Palace of Justice, Pretoria
The Palace of Justice forms part of the northern façade of Church Square in Pretoria. The building was designed by the Dutch architect Sytze Wierda, it is the headquarters of the Gauteng Division of the High Court of South Africa. The foundation stone was laid on June 1897 by South African Republic President Paul Kruger; the most famous political trial in South Africa's history, the Rivonia Trial, took place here. During the trial, Nelson Mandela and a number of other prominent African National Congress members were charged with treason and subsequently jailed; the Palace of Justice was built by the Departement van Publieke Werken under the guidance of design architect Sytze Wierda and builder John Munro. Construction of the building took place during the Second Boer War, wherein it temporarily functioned as a hospital for British soldiers; the interior design features an ornate combination of polished wood, stained glass, tiled floors, several other prestigious fixtures for its era. At the time of completion, construction costs totaled £115 260.
List of Castles and Fortifications in South Africa 641
The Ou Raadsaal is a historic building in Pretoria, South Africa, located on the south side of Church Square. The Ou Raadsaal housed the Volksraad, the parliament of the South African Republic, from 1891 to 1902; the Ou Raadsaal was commissioned in the late 19th century by the South African Republic as the new seat of government in Pretoria, was designed by Dutch architect Sytze Wierda in a Renaissance Revival style. The contract for construction was granted to John Johnstone Kirkness, a builder from the Orkney Islands with a prolific building career in the region, at a sum of £82,500. Construction began in February 1889 with the cornerstone laid by President Paul Kruger on 6 May that year, the work was completed in December 1891; the Transvaal Museum was established in 1892 in the upper floor of Ou Raadsaal, but was soon moved to a separate location when the room was deemed too small for the collection. In 1902, the South African Republic was annexed by the United Kingdom after its defeat in the Second Boer War, abolishing the Volksraad, the Ou Raadsaal became vacant.
In 1999, the Ou Raadsaal was declared a Provincial Heritage Site and is protected in terms of Section 34 of the National Heritage Resources Act, as it is over 60 years old. The building is known in English as the Old Council Chamber or Old Government Building, in Afrikaans as the Republikeinse Raadsaal. Ou Raadsaal in travel guide 360 degree Virtual Tour of Ou Raadsaal
South African National Museum of Military History
The South African National War Museum in Johannesburg was opened by Prime Minister Jan Smuts on 29 August 1947 to preserve the history of South Africa's involvement in the Second World War. In 1975, the museum was renamed the South African National Museum of Military History and its function changed to include all conflicts that South Africa has been involved in. In 1999 it was amalgamated with the Pretoria-based Transvaal Museum and National Cultural History Museum to form the NFI. In April 2010 Ditsong was renamed Ditsong Museums of South Africa and the SANMMH was renamed the Ditsong National Museum of Military History. In the grounds of the museum is a large memorial designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens. On 30 November 1910 Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn laid a commemorative stone at the memorial. Called the Rand Regiments Memorial and dedicated to British soldiers that lost their lives during the Second Boer War, it was rededicated on 10 October 1999 to all people who died during the Second Boer War and renamed the Boer War Memorial.
The museum is divided into a number of areas The Main Courtyard A memorial erected in honour of fallen members of the airborne forces of 44 Parachute Regiment, 44 Parachute Brigade and the South African Special Forces A memorial honouring members of 61 Mechanised Battalion Group Various field guns such as the 8.8 cm Flak 37 gun, QF 1-pounder pom-pom guns, Pak 38 Anti-Tank guns, etc. The GP Capt. "Sailor" Malan Hall withMesserschmitt Bf 109 Messerschmitt Me 262 Focke-Wulf Fw 190 The GE Brink Hall withHawker Hurricane Royal Aircraft Factory S. E.5 Supermarine Spitfire Messerschmitt Bf 109 de Havilland Mosquito Hawker Hartebeest A Battle of Britain exhibit Artifacts from the Royal Air Force Artifacts from South Africa's involvement in various world conflicts, such as the Korean War and the two World Wars A large medal collection from various veterans of the armed forces, such as General Jan Smuts and General George Brink Anglo Boer War exhibits An exhibit honouring members of the Native Military Corps, Indian Service Corps and the Cape Corps An exhibit detailing major events in South African History between the Boer Wars and the 1994 South African general elections.
Events covered include the political divisions in the country during the first and second world wars, the Rand Rebellion, the sabotage campaign of the Ossewabrandwag during the Second World War and South Africa's involvement in the Angolan Civil War. Dan Pienaar Gun ParkVarious guns from around the world such as the British Ordnance QF 18-pounder and the BL 6-inch Gun Mk XIX and the German 7.7 cm FK 96 field gun. The FB Adler Hall with Sexton self Propelled gun M4 Sherman tank M3 Stuart tank A large amount of Artillery pieces such as the Ordnance QF 20 pounder and the BL 5.5-inch Medium Gun Exhibits detailing South Africa's involvement in World War Two, including artefacts from various countries such as uniforms, helmets, etc. Anglo-Zulu War exhibits South African Border War exhibit A small South African Navy exhibit A large collection of uniforms, ceremonial swords, infantry swords, cavalry swords and daggers A large variety of small arms from around the world, such as the Bren light machine gun, the M1 Garand, Mauser rifles, Lee–Enfield rifles, the Maxim gun, the MG 42, the Thompson submachine gun, the Winchester Model 1876, the AK-47, the Vektor R4 Rifle R1 Rifle, various other muskets and machine guns.
Outdoor exhibitsA small 32 Battalion indoor exhibit Molch one man submarine QF 4 inch Mk XVI naval gun turret from a South African Navy Loch-class frigate Aircraft such as the Blackburn Buccaneer S Mk 50, the Douglas C-47 ‘Dakota’, the Dassault Mirage III and the Impala MkII South African/British armoured vehicles such as the Comet tank, the Centurion tank, the Crusader tank and the Churchill tank Captured Angolan/Cuban/Soviet vehicles such as the T-34/85 tank, the T-54/55 tank and the PT-76 amphibious tank Captured Italian/German vehicles such as the Carro Veloce CV-35 tank and the Sd. Kfz. 251 half-track A large collection of heavy Artillery featuring the G5 howitzer and the G6 howitzer Lt Gen AML Masondo Library building withA Library with literature concerning South Africa's Military History Armoured Vehicles such as the Alvis Saracen, Ford Lynx, Ratel-20, Daimler Ferret, M9A1 Half-track, Universal Carrier, several different models of the Marmon-Herrington and Eland Mk7 armoured cars, etc.
More artefacts of World War I and World War II South African Air Force Museum South African Naval Museum Military history of South Africa Official website Google Maps view with overlay of images from Commons
The Pretoria Forts consists of four forts built by the government of the South African Republic just before the outbreak of the Second Anglo-Boer War around their capital of Pretoria. After the abortive Jameson Raid, the government of the ZAR became concerned about the safety of its capital city, both from foreign invasion as well as from the growing number of Uitlanders on the Witwatersrand. A defence plan for Pretoria was drawn up by a former French artillery officer, Leon Grunberg; this plan was approved on 24 March 1896 by the Executive Council of the ZAR. The plan recommended that eight strategic positions around the city should be fortified by means of armoured turrets equipped with artillery; the positions identified were Schanskop, Daspoortrand, Magaliesberg-wes, Derdepoort and Klapperkop. The armoured turrets were subsequently found to be unacceptable, thus the plan of two German engineers, Otto Albert Adolph von Dewitz and Heinrich C Werner to build forts instead, were accepted. However, due to a lack of money, only four forts were built.
Fort Schanskop, Fort Wonderboompoort and Fort Klapperkop were designed by Von Dewitz and Werner of the German engineering company Krupp, assisted by architect Christiaan Kuntz and building contractor Celso Giri. The three forts are pentagonal reinforced, with more fire range possibilities through numerous facets. Attacks from any direction could be warded off by revolving guns on their ramparts. To prevent infantry attacks, loopholes were built into the walls. Trenches, barbed-wire entanglements and fortified rooms were erected as reinforcements; these forts were the most modern structures of their time and modern mediums of communication, such as telephones, were used to equip the telegraph room. Many black labourers and about 400 white builders Italians, were involved in the building of these forts. To address technical aspects such as the electrical connections between forts and Dutch experts were consulted; this fort was built at a cost of GBP £47,500. It was handed over to the government on 6 April 1897.
It was supplied with a paraffin engine powered generator for electricity, electrical lighting and a search light. A telephone and telegraphic links were installed. Water was supplied from a pump station in the Fountains Valley, shared with the nearby Fort Klapperkop; the garrison was armed with one officer and 30 men and was armed with 37 mm Maxim-Nordenfeldt cannon, Martini-Henry hand-cranked Maxim machine guns and a 155 mm Creusot gun. By October 1899, only 17 men were still stationed at the fort. Both the garrison and the armaments were reduced during the course of the Second Anglo-Boer war until there was only one man and no guns left over on 5 June 1900, the day on which British forces occupied Pretoria; the fort was occupied in 1993 by Willem Ratte to protest the multi-racial government of South Africa at the cost of Boer and Afrikaner heritage. The surrounding area includes a refurbished statue of Danie Theron, erected at the Danie Theron Combat School in Kimberley; the statue was moved to its current location at Fort Schanskop and unveiled on 6 March 2002.
Included on the premises is a scale model replica of the Trek Monument, inaugurated on 16 December 1954 in Tanzania. Fort Schanskop is a provincial heritage site; this fort was completed in September 1897 by Von Dewitz and Werner for a total cost of GBP £49,000. As with Fort Schanskop, it was supplied with electricity, a telephone and running water; the fort was armed with a 75 mm Creusot gun, a 37 mm Maxim-Nordenfeldt cannon and a hand-cranked Martin-Henry Maxim. Eighteen gunners were stationed in the fort, but both men and armaments were withdrawn until only one gunner and no cannons were left on 5 June 1900. Klapperkop, the name of the hill where the fort is located is derived from the Afrikaans name for Strychnos pungens, a tree that grow natively on the hills in the region; this fort was constructed at a total cost of GBP £50,000. It was handed over to the Government on 18 January 1898, it was supplied with a paraffin engine powered generator for electricity, a telephone and telegraphic links.
Running water was supplied from a pump station in the Fountains Valley, shared with the nearby Fort Schanskop. Unlike the other forts in the surrounding area, the design incorporated a moat as well as a drawbridge; the moat was never filled with water. Fort Klapperkop was armed with a 155mm Creusot gun, a 37 mm Maxim-Nordenfeldt cannon, three Martini-Henry hand-maxims and a 65 mm Krupp Mountain Gun. In January 1899 the fort was manned by 17 troops. In July 1899 the number of troops was increased to 30. By end October 1899, only 16 troops were still stationed at Fort Klapperkop; as with the other forts and armament were withdrawn and sent elsewhere during the course of the war. It is said: "Never a shot in anger was fired from this fort." The area is declared a military museum. On 31 May 1979 the South African Defence Force Memorial was unveiled at Fort Klapperkop, it includes a statue of a soldier holding a R1 rifle, in memory of all members of the South African Defence Force who lost their lives serving their country.
The individuals who have lost their lives are honoured with an inscription on a number of marble plaques mounted around the statue. Members who have died in operations as a result of enemy action are indicated with an asterix next to their names. Fort Klapperkop is a Gauteng provincial heritage site; the City of Tshwane has identified Fort Klapperkop as the new location w
Cradle of Humankind
The Cradle of Humankind is a paleoanthropological site about 50 km northwest of Johannesburg, South Africa, in the Gauteng province. Declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1999, the site occupies 47,000 hectares and contains a complex of limestone caves; the registered name of the site in the list of World Heritage sites is Fossil Hominid Sites of South Africa. The Sterkfontein Caves were the site of the discovery of a 2.3-million-year-old fossil Australopithecus africanus, found in 1947 by Robert Broom and John T. Robinson; the find helped corroborate the 1924 discovery of the juvenile Australopithecus africanus skull known as the "Taung Child", by Raymond Dart, at Taung in the North West Province of South Africa, where excavations still continue. Nearby the site, but not in the site, the Rising Star Cave system contains the Dinaledi Chamber, in which were discovered fifteen fossil skeletons of an extinct species of hominin, provisionally named Homo naledi. Sterkfontein alone has produced more than a third of early hominid fossils found prior to 2010.
The Dinaledi Chamber contains over 1,500 H. naledi fossils, the most extensive discovery of a single hominid species found in Africa. The name Cradle of Humankind reflects the fact that the site has produced a large number of hominin fossils found, some dating back as far as 3.5 million years ago. In 1935, Robert Broom began work at this site. In 1938, a young schoolboy, Gert Terrblanche, brought Raymond Dart fragments of a skull from nearby Kromdraai which were identified as Paranthropus robustus. In 1938, a single ape-man tooth was found at the Cooper's site between Kromdraai and Sterkfontein. In 1948, the Camp-Peabody Expedition from the United States worked at Bolts Farm and Gladysvale looking for fossil hominids but failed to find any. In 1948, Robert Broom identified the first hominid remains from Swartkrans cave. In 1954, C. K. Brain began working at sites including Cooper's Cave, he initiated his three-decade work at Swartkrans cave, which resulted in the recovery of the second-largest sample of hominid remains from the Cradle.
The oldest controlled use of fire by Homo erectus was discovered at Swartkrans and dated to over 1 million years ago. In 1966, Phillip Tobias began his excavations of Sterkfontein which are still continuing and are the longest continuously running fossil excavations in the world. In 1991, Lee Berger of the University of the Witwatersrand discovered the first hominid specimens from the Gladysvale site, making this the first new early hominid site to be discovered in South Africa in 48 years. In 1994, Andre Keyser discovered fossil hominids at the site of Drimolen. In 1997, Kevin Kuykendall and Colin Menter of the University of the Witwatersrand found two fossil hominid teeth at the site of Gondolin. In 1997, the near-complete Australopithecus skeleton of "Little Foot", dating to around 3.3 million years ago, was discovered by Ron Clarke. In 2001, Steve Churchill of Duke University and Lee Berger found early modern human remains at Plovers Lake. In 2001, the first hominid fossils and stone tools were discovered in-situ at Coopers.
In 2008, Lee Berger discovered the partial remains of two hominids in the Malapa Fossil Site that lived between 1.78 and 1.95 million years ago. In October 2013, Berger commissioned geologist Pedro Boshoff to investigate cave systems in the Cradle of Humankind for the express purpose of discovering more fossil hominin sites. Cavers Rick Hunter and Steven Tucker discovered hominid fossils in a unexplored area of the Rising Star/Westminster Cave System assigned site designation UW-101. In November 2013, Berger led a joint expedition of the University of the Witwatersrand and National Geographic Society to the Rising Star Cave System near Swartkrans. In just three weeks of excavation, the six-woman international team of advance speleological scientists, chosen for their paleoanthropological and caving skills, as well as their small size, recovered over 1,200 specimens of a presently unidentified fossil hominin species; the site is still in the process of being dated. In September 2015, Berger, in collaboration with National Geographic, announced the discovery of a new species of human relative, named Homo naledi, from UW-101.
Most remarkably, besides shedding light on the origins and diversity of our genus, H. naledi appears to have intentionally deposited bodies of its dead in a remote cave chamber, a behaviour thought limited to humans. In the last days of the Rising Star Expedition, cavers Rick Hunter and Steven Tucker discovered additional fossil hominid material in another portion of the cave system. Preliminary excavations at this site, designated UW-102, have begun and yielded complete hominid fossil material of its own, it is unknown what the relationship of sites 102 is. There are more than three dozen fossil-bearing caves in the Cradle of Humankind, including: The hominin remains at the Cradle of Humankind are found in dolomitic caves and are encased in a mixture of limestone and other sediments called breccia and fossilised over time. Hominids may have lived all over Africa, but their remains are found only at sites where conditions allowed for the formation and preservation of fossils. On 7 December 2005, South African President Thabo Mbeki opened the new Maropeng Visitors Centre at the site.
Cradle of civilisation Dawn of Humanity, a 2015 PBS film Muldersdrift Recent African origin of modern humans L. R. Berger
Sterkfontein is a set of limestone caves of special interest to paleo-anthropologists located in Gauteng province, about 40 kilometres northwest of Johannesburg, South Africa in the Muldersdrift area close to the town of Krugersdorp. The archaeological sites of Swartkrans and Kromdraai are in the same area. Sterkfontein is a South African National Heritage Site and was declared a World Heritage Site in 2000; the area in which it is situated is known as the Cradle of Humankind. The Sterkfontein Caves are home to numerous wild African species including Belonogaster petiolata, a wasp species of which there is a large nesting presence. Numerous early hominin remains have been found at the site over the last few decades; these have been attributed to early Homo and Paranthropus. Modern excavation of the caves began in the late 1890s by limestone miners who noticed the fossils and brought them to the attention of scientists. In 1936, students of Professor Raymond Dart and Dr. Robert Broom from the University of the Witwatersrand began concerted excavations.
The caves yielded the first adult Australopithecine strengthening Dart's claim that the skull known as the Taung child was a human ancestor. There was a pause in excavation during World War II, but after the war Dr. Robert Broom continued excavations. In 1947, he found a nearly complete skull of an adult female A. africanus. Broom named the skull Plesianthropus transvaalensis, but it became better known by its nickname, Mrs. Ples. Mrs. Ples is now defined as a member of A. africanus. In 1997, a nearly complete skeleton of a second species of Australopithecus was found in the caves by Ronald J. Clarke; the skeleton was named Little Foot. Excavations continue to this day, finds now total some 500 hominids, making Sterkfontein one of the richest sites in the world for early hominids; the Palaeo-Anthropology Scientific Trust, a non-profit trust fund established in 1993, sponsors over 90% of the research undertaken at Sterkfontein and was instrumental in its nomination as a World Heritage Site. The Member 4 deposits containing the Australopithecus africanus fossils have been dated to between 2.6 and 2.0 Ma, with the Sts5 "Mrs. Ples" fossil estimated to date to between 2.05–2.01 Ma based on a combination of uranium-lead dating and palaeomagnetic analysis and electron spin resonance dating The StW 573 partial skeleton was recovered from a separate infill at the site within the confines of the Silberberg Grotto.
It is estimated to be around 2.6–2.2 Ma based on a combination of uranium-lead dating and palaeomagnetic analysis and belongs to a second species of australopith, Australopithecus prometheus. In contrast, surface exposure dating of sediments indicate that skeleton StW 573 has an age of 4 million years. While the flowstone dated in the uranium-lead dating has been shown to have formed than the fossil, an age estimate of ~3 Ma suggested by the same authors has little firm basis; the palaeomagnetic analysis remains the most credible age estimate based on the current data as it included work on both sediments and speleothem. A younger deposit dated to between 1.8 to 1.5 Mya has revealed the remains of a specimen of early Homo. StW 53 has been described as similar as a novel new species Homo gautengensis. No stone tools were associated with the fossil. Member 5 contains Oldowan and Acheulian stone tools as well as specimens of early Homo and Paranthropus and is dated to between 1.6 and 1.1 Mya. Cradle of Humankind List of caves in South Africa Muldersdrift Maropeng Visitors Centre Palaeo-Anthropology Scientific Trust
City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality
The City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality is the metropolitan municipality that forms the local government of northern Gauteng Province, South Africa. The Metropolitan area is centred on the city of Pretoria with surrounding towns and localities included in the local government area; the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality was established on 5 December 2000, comprising 13 former city and town councils and managed under an executive mayoral system. The Metsweding District Municipality was incorporated into the municipality with effect from 18 May 2011; the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality's land area increased from 2,198 square kilometres in 2010 to 6,368 square kilometres after the incorporation of Metsweding. The Tswaing crater is in the northwest of Soshanguve; the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality consists of the following areas: The 2011 census divided the municipality into the following main places: There were around 2,921,500 people living within the borders of Tshwane: 75.40% black, 20.08% white, 2.01% coloured and 1.84% Indian or Asian.
The municipal council consists of 214 members elected by mixed-member proportional representation. 107 are elected by first-past-the-post voting in 107 wards, while the remaining 107 are chosen from party lists so that the total number of party representatives is proportional to the number of votes received. In the election of 3 August 2016, the Democratic Alliance won a plurality of 93 seats on the council, but no party won a majority. On August 19, 2016, minority parties united with the DA to vote in DA mayoral candidate, Solly Msimanga as the first Democratic Alliance mayor of Tshwane. Msimanga appointed a mayoral committee coalition consisting of the DA, African Christian Democratic Party and the Freedom Front Plus. Msimanga resigned in February 2019; the Democratic Alliance nominated Stevens Mokgalapa to succeed him. Mokgalapa was elected on 12 February 2019; the following table shows the results of the 2016 election. As of 2016, City of Tshwane receives 72% of its bulk water from Rand Water, which utilizes the Integrated Vaal River System.
The remaining 28 % of Tshwane's water is sourced from its own treatment boreholes. Water restrictions are implemented during heat waves or other seasonal changes; the main rail station is in Pretoria. The Gautrain runs through parts of the municipality, with stations in Centurion and Pretoria, ending at a station in the suburb of Hatfield. OR Tambo International Airport in neighbouring Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality serves Tshwane. Wonderboom Airport in the north of Tshwane serves light aircraft; the Tshwane municipality is home to the Tshwane University of Technology, the largest distance education university. The University of Pretoria, one of South Africa's leading research and teaching universities, University of Limpopo a medical school in the north of Pretoria and the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research are in the municipal area; the South African Air Force military bases AFB Waterkloof and AFB Swartkop are in Centurion. Thaba Tshwane military base is in the municipality.
The SANDF memorial is at Fort Klapperkop and the South African Air Force memorial is at AFB Swartkop. There are a large number of many of them in Pretoria. Pretoria Forts Kruger House Mapungubwe Collection Melrose House Voortrekker Monument Freedom Park Transvaal Museum African Window South African Air Force Museum The city of Tshwane hosted the 10th World Choir Games, organised by the Interkultur Foundation, between 4–14 July 2018. Various locations across the city were used as venues to host concerts and ceremonies for the event, including the Musaion and Aula theatres at the University of Pretoria, the ZK Matthews Great Hall at the University of South Africa, the Pretoria State Theatre; the event was the first of its kind on the African continent. Lucas Moripe Stadium, Atteridgeville HM Pitje Stadium, Mamelodi Loftus Versfeld, Pretoria SuperSport Park, Centurion Odi Stadium, Mabopane Giant Stadium, Soshanguve 1st Nan Hau Scout Group 5th Hillcrest/Colbyn Scout Group 6th St Andrews Scout Group 8th St Albans Scout Group 9th Irene Air Scout Group 10th Arcadia Scout Group 13th St Patricks Scout Group 14th Delp Scout Group 22nd Waterkloof / Kosmos Sea Scout Group 23rd Lyttleton Scout Group 35th Pretoria Sea Scout Group 36th Sinoville Scout Group 37th Springvale Scout Group 40th Glenstantia Scout Group 41st Parks Scout Group 42nd Laudium Scout Group 46th Midstream Scout Group Tshwane is the Setswana name of the Apies River, which flows through the city.
The origin of the name of the river is unclear. It may mean "place -e of the black cow, from ceremonies where a black cow was sprinkled with water from the river to end a drought. Another claim is that it was named after Tshwane, son of Chief Mushi, an Ndebele leader who settled near the Apies River about a century before the arrival of the Voortrekkers in the early 19th century. However, some Ndebele kings claim to have never heard of a chief named "Tshwane". Two other common explanations are demonstrably untrue. One is that it is the Tswana for the motto of Tshwane Municipality, "We are the same". However, this appears to be promoted for its emotional value. Another common misunderstanding is that it is t