The Tunga River is a river in Karnataka state, southern India. The river is born in the Western Ghats on a hill known as Varaha Parvata at a place called Gangamoola. From here, the river flows through two districts in Karnataka - Chikmagalur District and Shimoga District, it is 147 km long and merges with the Bhadra River at Koodli, a small town near Shimoga City, Karnataka. The river is given the compound name Tungabhadra from this point on; the Tungabhadra flows merges with the Krishna River in Andhra Pradesh. The river is famous for the sweetness of its water and is considered to be the sweetest water in the world. There is a belief that " Thunga pana Ganga snana" which means we should drink the water of river thunga and take bath in river Ganga, it has a dam built across it at Gajanur, a larger dam has been built across the compound Tungabhadra river at Hospet. Sringeri, on the banks of the Tunga, has several temples, the most important being the Śhāradā temple and the Vidyāśhankara temple
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
The South Pennar River is known as Dakshina Pinakini in Kannada and Thenpennai or Ponnaiyar in Tamil. The river originates in the Nandi Hills in the Chikkaballapura district of Karnataka and flows through Tamil Nadu before emptying into the Bay of Bengal, it has a catchment area of 1,424 square miles located in Tamil Nadu states. Small dams of Kelavarapalli and Krishnagiri dams are built across this river near Hosur and Krishnagiri; the largest dam on this river, Sathanur Dam with 7.3 Tmcft Gross Capacity is built near Tiruvannamalai. Moongilthuraipattu Sugar Factory is situated on the bank of river; the river is dry for the most part of the year. Water flows during the monsoon season when it is fed by the south-west monsoon in catchment area and the northeast monsoon in Tamil Nadu; however this water flow raises the water table throughout the river basin and feeds numerous reservoirs/tanks. The old river Dakshina Pinakini does not exist anymore. Substantial part of Bangalore's sewage enters this river via Bellandur and Varthur Lakes and other channels.
The sand build of the river is quite impressive, suggesting that it may have been a perennial river with much larger water flow in the past. Mention of the river is found in Sangam and medieval literature, where it is depicted as rich with lush vegetation on its banks. There are various temples on its banks, it irrigates Krishnagiri, Tiruvannamalai and Cuddalore districts and empties into the Bay of Bengal. This river is now looted for its rich availability of sand; as the water flow will be only in monsoon seasons, the river is dry in remaining parts of the year. Sand mafia is biggest and most dangerous elements behind killing of large rivers in south India. Arkavathy River Palar River
The Arkavati is an important mountain river in Karnataka, originating at Nandi Hills of Chikkaballapura district. It is a tributary of the Kaveri, which it joins at 34 km south of Kanakapura, Ramanagara District called Sangama in Kannada, after flowing through Ramanagara and Kanakapura; the river drains into the Chikkarayappanahalli Lake near Kanivenarayanapura. Kumudavathi and Vrishabhavathi rivers are tributaries to this river, it forms. It joins Cauvery river as a tributary near Mekedatu; the river is used by the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board to provide 135 million litres of drinking water per day to the city of Bengaluru, or about 20% of all the city's water. As it is filtered in the nearby mountain aquifer, the water is crystal clear; the water is taken from two reservoirs built on the river, the Hesaraghatta, built in 1894, the Tippagondanahalli Reservoir, built in 1933. There is Manchanabele dam, across the river further downstream, located in Ramanagara District Ponnaiyar River Palar River Vrishabhavathi River Hesaraghatta Lake Thippagondanahalli Reservoir
The Krishna River is the fourth-biggest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganga and Brahmaputra. The river is 1,400 kilometres long; the river is called Krishnaveni. It is one of the major sources of irrigation for Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh; the Krishna river originates in the Western Ghats near Mahabaleshwar at an elevation of about 1,300 metres, in the state of Maharashtra in central India. It is one of the longest rivers in India; the Krishna river is around 1,400 km in length. The Krishna river's source is at Mahabaleswar near the Jor village in the extreme north of Wai Taluka, Satara District, Maharashtra in the west and empties into the Bay of Bengal at Hamasaladeevi in Andhra Pradesh, on the east coast, it flows through the state of Karnataka before entering Telangana State. The delta of this river is one of the most fertile regions in India and was the home to ancient Satavahana and Ikshvaku Sun Dynasty kings. Vijayawada is the largest city on the River Krishna.
It causes heavy soil erosion during the monsoon floods. It flows fast and furious reaching depths of over 75 feet. There is a saying in Marathi: "Shant vaahate Krishnamaai" which means "quiet flows Krishna"; this term is used to describe. The largest tributary of the Krishna River is the Tungabhadra River with a drainage basin measuring 71,417 km2, running for about 531 km, but the longest tributary is the Bhima River, which makes a total run of 861 km and has an large drainage area of 70,614 km2. Three tributaries Panchganga and Yerla meet Krishna river near Sangli; these places are considered holy. It is said. Sangameswaram of Kurnool district in Andhra Pradesh is a famous pilgrim center for Hindus where Tungabhadra and Bhavanasi rivers join the Krishna river; the Sangameswaram temple is now drowned in the Srisailam reservoir, visible for devotees only during summer when the reservoir's water level comes down. Krishna Basin extends over an area of 258,948 km2, nearly 8% of the total geographical area of the country.
This large basin lies in the states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. The Krishna river rises in the Western Ghats, at an elevation of about 1,337 m just north of Mahabaleshwar, about 64 km from the Arabian Sea, it outfalls into the Bay of Bengal. The principal tributaries joining Krishna are the Ghataprabha River, Malaprabha River, Bhima River, Tungabhadra River and Musi River. Most of this basin comprises rolling and undulating country, except for the western border, formed by an unbroken line of the Western Ghats; the important soil types found in the basin are black soils, red soils and lateritic soils, mixed soils and black soils and saline and alkaline soils. An average annual surface water potential of 78.1 km3 has been assessed in this basin. Out of this, 58.0 km3 is utilizable water. Culturable area in the basin is about 203,000 km2, 10.4% of the total cultivable area of the country. As the water availability in the Krishna river was becoming inadequate to meet the water demand, Godavari River is linked to the Krishna river by commissioning the Polavaram right bank canal with the help of Pattiseema lift scheme in the year 2015 to augment water availability to the Prakasam Barrage in Andhra Pradesh.
The irrigation canals of Prakasam Barrage form part of National Waterway 4. Agumbe which receives second highest rainfall in India, is located in the Krishna river basin. Mullayanagiri peak in Karnataka at an altitude of 1,930 m above msl, is the highest point of the Krishna basin; this river is revered by Hindus as sacred. The river is believed to remove all sins of people by taking a bath in this river; the centre of attraction is the Krishna Pushkaram fair, held once in twelve years on the banks of the Krishna river. There are many pilgrimage places in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh on the course of the river; the first holy place on the river Krishna is at Wai, known for the Mahaganpati Mandir and Kashivishweshwar temple. It has seven ghats along the river. Temples like Dattadeva temple, revered by the people of Maharashtra, are located on the banks of Krishna at Narsobawadi and Audumbar near Sangli. Located on the banks of the river Krishna are the Sangameshwar Shiva temple at Haripur, goddess Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada and Ramling temple near Sangli, Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga, Amareshwara Swamy Temple, Dattadeva temple, Sangameshwara Shiva temples at Alampur in Telangana.
Wide spread area near to the Krishna river holds the rich fauna. The last surviving Mangrove forests in the Krishna estuary have been declared as the Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary; the sanctuary is the home to the large number of migratory birds. Fishing cat, Estuarine crocodile, spotted deer, black buck, snake and jackal can be spotted in the sanctuary; the sanctuary supports rich vegetation with plants like Rhizophora and Aegiceros. The following are few other wildlife sanctuaries located in the river basin; the following are few other waterfalls located in the river basin The Krishna River is spanned by several bridges along its course, some of which are listed below. Krishna Bridge, Maharashtra – This bridge, located in the Dharmpuri Peth area of the town of Wai, is one o
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci