Odile Bailleux is a French harpsichordist and organist. Born in Trappes, Odile Bailleux studied music at the Versailles conservatory and the École César Franck in the organ class with Jean Fellot and Édouard Souberbielle. After she participated in 1964 in the International Academy of the Organ in Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume, she left in 1969 in Frankfurt to work with the organist Helmut Walcha, she is the substitute for Antoine Reboulot at the grand organ of the Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés and since 1973 she holds the same post with André Isoir. She has been teaching the organ since 1989 at the conservatory of Bourg-la-Reine, she is the titular of the Grand Organ of the Notre-Dame-des-Blancs-Manteaux church. As a harpsichordist she has been performing the continuo in the group Musique-Ensemble and La Grande Écurie et la Chambre du Roy since 1977. Alain Pâris. Dictionnaire des interprètes et de l’interprétation musicale au XXe. Bouquins. Paris: Éditions Robert Laffont. Pp. 177–178. ISBN 2-221-08064-5.
Odile Bailleux on Discogs "Discographie d'Odile Bailleux". France-orgue.fr. Odile Bailleux à l'orgue de Sète en 1982 on YouTube
Jamel Debbouze is a Moroccan-French actor, screenwriter, film producer and director. Best known for his stand-up comedy sketches, he worked with director Alain Chabat in several films and other notable French humourists such as Florence Foresti, Fred Testot and Gad Elmaleh, he has starred in a number of box-office successes, including Amélie, Asterix & Obelix: Mission Cleopatra, Hollywoo and HOUBA! On the Trail of the Marsupilami, he is the founder of the Canal+ television show Jamel Comedy Club. Debbouze was born in France, his family, from Taza, moved back to Morocco the following year. They returned in 1979 and settled in Trappes in 1983, in the Paris region, where Debbouze spent the rest of his childhood, he is the eldest of six siblings: Jamel, Hayat, Karim and Nawel Debbouze. On 17 January 1990, at the train station in Trappes, he was struck by a passing train travelling at 150 km/h, he lost the use of his right arm in the accident, which killed another young man, Jean-Paul Admette, the son of the singer Michel Admette from Reunion.
Debbouze was sued by the victim’s family for manslaughter but the case was dismissed for lack of proof. In December 2004, he was going to perform on stage on the French island of Réunion, but Debbouze cancelled, claiming illness, as Michel Admette's parents had organized a demonstration against his arrival. In 1995, he was spotted by the bosses of Radio Nova, Jacques Massadian and Jean-François Bizot, who made him famous, he debuted on Radio Nova, with a film review show, Le Cinéma de Jamel and on television around 1996-1997 on cable channel Paris Première, in a TV show co-produced by Radio Nova and the channel. He took Le Cinéma de Jamel to television on Canal+ in 1998. On the same channel, he contributed to H, along with Éric Judor and Ramzy Bedia, he acted in the movies Zonzon, international box-office hit Amélie, domestic hit Asterix & Obelix: Mission Cleopatra, Angel-A. In 2006, he acted in the historical movie Days of Glory, paying tribute to the North-African soldiers who fought for France during the Second World War.
For this movie, he got the prize for best male actor at the 59th edition of the Cannes Film Festival with Samy Naceri, Roschdy Zem, Sami Bouajila and Bernard Blancan. In April 2008, Debbouze opened a comedy club, called Le Comedy Club, in Paris aimed at launching newcomers on the stand-up scene. On 29 March 2008, Debbouze became engaged to French news anchor Mélissa Theuriau. In 2009, Debbouze collaborated with the rap band 113 and Awa Imani for the project Maghreb United of Rim'K'. On 1 December 2010, Debbouze's new DVD named Made in Jamel featuring the likes of Gad Elmaleh, Florence Foresti, Élie Semoun, Didier Bourdon, Youness Ait Benouissaden, Noureddine Oussayah and Sophie Mounicot was released, his show, Jamel improvise, debuted in January 2011, before playing every evening's Tout sur Jamel from 1 to 20 January at the Casino de Paris. He was the chairman of the 2013 César Awards. In 1990, Debbouze met Alain Degois, an educator who organized theater improvisation workshops, joined his troupe.
With this troupe, he took part in the French Championship of Improvisation in 1991 and toured Quebec and Morocco. In 1992, he got his first part in a film called Les Pierres Bleues du Désert. After this film, Debbouze wanted to create his own show; this happened in 1995 with the show C'est Tout Neuf, enjoyed a lot. He had an approximative role on the radio program Radio Nova and took part in the television program Nova Premiere where he was noticed by Canal+. In 1998, Debbouze played Jamel Dridi, an operator, in the hospital sitcom, H on Canal+, alongside fellow comedians Eric and Ramzy. By the time the series ended in 2002, Debbouze had achieved national fame. In March 1999, Debbouze started his new show Jamel en Scène. In this show, Debbouze talked about his childhood and show business; the show played at La Cigale and at the Bataclan in Paris. He went on tour throughout France in 2000. At the end of the year, he returned to Paris with his show at the Olympia for three weeks. In 2002, Debbouze returned with 100 % Debbouze.
For three years this show played in the top Parisian theaters: the Casino de Paris, the Bataclan, Le Zénith, the Olympia. He toured France, Tunisia and Belgium; the DVD of the show went on sale in 2004, sold more than 1 million copies. In 2006, Debbouze became the presenter of a new program, Jamel Comedy Club, which featured a half-hour of the new generation of French humorists each week. With this troupe, Debbouze went to the Casino de Paris in 2007 for a new show, Le Jamel Comedy Club Envahit le Casino de Paris; this show was successful, its run was extended and it played in Canada. In 1992, the seventeen-year-old Debbouze appeared in Les Pierres Bleues du Désert; the film tells the story of a young boy, persecuted because he believes in the existence of blue stones in the desert. It was the first of numerous film roles for Debbouze. In 1996, he played a small part in Les Deux papas et la maman, a film by Jean-Marc Doval with Smaïn and Arielle Dombasle. Three years he received his first big role in a feature film called Le Ciel les oiseaux et ta... mère!.
This comedy was successful, with more than one million tickets sold. Over the next two years he continued his stage shows, before returning to film with the successful Le fabuleux destin d'Amélie Poulain, he was nominated for his part in this film for the César Award for Best
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Barbara Cabrita is a French-Portuguese actress, born in Trappes in the department of Yvelines. Barbara was born to Portuguese immigrant parents, she began as a model at 16 years old. At 20 years old she plays in the sitcom Le Groupe and she became well known with the television series R. I. S, police scientifique, aired on first French TV channel, TF1. Le Groupe"' Central Nuit" Sous le soleil" Même âge, même adresse" R. I. S, police scientifique" Fortunes" Les Amateurs" of Martin Valente Just Inès" The Gilded Cage Quelqu'un de bien" El Derechazo" C ke du bonheur" La Rivière" Go Clear" Fanta" Les Pages jaunes" Nivéa" Bouygues Telecom" L’Homme qui voulait passer à la télé" Déjà vu Le Temps du silence" Patrick Bruel - Mon amant de Saint Jean" Patrick Bruel/Francis Cabrel - La Complainte de la butte" Martin Rappeneau - Julien" Tandem - La Trilogie" Barbara Cabrita on IMDb Barbara Cabrita's agent website
In France, a banlieue is a suburb of a large city. Banlieues are divided into autonomous administrative entities and do not constitute part of the city proper. For instance, 80% of the inhabitants of the Paris metropolitan area live outside the city of Paris. Like the city centre, suburbs may be rich, middle-class or poor—Versailles, Le Vésinet, Maisons-Laffitte and Neuilly-sur-Seine are affluent banlieues of Paris, while Clichy-sous-Bois and Corbeil-Essonnes are less so. However, since the 1970s, banlieues has taken on an additional meaning in French of France, becoming a popular word for low-income housing projects in which black immigrants and French of foreign descent reside, in what are called poverty traps. In France, since the establishment of the Third Republic at the beginning of the 1870s, communities beyond the city centre stopped spreading their own boundaries, as a result of the extension of the larger Paris urban agglomeration; the city — which in France corresponds to the concept of the "urban unit" – does not have a correspondence with a single administrative location, instead includes other communities that link themselves to the city centre and form the banlieues.
Since annexing the banlieues of major French cities during the Second Empire period, the French communities have in effect extended their boundaries little beyond their delimitations, have not followed the development of the urban unit existing prior to 1870 as well as all large and mid-sized cities in France having a banlieue develop a couronne pėriurbaine. Communities in the countryside beyond the near-urban ring are regarded as being outside the city's strongest social and economic sphere of influence, are termed communes périurbaines. In either case, they are divided into numerous autonomous administrative entities. Banlieues 89, a design-led urban policy backed by the French government, renovated over 140 low-cost estates, such as Les Minguettes and the Mas du Taureau block in Vaulx-en-Velin. Improvements were made in road and rail access and shops were built, the towers and blocks were made to look more attractive. In Vaulx-en-Velin, for instance, shops and a library were built, houses were built to make the landscape more interesting, 2,500 homes were renovated, the blocks were repainted.
The word banlieue is, in formal use, a neutral term, designating the urbanized zone located around the city centre, comprising both sparsely and populated areas. Therefore, in the Parisian metropolitan area, for example, the wealthy suburb of Neuilly-sur-Seine may be referred to as a banlieue as might the poor suburb of La Courneuve. To distinguish them, Parisians refer to a banlieue aisée for Neuilly, to a banlieue défavorisée for Clichy-sous-Bois; the Paris region can be divided into several zones. In the northwest and the northeast, many areas are vestiges of former working-class and industrial zones, in the case of Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-d'Oise. In the west, the population is upper class, the centre of business and finance, La Défense, is located there; the southeast banlieues are less homogenous. Close to Paris, there are many communities that are considered "sensitive" or unsafe, divided by residential zones with a better reputation; the farther away from the Paris city centre, the more the banlieues of the south of Paris can be divided into two zones.
On one side, there are the banks of the Seine, where working-class residents used to live but other areas that are well off. Are large cities close to Paris, such as Chanteloup-les-Vignes, Les Mureaux, Mantes-la-Jolie, Achères, Trappes, Aubergenville Évry, Grigny, Corbeil-Essonnes and Fleury-Mérogis. Small communities that are disparate can be found in the Yvelines department with Villennes-sur-Seine, Croissy-sur-Seine, Le Pecq, Maisons-Laffitte but in the Essonne and Seine-et-Marne departments: Etiolles, Soisy-sur-Seine, Saint-Pierre-du-Perray or Seine-Port; the banlieues rouges are the outskirt districts of Paris where, the French Communist Party held mayorships and other elected positions. Examples of these include Ivry-sur-Seine, Malakoff; such communities named streets after Soviet personalities, such as rue Youri Gagarine. The banlieues of large cities like Lyon and Marseille those around Paris, are criticized and forgotten by the country's territorial spatial planning administration. Since the French Commune government of 1871, they were and still are ostracised and considered by other residents as places that are "lawless" or "outside the law", "outside the Republic", as opposed to "deep France", or "authentic France" associated with the provinces.
However, it is in the banlieues that the young working households are found that raise children and pay taxes but lack in public services, in transportation, sports, as well as employment opportunities. Since the 1980s, petty crime has increased in France, much of it blamed on juvenile delinquency fostered within the banlieues; as a result, the banlieues are perceived to have become unsafe places to live, youths from the banlieues are perceived to be one important source of increased petty crimes and uncivil behavior. This criminality was seized upon to fan the flames of racism stoked by the Front Na
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Wahhabism is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. It has been variously described as "ultraconservative", "austere", "fundamentalist", or "puritan"; the term Wahhabi is used polemically and adherents reject its use, preferring to be called Salafi or muwahhid. Claiming to emphasize the principle of tawhid, for exclusivity on monotheism, dismissing other Muslims as practising shirk, it follows the theology of Ibn Taymiyyah and the Hanbali school of jurisprudence, although Hanbali leaders renounced Abd al-Wahhab's views. Wahhabism is named after Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, he started a reform movement in the remote, sparsely populated region of Najd, advocating a purging of such widespread Sunni practices as the veneration of saints and the visiting of their tombs and shrines, that were practiced all over the Islamic world, but which he considered idolatrous impurities and innovations in Islam. He formed a pact with a local leader, Muhammad bin Saud, offering political obedience and promising that protection and propagation of the Wahhabi movement meant "power and glory" and rule of "lands and men".
The alliance between followers of ibn Abd al-Wahhab and Muhammad bin Saud's successors proved to be a durable one. The House of Saud continued to maintain its politico-religious alliance with the Wahhabi sect through the waxing and waning of its own political fortunes over the next 150 years, through to its eventual proclamation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, afterwards, on into modern times. Today Ibn Abd Al-Wahhab's teachings are the official, state-sponsored form of Sunni Islam in Saudi Arabia. With the help of funding from Saudi petroleum exports, the movement underwent "explosive growth" beginning in the 1970s and now has worldwide influence; the US State Department has estimated that over the past four decades concerns in Riyadh have directed at least $10bn to select charitable foundations toward the subversion of mainstream Sunni Islam by the harsh intolerance of Wahhabism. The "boundaries" of Wahhabism have been called "difficult to pinpoint", but in contemporary usage, the terms Wahhabi and Salafi are used interchangeably, they are considered to be movements with different roots that have merged since the 1960s.
However, Wahhabism has been called "a particular orientation within Salafism", or an ultra-conservative, Saudi brand of Salafism. Estimates of the number of adherents to Wahhabism vary, with one source giving a figure of fewer than 5 million Wahhabis in the Persian Gulf region; the majority of Sunni and Shia Muslims worldwide disagree with the interpretation of Wahhabism, many Muslims denounce them as a faction or a "vile sect". Islamic scholars, including those from the Al-Azhar University denounce Wahhabism with terms such as "Satanic faith". Wahhabism has been accused of being "a source of global terrorism", inspiring the ideology of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, for causing disunity in Muslim communities by labelling Muslims who disagreed with the Wahhabi definition of monotheism as apostates and justifying their killing, it has been criticized for the destruction of historic shrines of saints and other Muslim and non-Muslim buildings and artifacts. Some definitions or uses of the term Wahhabi Islam include: "a corpus of doctrines", "a set of attitudes and behavior, derived from the teachings of a severe religious reformist who lived in central Arabia in the mid-eighteenth century" "pure Islam", that does not deviate from Sharia law in any way and should be called Islam and not Wahhabism.
"a misguided creed that fosters intolerance, promotes simplistic theology, restricts Islam's capacity for adaption to diverse and shifting circumstances" "a conservative reform movement... the creed upon which the kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded, has influenced Islamic movements worldwide" "a sect dominant in Saudi Arabia and Qatar" with footholds in "India and elsewhere", with a "steadfastly fundamentalist interpretation of Islam in the tradition of Ibn Hanbal" an "eighteenth-century reformist/revivalist movement for sociomoral reconstruction of society", "founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab". Originally a "literal revivification" of Islamic principles that ignored the spiritual side of Islam, that "rose on the wings of enthusiasm and longing and sank down into the lowlands of pharisaic self-righteousness" after gaining power and losing its "longing and humility" "a political trend" within Islam that "has been adopted for power-sharing purposes", but cannot be called a sect because "It has no special practices, nor special rites, no special interpretation of religion that differ from the main body of Sunni Islam" (Abdallah Al Obeid, the former dean of the Islamic University of Medina and member of the Saudi Con