four billion tons. Other mines nearby extract fire-clay and building stone. Vereeniging has several Eskom thermal power plants that supply electricity to the nearby goldmines. Vereeniging has been mentioned jokingly as the town in South Africa which has the most vehicle dealerships per square metre. In the census of 2001 the population of Vereeniging was recorded as 73,283. Vereeniging consists of 29 suburbs, of which 7 forms part of Three Rivers: Since 1999, Vereeniging has been part of the Emfuleni Local Municipality, along with Vanderbijlpark and the smaller Three Rivers. Map of Three Rivers Various health services are available in Vereeniging; the majority of these services are located near the major medical centres. These include: Vereeniging Medi-Clinic Midvaal Private Hospital Kopanong Hospital Sebokeng Hospital Nkanyezi Private Hospital Johan Heyns Hospital A campus of the University of South Africa Damelin College CTU Training Solutions Sedibeng College It is close to the North-West University's Vaal Campus, the Vaal University of Technology in Vanderbijlpark.
F. W. de Klerk was first elected to the South African parliament in 1969 as the member for Vereeniging. Bles Bridges, an Afrikaans country singer, stayed in Vereeniging until his death in 2000. Charl Schwartzel, Morné Morkel and Albie Morkel attended Vereeniging High. Actor, filmmaker and singer Leon Schuster was born in Vereeniging on May 21, 1951. Deon Dreyer, a cave diver who perished in Bushman's Hole in 1994, was raised in Vereeniging; the latest crime statistics for Vereeniging Police Precinct was issued by the South African Police Service in September 2010. The SAPS crime report showed the following information: In December 2010 and January 2011 the southern part of Gauteng and Mpumulanga experienced a higher than normal rainfall; this resulted in the need to release more water from the nearby Vaal dam. As a consequence, parts of Vereeniging, Three Rivers and the rest of the towns downstream were flooded. Vereeniging established a municipality in 1912. By 1931, the town council had assumed an emblem depicting bridge across a river, two clasped hands.
The town council obtained a coat of arms from the College of Arms in October 1955, registered it with the Transvaal Provincial Administration in October
Botswana the Republic of Botswana, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966. Since it has maintained a tradition of stable representative republic, with a consistent record of uninterrupted democratic elections and the best perceived corruption ranking in Africa since at least 1998, it is Africa's oldest continuous democracy. Botswana is topographically flat, with up to 70 percent of its territory being the Kalahari Desert, it is bordered by South Africa to the south and southeast, Namibia to the west and north, Zimbabwe to the northeast. Its border with Zambia to the north near Kazungula is poorly defined but is, at most, a few hundred metres long. A mid-sized country of just over 2 million people, Botswana is one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. Around 10 percent of the population lives in the capital and largest city, Gaborone.
One of the poorest countries in the world—with a GDP per capita of about US$70 per year in the late 1960s—Botswana has since transformed itself into one of the world's fastest-growing economies. The economy is dominated by mining and tourism. Botswana boasts a GDP per capita of about $18,825 per year as of 2015, one of the highest in Africa, its high gross national income gives the country a high standard of living and the highest Human Development Index of continental Sub-Saharan Africa. Botswana is a member of the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Commonwealth of Nations, the United Nations; the country has been among the hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Despite the success in programmes to make treatments available to those infected, to educate the populace in general about how to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, the number of people with AIDS rose from 290,000 in 2005 to 320,000 in 2013; as of 2014, Botswana has the third-highest prevalence rate for HIV/AIDS, with 20% of the population infected.
The country's name means "land of the tswana", referring to the dominant ethnic group in Botswana. The term Batswana was applied to the Tswana, still the case. However, it has come to be used as a demonym for all citizens of Botswana. Many English dictionaries recommend the term Botswanan to refer to people of Botswana. Archaeological digs have shown. Stone tools and fauna remains have shown that all areas of the country were inhabited at least 400,000 years ago. Evidence left by modern humans such as cave paintings are about 73,000 years old; the original inhabitants of southern Africa were the Khoi peoples. Both speak Khoisan languages and hunted and traded over long distances; when cattle were first introduced about 2000 years ago into southern Africa, pastoralism became a major feature of the economy, since the region had large grasslands free of tsetse fly. It is unclear when Bantu-speaking peoples first moved into the country from the north, although AD 600 seems to be a consensus estimate.
In that era, the ancestors of the modern-day Kalanga moved into what is now the north-eastern areas of the country. These proto-Kalanga were connected to states in Zimbabwe as well as to the Mapungubwe state; these states, located outside of current Botswana's borders, appear to have kept massive cattle herds in what is now the Central District—apparently at numbers approaching modern cattle density. This massive cattle-raising complex prospered until 1300 AD or so, seems to have regressed following the collapse of Mapungubwe. During this era, the first Tswana-speaking groups, the Bakgalagadi, moved into the southern areas of the Kalahari. All these various peoples were connected to trade routes that ran via the Limpopo River to the Indian Ocean, trade goods from Asia such as beads made their way to Botswana most in exchange for ivory and rhinoceros horn; the arrival of the ancestors of the Tswana-speakers who came to control the region has yet to be dated precisely. Members of the Bakwena, a chieftaincy under a legendary leader named Kgabo II, made their way into the southern Kalahari by AD 1500, at the latest, his people drove the Bakgalagadi inhabitants west into the desert.
Over the years, several offshoots of the Bakwena moved into adjoining territories. The Bangwaketse occupied areas to the west, while the Bangwato moved northeast into Kalanga areas. Not long afterwards, a Bangwato offshoot known as the Batawana migrated into the Okavango Delta in the 1790s; the first written records relating to modern-day Botswana appear in 1824. What these records show is that the Bangwaketse had become the predominant power in the region. Under the rule of Makaba II, the Bangwaketse kept vast herds of cattle in well-protected desert areas, used their military prowess to raid their neighbors. Other chiefdoms in the area, by this time, had capitals of 10,000 or so and were prosperous; this equilibrium came to end during the Mfecane period, 1823–1843, when a succession of invading peoples from South Africa entered the country. Although the Bangwaketse were able to defeat the invading Bakololo in 1826, over time all the major chiefdoms in Botswana were attacked and impoverished.
The Bakololo and Amandebele raided and took large numbers of cattle and children from the Batswana—most of whom were driven into the desert or sanctuary areas such as hilltops and caves. Only after 1843, when the Amandebele moved into western Zimbabwe, did this threat subside. During th
Germiston is a small city in the East Rand region of Gauteng, South Africa, administratively forming part of the City of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality since the latter's establishment in 2000. It functions as the municipal seat of Ekurhuleni, hosting the municipal administration, it was established in the early days of the gold rush when two prospectors, John Jack from the farm of Germiston near Glasgow and August Simmer from Vacha in Germany, struck paydirt on the farm of Elandsfontein. In August 1887, the pair were on their way to the Eastern Transvaal when they outspanned on the farm Elandsfontein and decided to stay and buy the land. Both men made fortunes and the town sprang up 2 km from the Simmer and Jack mine named after Jack's fathers farm. In 1921 the world's largest gold refinery, the Rand Refinery, was established at Germiston. Seventy percent of the western world's gold passes through this refinery. Although gold mining wound down in Germiston, to the point that by the end of the 20th century it was no longer a mining centre, the Rand Refinery remains as busy as ever.
The city has a number of historic buildings. Among these are the St Andrew's Presbyterian Church, built in 1905, St Boniface Church designed by Sir Herbert Baker, built in 1910; the church houses the historic 1910 English Romantic Norman and Beard Organ. The Alexander Hotel was partly designed by Baker, using his traditional stone appearance; this building has been renovated and now houses a well-known law firm. The builder of the hotel, Alexander Stuart, some of whose descendants still live in Germiston, died when the RMS Lusitania was torpedoed in the First World War on 7 May 1915; the hotel thus remains a memorial to his pioneer work in the city over a hundred years ago. According to the 2001 census, the population of Germiston consisted of 139,719 people living in 49,062 households, its land area was 129 square kilometres. Of this population, 49.8% described themselves as "White", 46.8% as "Black African", 1.9% as "Coloured", 1.5% as "Indian or Asian". No language was predominant, with the breakdown of first languages being as follows: South African Airways moved its head office from Durban to Rand Airport in Germiston on 1 July 1935.
It moved the offices first to Johannesburg to Kempton Park. The city is an industrial centre with steel manufacture and distribution being the largest industries, it has large railway workshops, a large glassworks, engineering companies, gas distribution firms, many other heavy and light industries. Victoria Lake is better known today as Germiston Lake, the famous Sailing and Rowing Club retains the name of the Victoria Lake Club; the club is home to some of the best canoeists and rowing crews in the country, including the twenty-time South African School Champions, St Benedict's College. The lake is popular at weekends for water-skiing and regattas; the lake grounds have been re-landscaped and the braai areas and shelters rebuilt. The WesBank Raceway motorsports facility was located in the city, but it was sold to industrial estate developers in November 2007; the Raceway was the Gosforth Park Race Club, one of the major horse racing facilities in Gauteng. Germiston Stadium, home stadium of Moroka Swallows FC is located in the city.
This is the home ground for the Germiston Simmer Rugby Club and has a tartan track for athletics. Municipal By 1931, the Germiston municipality had assumed a pseudo-heraldic coat of arms, depicting buck in the veld, a scene showing mineshafts, a railway train in a landscape, a half-tented ox-wagon in a landscape, the quarters separated by a red cross; the motto was Salus populi suprema lex. Municipal A proper coat of arms was granted by the College of Arms in August 1935, it was registered with the Transvaal Provincial Administration in August 1963 and at the Bureau of Heraldry in February 1968. The arms were three bezants; the crest was a rising falcon. Germiston is well connected to five mayor freeways or motorways that service the Greater Johannesburg region; these include to the west of Germiston, the M2 motorway that connects the southern Johannesburg CBD, the N3 Eastern Bypass, the N12 South. On the southern side, the N17 and N3 and in the north, the N12 East and the R24 service the city.
Being a mining and industrial city, Germiston is serviced by passenger rail and the CBD has several stations, the main one being Germiston Station. The industrial areas are service by rail spurs and stations and the Transnet has a large depot north of the CBD in Keswick Road. Germiston is the location of Rand Airport, at one time one of the busiest in Africa and the southern hemisphere. Today it caters for light aircraft and flying schools, but is home to the South African Airways Museum; as a result of this, two of the earlier Boeing 747 Jumbo aircraft used by SAA now reside there on permanent display. Germiston is served by a public state hospital. Other private hospitals include Life Roseacres Hospital in Primrose. There are a number of schools in the city; the oldest high school in
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent and Zimbabwe. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular of South Holland spoken by the Dutch settlers of what is now South Africa, where it began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century. Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch, was referred to as "Cape Dutch" or "kitchen Dutch". However, it is variously described as a creole or as a creolised language; the term is derived from Dutch Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". Although Afrikaans has adopted words from other languages, including German and the Khoisan languages, an estimated 90 to 95% of the vocabulary of Afrikaans is of Dutch origin. Therefore, differences with Dutch lie in the more analytic-type morphology and grammar of Afrikaans, a spelling that expresses Afrikaans pronunciation rather than standard Dutch. There is a large degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages—especially in written form.
With about 7 million native speakers in South Africa, or 13.5% of the population, it is the third-most-spoken language in the country. It has the widest geographical and racial distribution of all the 11 official languages of South Africa, is spoken and understood as a second or third language, it is the majority language of the western half of South Africa—the provinces of the Northern Cape and Western Cape—and the first language of 75.8% of Coloured South Africans, 60.8% of White South Africans. In addition, many native speakers of Bantu languages and English speak Afrikaans as a second language, it is taught with about 10.3 million second-language students. One reason for the expansion of Afrikaans is its development in the public realm: it is used in newspapers, radio programs, TV, several translations of the Bible have been published since the first one was completed in 1933. In neighbouring Namibia, Afrikaans is spoken as a second language and used as a lingua franca, while as a native language it is spoken in 10.4% of households concentrated in the capital Windhoek, Walvis Bay and the southern regions of Hardap and ǁKaras.
It, along with German, was among the official languages of Namibia until the country became independent in 1990, 25% of the population of Windhoek spoke Afrikaans at home. Both Afrikaans and German are recognised regional languages in Namibia, although only English has official status within the government. Estimates of the total number of Afrikaans speakers range between 23 million; the term is derived from the Dutch term Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". An estimated 90 to 95% of the Afrikaans lexicon is of Dutch origin, there are few lexical differences between the two languages. Afrikaans has a more regular morphology and spelling. There is a degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages in written form. Afrikaans acquired some lexical and syntactical borrowings from other languages such as Malay, Khoisan languages and Bantu languages, Afrikaans has been influenced by South African English. Dutch speakers are confronted with fewer non-cognates when listening to Afrikaans than the other way round.
Mutual intelligibility thus tends to be asymmetrical, as it is easier for Dutch speakers to understand Afrikaans than for Afrikaans speakers to understand Dutch. In general, mutual intelligibility between Dutch and Afrikaans is better than between Dutch and Frisian or between Danish and Swedish; the South African poet writer Breyten Breytenbach, attempting to visualize the language distance for anglophones once remarked that the differences between Dutch and Afrikaans are comparable to those between the Received Pronunciation and Southern American English. The Afrikaans language arose in the Dutch Cape Colony, through a gradual divergence from European Dutch dialects, during the course of the 18th century; as early as the mid-18th century and as as the mid-20th century, Afrikaans was known in standard Dutch as a "kitchen language", lacking the prestige accorded, for example by the educational system in Africa, to languages spoken outside Africa. Other early epithets setting apart Kaaps Hollands as putatively beneath official Dutch standards included geradbraakt and onbeschaafd Hollands, as well as verkeerd Nederlands.
Den Besten theorizes that modern Standard Afrikaans derives from two sources: Cape Dutch, a direct transplantation of European Dutch to southern Africa, and'Hottentot Dutch', a pidgin that descended from'Foreigner Talk' and from the Dutch pidgin spoken by slaves, via a hypothetical Dutch creole. Thus in his view Afrikaans is neither a creole nor a direct descendant of Dutch, but a fusion of two transmission pathways. A relative majority of the first settlers whose descendants today are the Afrikaners were from the United Provinces, though up to one-sixth of the community was of French Huguenot origin, a seventh from Germany. African and Asian workers and slaves contributed to the development of Afrikaans; the slave population was made up of people from East Africa, West Africa, India and the Dutch East Indies. A number were indigenous Khoisan people, who were valued as i
Mozambique the Republic of Mozambique, is a country located in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, Eswatini and South Africa to the southwest. The sovereign state is separated from the Comoros and Madagascar by the Mozambique Channel to the east; the capital of Mozambique is Maputo. Between the first and fifth centuries AD, Bantu-speaking peoples migrated to present-day Mozambique from farther north and west. Northern Mozambique lies within the monsoon trade winds of the Indian Ocean. Between the 7th and 11th centuries, a series of Swahili port towns developed here, which contributed to the development of a distinct Swahili culture and language. In the late medieval period, these towns were frequented by traders from Somalia, Egypt, Arabia and India; the voyage of Vasco da Gama in 1498 marked the arrival of the Portuguese, who began a gradual process of colonisation and settlement in 1505. After over four centuries of Portuguese rule, Mozambique gained independence in 1975, becoming the People's Republic of Mozambique shortly thereafter.
After only two years of independence, the country descended into an intense and protracted civil war lasting from 1977 to 1992. In 1994, Mozambique held its first multiparty elections, has since remained a stable presidential republic, although it still faces a low-intensity insurgency. Mozambique is endowed with extensive natural resources; the country's economy is based on agriculture, but industry is growing food and beverages, chemical manufacturing and aluminium and petroleum production. The tourism sector is expanding. South Africa is Mozambique's main trading partner and source of foreign direct investment, while Belgium, Brazil and Spain are among the country's most important economic partners. Since 2001, Mozambique's annual average GDP growth has been among the world's highest. However, the country is still one of the poorest and most underdeveloped countries in the world, ranking low in GDP per capita, human development, measures of inequality and average life expectancy; the only official language of Mozambique is Portuguese, spoken as a second language by about half the population.
Common native languages include Makhuwa and Swahili. The country's population of around 29 million is composed overwhelmingly of Bantu people; the largest religion in Mozambique is Christianity, with significant minorities following Islam and African traditional religions. Mozambique is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Southern African Development Community, is an observer at La Francophonie; the country was named Moçambique by the Portuguese after the Island of Mozambique, derived from Mussa Bin Bique or Musa Al Big or Mossa Al Bique or Mussa Ben Mbiki or Mussa Ibn Malik, an Arab trader who first visited the island and lived there. The island-town was the capital of the Portuguese colony until 1898, when it was moved south to Lourenço Marques. Between the 1st and 5th centuries AD, waves of Bantu-speaking people migrated from the west and north through the Zambezi River valley and gradually into the plateau and coastal areas.
They established agricultural societies based on herding cattle. They brought with them the technology for smithing iron. From the late first millennium AD, vast Indian Ocean trade networks extended as far south into Mozambique as evidenced by the ancient port town of Chibuene. Beginning in the 9th century, a growing involvement in Indian Ocean trade led to the development of numerous port towns along the entire East African coast, including modern day Mozambique. Autonomous, these towns broadly participated in the incipient Swahili culture. Islam was adopted by urban elites, facilitating trade. In Mozambique, Sofala and Mozambique Island were regional powers by the 15th century; the towns traded with merchants from both the broader Indian Ocean world. Important were the gold and ivory caravan routes. Inland states like the Kingdom of Zimbabwe and Kingdom of Mutapa provided the coveted gold and ivory, which were exchanged up the coast to larger port cities like Kilwa and Mombasa. From about 1500, Portuguese trading posts and forts displaced the Arabic commercial and military hegemony, becoming regular ports of call on the new European sea route to the east.
The voyage of Vasco da Gama around the Cape of Good Hope in 1498 marked the Portuguese entry into trade and society of the region. The Portuguese gained control of the Island of Mozambique and the port city of Sofala in the early 16th century, by the 1530s, small groups of Portuguese traders and prospectors seeking gold penetrated the interior regions, where they set up garrisons and trading posts at Sena and Tete on the River Zambezi and tried to gain exclusive control over the gold trade. In the central part of the Mozambique territory, the Portuguese attempted to legitimise and consolidate their trade and settlement positions through the creation of prazos tied to their settlement and administration. While prazos were developed to be held by Portuguese, through intermarriage they became African Portuguese or African Indian centres defended by large African sl