Italian cuisine is food typical of Italy. It has developed through centuries of social and economic changes, with roots stretching to antiquity. Significant changes occurred with the discovery of the New World and the introduction of potatoes, bell peppers and sugar beet, this last introduced in quantity in the 18th century. Italian cuisine is known for its regional diversity between the north and the south of the Italian peninsula, it offers an abundance of taste, is one of the most popular and copied in the world. It influenced several cuisines around the world. Italian cuisine is characterized by its simplicity, with many dishes having only two to four main ingredients. Italian cooks rely chiefly on the quality of the ingredients rather than on elaborate preparation. Ingredients and dishes vary by region. Many dishes that were once regional have proliferated with variations throughout the country. Italian cuisine has developed over the centuries. Although the country known as Italy did not unite until the 19th century, the cuisine can claim traceable roots as far back as the 4th century BCE.
Food and culture were important at that time as we can see from the cookbook which dates back to first century BC. Through the centuries, neighbouring regions, high-profile chefs, political upheaval, the discovery of the New World have influenced its development. Italian food started to form after the fall of the Roman Empire, when different cities began to separate and form their own traditions. Many different types of bread and pasta were made, there was a variation in cooking techniques and preparation; the country was split. Regional cuisine is represented by some of the major cities in Italy. For example, Milan is known for its risottos, Bologna is known for its tortellini and Naples is famous for its pizzas and spaghettis; the first known Italian food writer was a Greek Sicilian named Archestratus from Syracuse in the 4th century BCE. He wrote a poem, he said that flavors should not be masked by herbs or other seasonings. He placed importance on simple preparation of fish. Simplicity was replaced by a culture of gastronomy as the Roman Empire developed.
By the time De re coquinaria was published in the 1st century CE, it contained 470 recipes calling for heavy use of spices and herbs. The Romans employed Greek bakers to produce breads and imported cheeses from Sicily as the Sicilians had a reputation as the best cheesemakers; the Romans reared goats for butchering, grew artichokes and leeks. With culinary traditions from Rome and Athens, a cuisine developed in Sicily that some consider the first real Italian cuisine. Arabs invaded Sicily in the 9th century, introducing spinach and rice. During the 12th century, a Norman king surveyed Sicily and saw people making long strings made from flour and water called atriya, which became trii, a term still used for spaghetti in southern Italy. Normans introduced casseroles, salt cod, stockfish, all of which remain popular. Food preservation was either physical, as refrigeration did not exist. Meats and fish dried, or kept on ice. Brine and salt were used to pickle items such as herring, to cure pork. Root vegetables were preserved in brine.
Other means of preservation included immersing meat in congealed, rendered fat. For preserving fruits, liquor and sugar were used; the northern Italian regions show a mix of Germanic and Roman culture while the south reflects Arab influence, as much Mediterranean cuisine was spread by Arab trade. The oldest Italian book on cuisine is the 13th century Liber de coquina written in Naples. Dishes include "Roman-style" cabbage, ad usum campanie which were "small leaves" prepared in the "Campanian manner", a bean dish from the Marca di Trevisio, a torta, compositum londardicum which are similar to dishes prepared today. Two other books from the 14th century include recipes for Roman pastello, Lasagna pie, call for the use of salt from Sardinia or Chioggia. In the 15th century, Maestro Martino was chef to the Patriarch of Aquileia at the Vatican, his Libro de arte coquinaria describes a more elegant cuisine. His book contains a recipe for Maccaroni Siciliani, made by wrapping dough around a thin iron rod to dry in the sun.
The macaroni was cooked in capon stock flavored with saffron. Of particular note is Martino's avoidance of excessive spices in favor of fresh herbs; the Roman recipes include cabbage dishes. His Florentine dishes include eggs with Bolognese torta, Sienese torta and Genoese recipes such as piperata, squash and spinach pie with onions. Martino's text was included in a 1475 book by Bartolomeo Platina printed in Venice entitled De honesta voluptate et valetudine. Platina puts Martino's "Libro" in regional context, writing about perch from Lake Maggiore, sardines from Lake Garda, grayling from Adda, hens from Padua, olives from Bologna and Piceno, turbot from Ravenna, rudd from Lake Trasimeno, carrots from Viterbo, bass from the Tiber and shad from Lake Albano, snails from Rieti, figs from Tuscolo, grapes from Narni, oil from Cassino, oranges from Naples and eels from Campania. Grains from Lombardy and Campania are mentioned as is honey from Taranto. Wine from the Ligurian coast, Greco from Tuscany and San Severino, Trebbiano from Tuscany and Piceno are mentioned in the book.
The courts of Florence, Rome and Ferrara were centra
A decanter is a vessel, used to hold the decantation of a liquid which may contain sediment. Decanters, which have a varied shape and design, have been traditionally made from crystal, their volume is equivalent to one standard bottle of wine. A carafe, traditionally used for serving alcoholic beverages, is similar in design to a decanter but is not supplied with a stopper. Throughout the history of wine, decanters have played a significant role in the serving of wine; the vessels would be filled with wine from amphoras and brought to the table where they could be more handled by a single servant. The Ancient Romans pioneered the use of glass as a material. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, glass production became scarce causing the majority of decanters to be made of bronze, gold, or earthenware; the Venetians reintroduced glass decanters during the Renaissance period and pioneered the style of a long slender neck that opens to a wide body, increasing the exposed surface area of the wine, allowing it to react with air.
In the 1730s, British glass makers introduced the stopper to limit exposure to air. Since there has been little change to the basic design of the decanter. Although conceived for wine, other alcoholic beverages, such as cognac or single malt Scotch whisky, are stored and served in stoppered decanters. Certain cognacs and malt whiskies are sold in decanters such as the 50-year-old single malt Dalmore or the Bowmore Distillery 22 Year Old. Liquid from another vessel is poured into the decanter in order to separate a small volume of liquid, containing the sediment, from a larger volume of "clear" liquid, free of such. In the process, the sediment is left in the original vessel, the clear liquid is transferred to the decanter; this performed just before serving. Decanters have been used for serving wines; these sediments could be the result of a old wine or one, not filtered or clarified during the winemaking process. In most modern winemaking, the need to decant for this purpose has been reduced, because many wines no longer produce a significant amount of sediment as they age.
Another reason for decanting wine is to aerate it, or allow it to "breathe". The decanter is meant to mimic the effects of swirling the wine glass to stimulate the oxidation processes which triggers the release of more aromatic compounds. In addition it is thought to benefit the wine by smoothing some of the harsher aspects of the wine. Many wine writers, such as author Karen MacNeil in the book The Wine Bible, advocate decanting for the purposes of aeration with tannic wines like Barolo, Cabernet Sauvignon, Rhône wines while noting that decanting could be harmful for more delicate wines like Chianti and Pinot noir. However, the effectiveness of decanting is a topic of debate, with some wine experts such as oenologist Émile Peynaud claiming that the prolonged exposure to oxygen diffuses and dissipates more aroma compounds than it stimulates, in contrast to the effects of the smaller scale exposure and immediate release that swirling the wine in a drinker's glass has. In addition it has been reported that the process of decanting over a period of a few hours does not have the effect of softening tannins.
The softening of tannins occurs during the winemaking and oak aging when tannins go through a process of polymerization that can last days or weeks. In line with the view that decanting can dissipate aromas, wine expert Kerin O'Keefe prefers to let the wine evolve and in the bottle, by uncorking it a few hours ahead, a practice suggested by wine producers such as Bartolo Mascarello and Franco Biondi Santi. Other wine experts, such as writer Jancis Robinson, tout the aesthetic value of using a decanter one with an elegant design and made with clear glass, believe that for all but the most fragile of wines that there is not much significant damage to the wine by decanting it. A decanter can be used to present wine anonymously. Media related to Decanters at Wikimedia Commons
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money. Meals are served and eaten on the premises, but many restaurants offer take-out and food delivery services, some offer only take-out and delivery. Restaurants vary in appearance and offerings, including a wide variety of cuisines and service models ranging from inexpensive fast food restaurants and cafeterias to mid-priced family restaurants, to high-priced luxury establishments. In Western countries, most mid- to high-range restaurants serve alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine; some restaurants serve all the major meals, such as breakfast and dinner. Other restaurants may only serve a single meal or they may serve two meals; the word derives from the French verb "restaurer" and, being the present participle of the verb, it means "that which restores". The term restaurant was defined in 1507 as a "restorative beverage", in correspondence in 1521 to mean "that which restores the strength, a fortifying food or remedy".
The first use of the word to refer to a public venue where one can order food is believed to be in the 18th century. In 1765, a French chef by the name of A. Boulanger established a business selling soups and other "restaurants". Additionally, while not the first establishment where one could order food, or soups, it is thought to be the first to offer a menu of available choices The "first real restaurant" is considered to have been "La Grande Taverne de Londres" in Paris, founded by Antoine Beauviliers in either 1782 or 1786. According to Brillat-Savarin, this was "the first to combine the four essentials of an elegant room, smart waiters, a choice cellar, superior cooking". In 1802 the term was applied to an establishment where restorative foods, such as bouillon, a meat broth, were served. Restaurants are distinguished in many different ways; the primary factors are the food itself. Beyond this, restaurants may differentiate themselves on factors including speed, location, service, or novelty themes.
Restaurants range from inexpensive and informal lunching or dining places catering to people working nearby, with modest food served in simple settings at low prices, to expensive establishments serving refined food and fine wines in a formal setting. In the former case, customers wear casual clothing. In the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions, customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal or formal wear. At mid- to high-priced restaurants, customers sit at tables, their orders are taken by a waiter, who brings the food when it is ready. After eating, the customers pay the bill. In some restaurants, such as workplace cafeterias, there are no waiters. Another restaurant approach which uses few waiters is the buffet restaurant. Customers serve food onto their own plates and pay at the end of the meal. Buffet restaurants still have waiters to serve drinks and alcoholic beverages. Fast food restaurants are considered a restaurant; the travelling public has long been catered for with ship's messes and railway restaurant cars which are, in effect, travelling restaurants.
Many railways, the world over cater for the needs of travellers by providing railway refreshment rooms, a form of restaurant, at railway stations. In the 2000s, a number of travelling restaurants designed for tourists, have been created; these can be found on trams, buses, etc. A restaurant's proprietor is called a restaurateur, this derives from the French verb restaurer, meaning "to restore". Professional cooks are called chefs, with there being various finer distinctions. Most restaurants will have various waiting staff to serve food and alcoholic drinks, including busboys who remove used dishes and cutlery. In finer restaurants, this may include a host or hostess, a maître d'hôtel to welcome customers and to seat them, a sommelier or wine waiter to help patrons select wines. A new route to becoming a restauranter, rather than working one's way up through the stages, is to operate a food truck. Once a sufficient following has been obtained, a permanent restaurant site can be opened; this trend has become common in the UK and the US.
A chef's table is a table located in the kitchen of a restaurant, reserved for VIPs and special guests. Patrons may be served a themed tasting menu served by the head chef. Restaurants can charge a higher flat fee; because of the demand on the kitchen's facilities, chef's tables are only available during off-peak times. In China, food catering establishments that may be described as restaurants have been known since the 11th century in Kaifeng, China's capital during the first half of the Song dynasty. Growing out of the tea houses and taverns that catered to travellers, Kaifeng's restaurants blossomed into an industry catering to locals as well as people from ot
A take-out or takeout. A concept found in many ancient cultures, take-out food is now common worldwide, with a number of different cuisines and dishes on offer; the concept of prepared meals to be eaten elsewhere dates back to antiquity. Market and roadside stalls selling food were common in Ancient Rome. In Pompeii, archaeologists have found a number of thermopolia, service counters opening onto the street which provided food to be taken away. There is a distinct lack of formal dining and kitchen area in Pompeian homes, which may suggest that eating, or at least cooking, at home was unusual. Over 200 thermopolia have been found in the ruins of Pompeii. In the cities of medieval Europe a number of street vendors sold take-out food. In medieval London, street vendors sold hot meat pies, sheep's feet and French wine, while in Paris roasted meats, squab and flans, cheeses and eggs were available. A large strata of society would have purchased food from these vendors, but they were popular amongst the urban poor, who would have lacked kitchen facilities in which to prepare their own food.
However, these vendors had a bad reputation being in trouble with civic authorities reprimanding them for selling infected meat or reheated food. The cooks of Norwich defended themselves in court against selling such things as "pokky pies" and "stynkyng mackerelles". In 10th and 11th century China, citizens of cities such as Kaifeng and Hangzhou were able to buy pastries such as yuebing and congyoubing to take away. By the early 13th century, the two most successful such shops in Kaifeng had "upwards of fifty ovens". A traveling Florentine reported in the late 14th century that in Cairo, people carried picnic cloths made of raw hide to spread on the streets and eat their meals of lamb kebabs and fritters that they had purchased from street vendors. In Renaissance Turkey, many crossroads saw vendors selling "fragrant bites of hot meat", including chicken and lamb, spit roasted. Aztec marketplaces had vendors that sold beverages such as atolli 50 types of tamales, as well as insects and stews.
After Spanish colonization of Peru and importation of European food stocks including wheat and livestock, most commoners continued to eat their traditional diets, but did add grilled beef hearts sold by street vendors. Some of Lima's 19th century street vendors such as "Erasmo, the'negro' sango vendor" and Na Aguedita are still remembered today. During the American colonial period, street vendors sold "pepper pot soup" "oysters, roasted corn ears and sweets," with oysters being a low-priced commodity until the 1910s when overfishing caused prices to rise. In 1707, after previous restrictions that had limited their operating hours, street food vendors had been banned in New York City. Many women of African descent made their living selling street foods in America in the 18th and 19th centuries. In the 19th century, street food vendors in Transylvania sold gingerbread-nuts, cream mixed with corn, bacon and other meat fried on tops of ceramic vessels with hot coals inside; the Industrial Revolution saw an increase in the availability of take-out food.
By the early 20th Century and chips was considered an "established institution" in Britain. The hamburger was introduced to America around this time; the diets of industrial workers were poor, these meals provided an "important component" to their nutrition. In India, local businesses and cooperatives, had begun to supply workers in the city of Bombay with tiffin boxes by the end of the 19th century. Take-out food can be purchased from restaurants that provide sit-down table service or from establishments specialising in food to be taken away. Providing a take-out service saves operators the cost of cutlery and pay for servers and hosts. Although once popular in Europe and America, street food has declined in popularity. In part, this can be attributed to a combination of the proliferation of specialized takeaway restaurants and legislation relating to health and safety. Vendors selling street food are still common in parts of Asia and the Middle East, with the annual turnover of street food vendors in Bangladesh and Thailand being described as important to the local economy.
Many restaurants and take-out establishments have benefited from the invention of the car. Drive-through or drive-thru outlets allow customers to order, pay for, receive food without leaving their cars; the idea was pioneered in 1931 in a California fast food restaurant, Pig Stand Number 21. By 1988, 51% of McDonald's turnover was being generated by drive-throughs, with 31% of all US take-out turnover being generated by them by 1990; some take-out businesses offer food for delivery, which involves contacting a local business by telephone or online. In countries including Australia, India, Japan, much of the European Union and the United S
Haute cuisine or grande cuisine is the cuisine of "high-level" establishments, gourmet restaurants and luxury hotels. Haute cuisine is characterized by meticulous preparation and careful presentation of food, at a high price level. Haute cuisine developed out of social changes in France; the "high" cuisine represented a hierarchy in 17th century France as only the privileged could eat it. Haute cuisine distinguished itself from regular French cuisine by what was cooked and served such as foods like tongue and caviar, by serving foods such as fruit out of season, by making it difficult and time consuming to cook, by using exotic ingredients not found in France. In addition to, eating haute cuisine and what it consisted of, the term can be defined by, making it and how they were doing so. Professionally trained chefs were quintessential to the birth of haute cuisine in France; the extravagant presentations and complex techniques that these chefs were known for required ingredients, time and therefore money.
For this reason, early haute cuisine was accessible to a small demographic of rich and powerful individuals. Professional French chefs were not only responsible for building and shaping haute cuisine, but their roles in the cuisine were what differentiated it from regular French cuisine. Haute cuisine was characterized by French cuisine in elaborate preparations and presentations served in small and numerous courses that were produced by large and hierarchical staffs at the grand restaurants and hotels of Europe; the cuisine was rich and opulent with decadent sauces made out of butter and flour, the basis for many typical French sauces that are still used today. The 17th century chef and writer La Varenne marked a change from cookery known in the Middle Ages, to somewhat lighter dishes, more modest presentations. In the following century, Antonin Carême published works on cooking, although many of his preparations today seem extravagant, he simplified and codified an earlier and more complex cuisine.
Georges Auguste Escoffier is a central figure in the modernisation of haute cuisine as of about 1900, which became known as cuisine classique. These were simplifications and refinements of the early work of Carême, Jules Gouffé and Urbain Dubois, it was practised in the grand restaurants and hotels of Europe and elsewhere for much of the 20th century. The major developments were to replace service à la française with service à la russe and to develop a system of cookery, based on Escoffier's Le Guide Culinaire, which formalized the preparation of sauces and dishes. In its time, it was considered the pinnacle of haute cuisine, was a style distinct from cuisine bourgeoise, the working-class cuisine of bistros and homes, cuisines of the French provinces; the 1960s were marked by the appearance of nouvelle cuisine, as chefs rebelled from Escoffier's "orthodoxy" and complexity. Although the term nouvelle cuisine had been used in the past, the modern usage can be attributed to authors André Gayot, Henri Gault, Christian Millau, who used nouvelle cuisine to describe the cooking of Paul Bocuse, Alain Chapel and Pierre Troisgros, Michel Guérard, Roger Vergé and Raymond Oliver, many of whom were once students of Fernand Point.
In general, nouvelle cuisine puts an emphasis on natural flavours, so the freshest possible ingredients are used, preparation is simplified, heavy sauces are less common, as are strong marinades for meat, cooking times are reduced. Nouvelle cuisine was a movement towards conceptualism and minimalism and was a direct juxtaposition to earlier haute cuisine styles of cooking, which were much more extravagant. While menus were short, dishes used more inventive pairings and relied on inspiration from regional dishes. Within 20 years, chefs began returning to the earlier style of haute cuisine, although many of the new techniques remained. Cooking and Class, A Study in Comparative Sociology, Jack Goody, University of Cambridge, June 1982, ISBN 978-0-521-28696-1 Food and love: a cultural history of East and West By Jack Goody, Verso, ISBN 978-1-859-84829-6 Tasting food, tasting freedom: excursions into eating and the past by Sidney Wilfred Mintz Beacon Press - ISBN 0-8070-4629-9 Viandier attributed to Guillaume Tirel dit Taillevent, medieval manuscript Haute Cuisine: How the French Invented the Culinary Profession By Amy B.
Trubek, University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 978-0-8122-1776-6 Food culture in France By Julia Abramson, Greenwood Press, ISBN 978-0-313-32797-1 Patrick Rambourg, Histoire de la cuisine et de la gastronomie françaises, Paris, Ed. Perrin, 2010, 381 pages. ISBN 978-2-262-03318-7
Tolmezzo is a town and comune in the province of Udine, part of the autonomus Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of north-eastern Italy. Tolmezzo is located at the foot of the Strabut Mountain, between the Tagliamento River and the Bût stream. Nearby is the Mount Amariana, elevation 1,906 metres; the commune includes the five frazioni of Cadunea, Casanova, Illegio, Imponzo. The existence of Tolmezzo is first documented in the late 10th century, when it was part of the Patriarchate of Aquileia, but it has been suggested that the town stemmed from a ancient pre-Roman settlement. In Roman times, the area was crossed by one of the main Roman roads that connected Italy to what is now Austria; the city had a flourishing market, was defended by a line of walls with 18 towers and by the castle of the Patriarchs. In 1420, it was annexed to the Republic of Venice, but its trades and industries did not suffer from the change, the city maintained its privileges. In 1797, with the Treaty of Campo Formio, it was handed over to the Austrian Empire, after a short Napoleonic rule, it was included in the client Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia.
Tolmezzo became part of the new unified Kingdom of Italy in 1866. The Duomo Palazzo Campeis: Museum Giovanni Maria Cassini. "Lo Stato Veneto da terra diviso nelle sue provincie, seconda parte che comprede porzioni del Dogado del Trevisano del Friuli e dell' Istria". Rome: Calcografia camerale
An osteria in Italy was a place serving wine and simple food. The emphasis has shifted to the food, but menus tend to be short, with the emphasis on local specialities such as pasta and grilled meat or fish served at shared tables. Osterie tend to be cheap, they cater for after work and evening refreshment. Osterie vary in practice: some only serve drinks and clients are allowed to bring in their own food, some have retained a predominantly male clientele whilst others have reached out to students and young professionals; some provide other entertainment. Similar to osterie are bottiglierie, where customers can take a bottle or flask to be re-filled from a barrel, enoteche which pride themselves on the range and quality of their wine. In Emilia-Romagna are located three of the oldest Italian osterie: "Osteria del Sole" and "Osteria del Cappello" in Bologna, "Osteria al Brindisi" in Ferrara, established between the 14th and 15th century. Trattoria Riley, Gillian; the Oxford Companion to Italian Food.
Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198606178. OCLC 87771396