Cycle of abuse
The cycle of abuse is a social cycle theory developed in 1979 by Lenore E. Walker to explain patterns of behavior in an abusive relationship. Lenore E. Walker interviewed 1,500 women, subject to domestic violence and found that there was a similar pattern of abuse, called the "cycle of abuse". Walker proposed that the cycle of abuse described the controlling patriarchal behavior of men who felt entitled to abuse their wives to maintain control over them, her terms "the battering cycle" and "battered woman syndrome" has since been eclipsed by "cycle of abuse" and "battered person syndrome" for many reasons: to maintain objectivity. Dutton writes, "The prevalence of violence in homosexual relationships, which appear to go through abuse cycles is hard to explain in terms of men dominating women."The cycle of abuse concept is used in domestic violence programs in the United States. Critics have argued the theory is flawed as it does not apply as universally as Walker suggested, does not or describe all abusive relationships, may emphasize ideological presumptions rather than empirical data.
The cycle goes in the following order, will repeat until the conflict is stopped by the survivor abandoning the relationship or some form of intervention. The cycle can occur hundreds of times in an abusive relationship, the total cycle taking anywhere from a few hours, to a year or more to complete. However, the length of the cycle diminishes over time so that the "reconciliation" and "calm" stages may disappear, violence becomes more intense and the cycles become more frequent. Stress builds from the pressures of daily life, like conflict over children, marital issues, misunderstandings, or other family conflicts, it builds as the result of illness, legal or financial problems, unemployment, or catastrophic events, like floods, rape or war. During this period, the abuser feels ignored, annoyed or wronged; the feeling lasts on average several minutes to hours, it may last as much as several months. To prevent violence, the victim may try to reduce the tension by nurturing. Or, to get the abuse over with, prepare for the violence or lessen the degree of injury, the victim may provoke the batterer.
"However, at no time is the batterer justified in engaging in violent or abusive behavior," said Scott Allen Johnson, author of Physical Abusers and Sexual Offenders. Characterized by outbursts of violent, abusive incidents which may be preceded by verbal abuse and include psychological abuse. During this stage the abuser attempts to dominate their partner with the use of domestic violence. In intimate partner violence, children are negatively affected by having witnessed the violence and the partner's relationship degrades as well; the release of energy reduces the tension, the abuser may feel or express that the victim "had it coming" to them. The perpetrator may begin to feel remorse, guilty feelings, or fear that their partner will leave or call the police; the victim feels pain, humiliation, disrespect and may mistakenly feel responsible. Characterized by affection, apology, or, ignoring the incident, this phase marks an apparent end of violence, with assurances that it will never happen again, or that the abuser will do their best to change.
During this stage the abuser may claim to feel overwhelming remorse and sadness. Some abusers walk away from the situation with little comment, but most will shower the survivor with love and affection; the abuser may use self-harm or threats of suicide to gain sympathy and/or prevent the survivor from leaving the relationship. Abusers are so convincing, survivors so eager for the relationship to improve, that survivors stay in the relationship. During this phase, the relationship is calm and peaceable. During this period the abuser may agree to engage in counseling, ask for forgiveness, create a normal atmosphere. In intimate partner relationships, the perpetrator may buy presents or the couple may engage in passionate sex. Over time, the batterer's apologies and requests for forgiveness become less sincere and are stated to prevent separation or intervention. However, interpersonal difficulties will arise, leading again to the tension building phase; the effect of the continual cycle may include loss of love, distress, and/or physical disability.
Intimate partners may separate, divorce or, at the extreme, someone may be killed. Walker's cycle of abuse theory was regarded as a revolutionary and important concept in the study of abuse and interpersonal violence, a useful model, but may be simplistic. For instance, Scott Allen Johnson developed a 14-stage cycle that broke down the tension-building, acting-out and calm stages further. For instance, there are six stages in the "escalation" or tension building stage, which includes triggers, the victim feeling victimized and depressed, isolation and revenge planning; these lead up to the assault by acting out the revenge plan, self-destructive behavior, victim grooming and the actual physical and/or sexual assault. This is followed by a sense of relief, fear of consequences and rationalization of abuse. Donald Dutton and Susan Golant agree that Walker's cycle of abuse describes all cyclically abusive relationships they studied. Nonetheless, they note tha
Stockholm syndrome is a condition which causes hostages to develop a psychological alliance with their captors as a survival strategy during captivity. These alliances result from a bond formed between captor and captives during intimate time together, but they are considered irrational in light of the danger or risk endured by the victims; the FBI's Hostage Barricade Database System and Law Enforcement Bulletin indicate that 8% of victims show evidence of Stockholm syndrome. This term was first used by the media in 1973 when four hostages were taken during a bank robbery in Stockholm, Sweden; the hostages defended their captors after being released and would not agree to testify in court against them. Stockholm syndrome is paradoxical because the sympathetic sentiments that captives feel towards their captors are the opposite of the fear and disdain which an onlooker might feel towards the captors. There are four key components that characterize Stockholm syndrome: A hostage's development of positive feelings towards the captor No previous relationship between hostage and captor A refusal by hostages to cooperate with police forces and other government authorities A hostage's belief in the humanity of the captor because they cease to perceive the captor as a threat when the victim holds the same values as the aggressorStockholm syndrome is a "contested illness" due to doubt about the legitimacy of the condition.
It has come to describe the reactions of some abuse victims beyond the context of kidnappings or hostage-taking. Actions and attitudes similar to those suffering from Stockholm syndrome have been found in victims of sexual abuse, human trafficking and political and religious oppression. In 1973, Jan-Erik Olsson, a convict on parole, took four employees of the bank hostage during a failed bank robbery in Kreditbanken, one of the largest banks in Stockholm, Sweden, he negotiated the release from prison of his friend Clark Olofsson to assist him. They held the hostages captive for six days in one of the bank’s vaults; when they were released, none of them would testify against either captor in court. Nils Bejerot, a Swedish criminologist and psychiatrist coined the term after Stockholm police asked him for assistance with analyzing the victims' reactions to the 1973 bank robbery and their status as hostages; as the idea of brainwashing was not a new concept, speaking on "a news cast after the captives' release" instinctively reduced the hostages' reactions to a result of being brainwashed by their captors.
He called it Norrmalmstorgssyndromet, meaning "The Norrmalmstorg Syndrome". It was defined by psychiatrist Frank Ochberg to aid the management of hostage situations. Olsson said in an interview:It was the hostages' fault, they did everything. If they hadn't, I might not be here now. Why didn't any of them attack me? They made it hard to kill, they made us go on living together day after day, in that filth. There get to know each other. Mary McElroy was abducted from her home in 1933 at age 25 by four men who held a gun to her, demanded her compliance, took her to an abandoned farmhouse, chained her to a wall, she defended her kidnappers. She continued to visit her captors while they were in jail, she committed suicide and left the following note: “My four kidnappers are the only people on Earth who don't consider me an utter fool. You have your death penalty now – so, give them a chance." Natascha Kampusch was kidnapped in 1998 at age 10 and kept in an insulated, dark room under the garage of Wolfgang Priklopil.
She would receive a variation of kind and sexually abusive and permissive treatment from her captor. Eight years after her kidnapping, Kampusch left and Priklopil committed suicide. After her kidnapper's death, Kampusch kept a picture of him in her wallet. Kampusch now owns the house in which she was imprisoned, saying, "I know it's grotesque – I must now pay for electricity and taxes on a house I never wanted to live in", it was reported that she claimed the house from Přiklopil's estate because she wanted to protect it from vandals and being torn down. When the third anniversary of her escape approached, it was revealed she had become a regular visitor at the property and was cleaning it out to move in herself. In January 2010, Kampusch said she had retained the house because it was such a big part of her formative years stating that she would fill in the cellar if it is sold, adamant that it will never become a macabre museum to her lost adolescence; the cellar was indeed filled in. Patty Hearst, the granddaughter of publisher William Randolph Hearst, was taken and held hostage by the Symbionese Liberation Army, "an urban guerilla group", in 1974.
She was recorded denouncing her family as well as the police under her new name, "Tania", was seen working with the SLA to rob banks in San Francisco. She publicly asserted her sympathetic feelings towards their pursuits as well. After her 1975 arrest, pleading Stockholm syndrome did not work as a proper defense in court, much to the chagrin of her defense lawyer, F. Lee Bailey, her seven-year prison sentence was commuted, she was presidentially pardoned by Bill Clinton, informed that she was not acting under her own free will. In 1977, Colleen Stan was hitchhiking to visit a friend in southern California when she was kidnapped by Cameron Hooker and hi
Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, and/or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children by a parent or a caregiver. Child abuse may include any act or failure to act by a parent or a caregiver that results in actual or potential harm to a child, can occur in a child's home, or in the organizations, schools or communities the child interacts with; the terms child abuse and child maltreatment are used interchangeably, although some researchers make a distinction between them, treating child maltreatment as an umbrella term to cover neglect and trafficking. Different jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what constitutes child abuse for the purposes of removing children from their families or prosecuting a criminal charge. Definitions of what constitute child abuse vary among professionals, between social and cultural groups, as well as across time; the terms abuse and maltreatment are used interchangeably in the literature. Child maltreatment can be an umbrella term covering all forms of child abuse and child neglect.
Defining child maltreatment depends on prevailing cultural values as they relate to children, child development, parenting. Definitions of child maltreatment can vary across the sectors of society which deal with the issue, such as child protection agencies and medical communities, public health officials, researchers and child advocates. Since members of these various fields tend to use their own definitions, communication across disciplines can be limited, hampering efforts to identify, track and prevent child maltreatment. In general, abuse refers to acts of commission. Child maltreatment includes both acts of commission and acts of omission on the part of parents or caregivers that cause actual or threatened harm to a child; some health professionals and authors consider neglect as part of the definition of abuse, while others do not. Delayed effects of child abuse and neglect emotional neglect, the diversity of acts that qualify as child abuse, are factors; the World Health Organization defines child abuse and child maltreatment as "all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or negligent treatment or commercial or other exploitation, resulting in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power."
In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention uses the term child maltreatment to refer to both acts of commission, which include "words or overt actions that cause harm, potential harm, or threat of harm to a child", acts of omission, meaning "the failure to provide for a child's basic physical, emotional, or educational needs or to protect a child from harm or potential harm". The United States federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act defines child abuse and neglect as, at minimum, "any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation" or "an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm"; the World Health Organization distinguishes four types of child maltreatment: physical abuse. Among professionals and the general public, people do not agree on what behaviors constitute physical abuse of a child. Physical abuse does not occur in isolation, but as part of a constellation of behaviors including authoritarian control, anxiety-provoking behavior, a lack of parental warmth.
The WHO defines physical abuse as: Intentional use of physical force against the child that results in – or has a high likelihood of resulting in – harm for the child's health, development or dignity. This includes hitting, kicking, biting, scalding, burning and suffocating. Much physical violence against children in the home is inflicted with the object of punishing. Joan Durrant and Ron Ensom write that most physical abuse is physical punishment "in intent and effect". Overlapping definitions of physical abuse and physical punishment of children highlight a subtle or non-existent distinction between abuse and punishment. For instance, Paulo Sergio Pinheiro writes in the UN Secretary-General's Study on Violence Against Children: Corporal punishment involves hitting children, with the hand or with an implement – whip, belt, wooden spoon, etc, but it can involve, for example, shaking or throwing children, pinching, pulling hair or boxing ears, forcing children to stay in uncomfortable positions, scalding or forced ingestion.
Most nations with child abuse laws deem the deliberate infliction of serious injuries, or actions that place the child at obvious risk of serious injury or death, to be illegal. Bruises, burns, broken bones, lacerations — as well as repeated "mishaps," and rough treatment that could cause physical injuries — can be physical abuse. Multiple injuries or fractures at different stages of healing can raise suspicion of abuse; the psychologist Alice Miller, noted for her books on child abuse, took the view that humiliations and beatings, slaps in the face, etc. are all forms of abuse, because they injure the
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence applied that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus. This strengthening effect may be measured as a higher frequency of behavior, longer duration, greater magnitude, or shorter latency. There are two types of reinforcement, known as negative reinforcement. Rewarding stimuli, which are associated with "wanting" and "liking" and appetitive behavior, function as positive reinforcers. Reinforcement does not require an individual to consciously perceive an effect elicited by the stimulus. Thus, reinforcement occurs. However, there is negative reinforcement, characterized by taking away an undesirable stimulus. Changing someone's job might serve as a negative reinforcer to someone whom suffers from back problems, i.e. Changing from a labourers job to an office position for instance. In most cases, the term "reinforcement" refers to an enhancement of behavior, but this term is sometimes used to denote an enhancement of memory.
The memory-enhancing stimulus can be one whose effects are directly rather than only indirectly emotional, as with the phenomenon of "flashbulb memory," in which an highly intense stimulus can incentivize memory of a set of a situation's circumstances well beyond the subset of those circumstances that caused the significant stimulus, as when people of appropriate age are able to remember where they were and what they were doing when they learned of the assassination of John F. Kennedy or of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Reinforcement is an important part of instrumental conditioning. Main section: Reinforcement#Operant conditioningIn the behavioral sciences, the terms "positive" and "negative" refer when used in their strict technical sense to the nature of the action performed by the conditioner rather than to the responding operant's evaluation of that action and its consequence. "Positive" actions are those that add a factor, be it pleasant or unpleasant, to the environment, whereas "negative" actions are those that remove or withhold from the environment a factor of either type.
In turn, the strict sense of "reinforcement" refers only to reward-based conditioning. Thus, "positive reinforcement" refers to the addition of a pleasant factor, "positive punishment" refers to the addition of an unpleasant factor, "negative reinforcement" refers to the removal or withholding of an pleasant factor, "negative punishment" refers to the removal or withholding of an unpleasant factor; this usage is at odds with some non-technical usages of the four term combinations in the case of the term "negative reinforcement,", used to denote what technical parlance would describe as "positive punishment" in that the non-technical usage interprets "reinforcement" as subsuming both reward and punishment and "negative" as referring to the responding operant's evaluation of the factor being introduced. By contrast, technical parlance would use the term "negative reinforcement" to describe encouragement of a given behavior by creating a scenario in which an unpleasant factor is or will be present but engaging in the behavior results in either escaping from that factor or preventing its occurrence, as in Martin Seligman's experiments involving dogs' learning processes regarding the avoidance of electric shock.
B. F. Skinner was a well-known and influential researcher who articulated many of the theoretical constructs of reinforcement and behaviorism. Skinner defined reinforcers according to the change in response strength rather than to more subjective criteria, such as what is pleasurable or valuable to someone. Accordingly, foods or items considered pleasant or enjoyable may not be reinforcing. Stimuli and activities only fit the definition of reinforcers if the behavior that precedes the potential reinforcer increases in similar situations in the future. If the frequency of "cookie-requesting behavior" increases, the cookie can be seen as reinforcing "cookie-requesting behavior". If however, "cookie-requesting behavior" does not increase the cookie cannot be considered reinforcing; the sole criterion that determines if a stimulus is reinforcing is the change in probability of a behavior after administration of that potential reinforcer. Other theories may focus on additional factors such as whether the person expected a behavior to produce a given outcome, but in the behavioral theory, reinforcement is defined by an increased probability of a response.
The study of reinforcement has produced an e
Child neglect is a form of child abuse, is a deficit in meeting a child's basic needs, including the failure to provide adequate health care, clothing, housing as well as their physical, social and safety needs. Society believes there are necessary behaviors a caregiver must provide in order for a child to develop physically and emotionally. Causes of neglect may result from several parenting problems including mental disorders, substance abuse, domestic violence, unplanned pregnancy, poverty. Child neglect depends on how a society perceives the parents' behavior. Parental failure to provide for a child, when options are available, is different from failure to provide when options are not available. Poverty and lack of resources are contributing factors and can prevent parents from meeting their children's needs, when they otherwise would; the circumstances and intentionality must be examined before defining behavior as neglectful. Child neglect is the most frequent form of child abuse, with children born to young mothers at a substantial risk for neglect.
In 2008, the U. S. state and local Child Protective Services received 3.3 million reports of children being abused or neglected. Seventy-one percent of the children were classified as victims of child neglect. Maltreated children were about five times more to have a first emergency department presentation for suicide related behavior, compared to their peers, in both boys and girls. Children permanently removed from their parental home because of substantiated child abuse, are at an increased risk of a first presentation to the emergency department for suicide related behavior. Neglected children are at risk of developing lifelong social and health problems if neglected before the age of two years. Neglect is difficult to define, since there are no clear, cross-cultural standards for desirable or minimally adequate child-rearing practices. Research shows that neglect coexists with other forms of abuse and adversity. While neglect refers to the absence of parental care and the chronic failure to meet children's basic needs, defining those needs has not been straightforward.
In "Working Together", the Department for Education and Skills defined neglect in 2006 as:...the persistent failure to meet a child's basic physical and/or psychological needs to result in the serious impairment of the child's health or development. Neglect may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance abuse. Once a child is born, neglect may involve a parent or carer failing to provide adequate food and shelter, it may include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child's basic emotional needs. Child neglect is defined as a failure by a child's caregiver to meet a child's physical, educational, or medical needs. Forms of child neglect include: Allowing the child to witness violence or severe abuse between parents or adult, insulting, or threatening the child with violence, not providing the child with a safe environment and adult emotional support, showing reckless disregard for the child's well-being. Other definitions of child neglect are: "a form of child abuse caused by the denial of basic requirements like correct nutrition and love", per wiktionary.
"the failure of a person responsible for a child's care and upbringing to safeguard the child's emotional and physical health and general well-being" per Webster's New World Law Dictionary "Acts of omission: failure to provide for a child's basic physical, emotional, or educational needs or to protect a child from harm or potential harm. Harm to a child may not be the intended consequence. Failure to provide physical neglect, emotional neglect, medical/dental neglect, educational neglect; the failure to supervise inadequate supervision, exposure to violent environments." Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention "the persistent failure to meet a child's basic physical and/or psychological needs resulting in serious impairment of health and/or development". Summary: The definition of child neglect is broad. There are no specific guidelines. In general, child neglect is considered the failure of parents or caregivers to meet the needs that are necessary for the mental and emotional development of a child.
Child neglect is one of the most common forms of child maltreatment, it continues to be a serious problem for many children. Child neglect tremendously affects the physical development, mental development, emotional development of a child causing long term consequences, such as poor academic achievement and personality disorders; these consequences impact society, since it is more that children who suffered from child neglect will have drug abuse problems and educational failure when they grow up. There are various types of child neglect. Physical neglect refers to the failure to provide a child with basic necessities of life such as food and clothing. Medical neglect is a failure of caregivers to meet a child’s basic health care needs. Example: not brushing teeth on a daily basis, bathing a child and or taking children to doctor visits when
Harassment covers a wide range of behaviors of an offensive nature. It is understood as behavior that demeans, humiliates or embarrasses a person, it is characteristically identified by its unlikelihood in terms of social and moral reasonableness. In the legal sense, these are behaviors that appear to be upsetting or threatening, they evolve from discriminatory grounds, have an effect of nullifying or impairing a person from benefiting their rights. When these behaviors become repetitive they are defined as bullying. Sexual harassment refers to persistent and unwanted sexual advances after refusing in the workplace, where the consequences are very disadvantageous to the victim if there is a power imbalance between the perpetrator; the word is based in English since circa 1618 as a loan word from the French, in turn attested in 1572 meaning torment, bother, trouble and as of 1609 was referred to the condition of being exhausted, overtired. Of the French verb harasser itself there are the first records in a Latin to French translation of 1527 of Thucydides’ History of the war, between the Peloponnesians and the Athenians both in the countries of the Greeks and the Romans and the neighbouring places wherein the translator writes harasser meaning harceler.
A hypothesis about the origin of the verb harasser is harace/harache, used in the 14th century in expressions like courre à la harache and prendre aucun par la harache. The Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, a German etymological dictionary of the French language compares phonetically and syntactically both harace and harache to the interjection hare and haro by alleging a pejorative and augmentative form; the latter was an exclamation indicating distress and emergency but is reported in 1529 in the expression crier haro sur. hare's use is reported in 1204 as an order to finish public activities as fairs or markets and still as command but referred to dogs. This dictionary suggests a relation of haro/hare with the old lower franconian *hara. While the pejorative of an exclamation and in particular of such an exclamation is theoretically possible for the first word and maybe phonetically plausible for harache, a semantic and phonetic similarity of the verb harasser as used in the first popular attestation with the word haras should be kept in mind: Already in 1160 haras indicated a group of horses constrained together for the purpose of reproduction and in 1280 it indicated the enclosure facility itself, where those horses are constrained.
The origin itself of harass is thought to be the old Scandinavian hârr with the Romanic suffix –as, which meant grey or dimmish horsehair. Controversial is the etymological relation to the Arabic word for horse whose roman transliteration is faras. Although the French origin of the word'harassment' is beyond all question in the Oxford English Dictionary and those dictionaries basing on it, a supposed Old French verb harer should be the origin of the French verb harasser, despite the fact that this verb cannot be found in French etymologic dictionaries like that of the Centre national de resources textuelles et lexicales or the Trésor de la langue française informatisé. In those dictionaries the relationship with harassment were an interpretation of the interjection hare as to urge a dog to attack', despite the fact that it should indicate a shout to come and not to go; the American Heritage Dictionary prudently indicates this origin only as possible. Electronic harassment is the unproven belief of the use of electromagnetic waves to harass a victim.
Psychologists have identified evidence of auditory hallucinations, delusional disorders, or other mental disorders in online communities supporting those who claim to be targeted. Landlord harassment is the willing creation, by a landlord or his agents, of conditions that are uncomfortable for one or more tenants in order to induce willing abandonment of a rental contract; such a strategy is sought because it avoids costly legal expenses and potential problems with eviction. This kind of activity is common in regions where rent control laws exist, but which do not allow the direct extension of rent-controlled prices from one tenancy to the subsequent tenancy, thus allowing landlords to set higher prices. Landlord harassment carries specific legal penalties in some jurisdictions, but enforcement can be difficult or impossible in many circumstances. However, when a crime is committed in the process and motives similar to those described above are subsequently proven in court those motives may be considered an aggravating factor in many jurisdictions, thus subjecting the offender to a stiffer sentence.
Harassment directs multiple repeating obscenities and derogatory comments at specific individuals focusing, for example, on the targets' race, gender, disability, or sexual orientation. This occurs in chat rooms, through newsgroups, and