Pattom A. Thanu Pillai
Pattom Thanu Pillai was a participant in the Indian independence movement who served as the Chief Minister of Kerala from 22 February 1960 to 25 September 1962. He was known as the'Bhishmacharya' of Kerala politics. Born in Thiruvananthapuram, A. Thanu Pillai was the son of Eswari Amma. Thanu Pillai earned a degree in law, he had practised as a lawyer as well. But soon he got attracted towards Indian Freedom Struggle movement and abandoned his career in favour of involvement in the struggle and joined the Indian National Congress, he became the leader of Indian National Congress in the erstwhile princely state of Travancore. Pattom Thanu Pillai remained as one of the leaders of Indian National Congress during the period when Kingdom of Tranvancore became an Independent state and mergered with Cochin to form Travancore-Cochin. On 3 June 1947, United Kingdom accepted demands for a partition and announced its intention to quit India within a short period; the Maharaja of Travancore desired to declare himself independent.
Supported by the Diwan, C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, Chithira Thirunal issued a declaration of independence on 18 June 1947; as Travancore's declaration of independence was unacceptable to India, negotiations were started with the Diwan by the Government of India. Family sources indicate that C. P. himself, was not in favour of independence but only greater autonomy and that a favourable agreement had been reached between C. P. and the Indian representatives by 23 July 1947 and accession to the Indian Union could not be carried out only because it was pending approval by the Raja. An assassination attempt was made on C. P. on 25 July 1947 during a concert commemorating the anniversary of Swati Thirunal. C. P. survived with multiple stab wounds and hastened the accession of Travancore state to the Indian Union soon after his recovery. After the accession of Travancore state to the Indian Union, P. G. N. Unnithan took over as the last Diwan of independent Travancore on August 20, 1947 following C. P. Ramaswami Iyer resigning as Diwan.
P. G. N. Unnithan chaired the Travancore Constitutional Reforms Committee, he relinquished office on March 24, 1948 when a people's government led by Sri Pattom Thanu Pillai as Prime Minister took over. Pattom Thanu Pilla was the first Prime Minister of Independent Travancore state, he resigned as Prime Minister of Tranvacore on 17 October 1948. He was last Prime Minister of Travancore. After India's independence in 1947, Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin on 1 July 1949, it was called United State of Travancore and Cochin with Trivandrum as the capital. It was recognised as a state. During merger of Travancore and Cochin E. Ikkanda Warrier was the Prime Minister of the state of Cochin. Warrier resigned as the last Prime Minister of the state of Cochin on 30 June 1949 helping the merger of the two states. Parur T. K. Narayana Pillai was unanimously elected the leader of the Congress Legislature Party and he assumed charge as the first Chief Minister of Travancore-Cochin from 1 July 1949.
First Ministry of the state of Travancore-Cochin headed by Parur T. K. Narayana Pillai resigned on 24 February 1951 following a corruption charge on the ministry, he was succeed by C. Kesavan as the second Chief Minister of Travancore-Cochin; the first assembly of the state of Travancore-Cochin was dissolved on 12 March 1952 following the resignation of C Kesavan. Following the elections to the Legislative Assembly of the held on March 27, 1952 A. J. John became the third Chief Minister of Travancore-Cochin; the second assembly of Travancore-Cochin lasted till 16 March 1954. By that time Pattom Thanu Pillai joined Praja Socialist Party. In the election for the third Legislative Assembly of Travancore-Cochin held in 1954, Praja Socialist Party won 19 seats out of the contested 38 seats. Praja Socialist Party formed a coalition government along with the Indian National Congress who had won 45 seats. Pattom Thanu Pillai became the fourth Chief Minister of Travancore-Cochin with the support of Indian National Congress on 16 March 1954.
He resigned on 10 February 1955 succeed by Panampilly Govinda Menon as the last Chief Minister of Travancore-Cochin. He remained in office till 23 March 1956. After that the state remained under President's rule till 5 April 1957. During this time state of Kerala was formed. Under State Reorganisation Act of 1956, the four southern taluks of Travancore, namely Thovalai, Agasteeswaram and Vilavancode and a part of the Chencotta Taluk was merged with Madras State. On 1 November 1956 Travancore-Cochin was joined with Malabar District of Madras State, the taluk of Kasaragod and South Kanara to form the new state of Kerala. After the first elections to the Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1957, the Communist Party of India emerged as the single largest party. E M S Namboodiripad formed the first elected government with the support of 5 independent legislators; the government was not able to complete its full 5 years term. The Communist-led government collapsed as a consequence of the movement known as the Vimochana Samaram.
The Communist government was dismissed on 31 July 1959 and President's rule was imposed in the state, under Article 356 of the constitution. Fresh Elections were held in 1960 and Pattom A. Thanu Pillai became the second Chief Minister of Kerala, as head of a PSP-Congress coalition administration, he assumed office on 22 February 1960. However, he resigned as chief minister of Kerala on 26 September 1962
Marthandam is a major trade centre in Kuzhithurai municipality across National Highway in the Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu, India. Earlier days it was known by the name Thoduvetty, it was a portion of Kanyakumari district, added to the state of Tamil Nadu on 1 November 1956, it is the second largest town next to Nagercoil in the district. Marthandam derived its name from the ruler of Travancore, Sri Padmanabhadasa Vanchipala Anizham Tirunal Bala Marthanda Varma. Martandam is famous for honey, cashew nut processing and hand-embroidered motifs; the area is full of greenery, there is a river adjoining. It is a major trade centre due to its location bordering Kerala, it has the climatic conditions of Kerala. Southern Division, or Padmanabhapuram Division till 1921 and Trivandrum Division from 1921 to 1949, was one of the administrative divisions of the princely state of Travancore, it covered the five taluks of Agastiswaram, Kalkulam and Vilavancode and was administered by a civil servant of rank Diwan Peishkar equivalent to a District Collector in British India.
The Southern division was predominantly Tamil-speaking in contrast to the other three divisions where Malayalam was spoken. In 1920, the neighbouring Trivandrum was merged with the Southern division. In 1949, the princely state of Travancore was dissolved and the Southern Division was included in the Travancore-Cochin state of India. In 1956, the Tamil-speaking taluks of Southern Division were transferred to the neighbouring Madras State as per the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 and forms the present-day Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu; the Malayalam-speaking taluks of the erstwhile Trivandrum division form the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala. The headquarters of the Southern Division were at Padmanabhapuram. Good Shepherd Matriculation Higher Secondary School. Abraham James Memorial Matriculation School. Abraham Memorial Higher Secondary School, Maruthancode. Aided Higher Secondary School, Arumana. Child Jesus matriculation school, Unnamalakada. Christ International School, Malamary.
Christuraja matriculation higher secondary school. Government Boys Higher Secondary School, Marthandam. Government Girls Higher Secondary School, Marthandam. Hindu vidhyalaya matriculation school. Infant Jesus Matriculation Higher Secondary School. L. M. S Boys higher secondary school L. M. S Girls higher secondary school. M. J. K. M. Malankara Syrian catholic higher secondary school. NVKS Higher Secondary school,Attoor. Pius XI Higher Secondary School, Thoothoor. Sacred heart international school. Seventh day higher secondary school. Sinclair Primary School Sree Krishna Vidhyalaya Matriculation School, Maruthancode. St. Joseph's Thiruthuvapuram. St. Aloysius Higher Secondary School, Kollencode. St. Anns Matriculation School, Kollencode. Vidya joythi matriculation higher secondary school. White memorial higher secondary school. Yettacode Higher Secondary School, Attoor. Nesamony Memorial Christian College. Immanual Arasar JJ College Of Engineering. Mar Ephraem College Of Technology. Immanuel Arasar College Of Education.
Marthandam College of Engineering and Technology. Maria College Of Technology. JSS college of pharmacy. Malankara Catholic College, Mariagiri. CSI Institute of Technology. BWDA Polytechnic College St. Jude's College, Thoothoor Annai Velankanni College, Tholayavattam. Government Hospital, Behind Marthandanthura Church, Kollencode-629160 Gurupatham Spine Care Centre Chellamkonam,Kappiyarai-629156 Grace Hospital, Near St. Antony's Church, Kollencode-629160 Rita Nursing Home, Near Bus Stand, Kollencode-629160 Lister Hospital. Williams Child Care Hospital. PPK Hospital. Dr. Isaac Bone & Joint Speciality Hospital. Dr. Suresh Eye Hospital. Arun Heart Care Centre. Jayaraj Hospital. Shalom Orthopaedic Hospital. Paul Chris ENT Clinic. Ultra physiotheraphy Clinic. JJI Health Centre. Vincy Ashramam Ayurveda Hospital J. D. Hospital. CSI Mission Hospital. Sugam Hospital. Sri Dhanvanthy Vaithiyasala. Shanthi Skin Clinic. Manju Nursing Home. Vinod Hospital. Jyothi Hospitals. Lissy Homeopathic Clinic. Government Hospital. Industrial Opportunities in Marthandam There are rubber, fruit based and wood-based industries.
The influence of both Tamil and Kerala artisans produces unique designs and furniture works. Wood industries and indirectly, employ a few thousand people, it has the climatic conditions of Kerala. It has a railway line connecting the capital of Kerala, with the southernmost tip of India, Kanyakumari. Marthandam is well connected to Chennai, Bangalore by rail service bus service to all over Tamil Nadu; the river Thamirabarani runs through the Marthandam city and every year a festival known as Vavubali will be celebrated at the banks of river Thamirabarani. Marthandam lies on the National Highway connecting the city of Nagercoil. A bus stand is located in Marthandam near the Market Road; the nearest airport is Trivandrum International Airport, 40 kilometres from Marthandam. It has a railway line connecting the capital of Kerala, with the southernmost tip of India, Kanyakumari. Kuzhithura station is found to be centered between Trivandrum — Kanyakumari railway route; this railway station collection is more than seven crore per annum and a daily passenger patronage of more than 50,000 people.
The station has two platforms and falls on the Kanyakumari—Trivandrum line in the Trivandrum Division of the Southern Railway zone. Most of all daily trains passing through the station h
Rajpramukh was an administrative title in India which existed from India's independence in 1947 until 1956. Rajpramukhs were the appointed governors of certain of India's states; the British Indian Empire, which included most of present-day India and Bangladesh, was made up of two types of political units. British India consisted of fifteen provinces, all British possessions, ruled directly by the British in all respects, either through a governor or a chief commissioner, officials appointed by the viceroy. Existing alongside British India were a large number of princely states, ruled by local hereditary rulers, who acknowledged British suzerainty, including British control of their external affairs, but who retained local autonomy. At the time of the proclamation of Queen Victoria as Empress of India in 1858, more than 700 Indian princely states and territories enjoyed treaty relations with the British Crown; the exact relationship between the Government of India and these states varied enormously, ranging from treaties of alliance, protection, or supervision to outright control.
The British Crown assumed control of British India from the East India Company in 1857 and thereafter controlled the internal governance through a Secretary of State for India in London and a Viceroy in India. The hundreds of princely states varied in size, from Hyderabad, with a population of over ten million, to tiny states. Most of the rulers of the princely states worked with a British political Agent, responsible to the governor of a British province, but the four largest princely states, Baroda and Jammu and Kashmir, had Residents directly under the authority of the viceroy. Two agencies, the Central India Agency and Rajputana Agency, were made up of numerous princely states, their political Agents were appointed by the Viceroy. On 20 February 1947, the British government announced its intention to transfer power in British India to Indian hands by June 1948. However, the Cabinet Mission Plan on 16 May 1947 failed to evolve a constitution for India acceptable to all contending parties.
Subsequently, the British government announced on 3 June 1947 its intention to partition British India into two dominions. On 15 July 1947, the House of Commons passed the India Independence Bill 1947, to divide British India into the dominions of India and Pakistan; the House of Lords followed suit the next day. The Bill received the Royal assent on 18 July 1947. From this day the suzerainty of the British Crown over the Indian princely states lapsed as per 7 of the India Independence Act 1947, with it all treaties between the British Crown and the Indian states had a legal quietus; the Rulers of the Indian States became sovereign rulers from 18 July 1947, in principle they were free to accede to either of the two dominions or to remain independent. As per the provisions of the Act, on 15 August 1947 two independent dominions of India and Pakistan were established; the leaders in the Indian Independence movement put strong pressure on the Indian rulers to accede their states to the Dominion of India.
By 15 August 1947 all of the Rulers had signed an Instrument of Accession with the Governor-General of India, giving power to the dominion government to make laws on the three subjects of foreign policy and defence, otherwise they remained sovereign rulers. These Rulers signed another agreement known as the "Stand Still Agreement", to provide continuity to any existing agreements between British India and their States. Three Indian states namely Hyderabad and Kashmir, Junagadh, failed to accede to either of the dominions. Jammu together with parts of Kashmir was incorporated into India after the Maharaja Hari Singh was forced to seek Indian military intervention against the marauding Pakistani sponsored tribal lords. In time, the two remaining states of Hyderabad and Junagadh were annexed by India. In 1948 the Maharaja of Gwalior signed a covenant with the rulers of the adjoining princely states to form a new state known as Madhya Bharat; this new covenanting state was to be governed by a council of the rulers with a head known as Rajpramukh.
This new state signed a fresh Instrument of Accession with the Indian dominion. Subsequently, many other Indian states merged with their neighbouring Indian states on the same lines to form the covenanting states known as Vindhya Pradesh and East Punjab States Union, etc. In the intervening period the Dominion Government of India had set up a Constitution Assembly to formulate a new Constitution for India; each of the Independent Indian rulers and Rajpramukhs of Covenanting states had set up Constituent Assemblies for their respective states and sent their representatives to the Constituent Assembly of India so as to make uniform laws for their respective states. The thinking among the India leaders at that time was that each princely state or covenanting state would remain independent as a Federal state along the lines suggested by the 1935 Act, but as the drafting of the constitution progressed and the idea of forming a republic took concrete shape, it was decided that all the princely states/covenanting states would merge with the Indian republic, all the Maharajas would be provided with a Privy Purse and Privileges as enjoyed by them on 15 August 1947 by constitutional guarantees.
Hence Art. 294, Art 362, Art 366, Art 363 were incorporated. Besides it was decided that the Maharaja of Mysore, the Maharaja of Jammu & Kashmir, the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Rajpramukhs of the Covenanting states would continue to be the constitutional heads of their respective states. By 26 October 1949 the constituent assembly had finalise
Kerala, locally known as Keralam, is a state on the southwestern, Malabar Coast of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, following passage of the States Reorganisation Act, by combining Malayalam-speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2, Kerala is the twenty-second largest Indian state by area, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, the Lakshadweep Sea and Arabian Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population, it is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era; the region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE.
In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, paved the way for European colonisation of India. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin, they united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which became a part of the Madras State post-independence. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State, the state of Thiru-Kochi, the taluk of Kasaragod in South Canara, a part of Madras State; the economy of Kerala is the 12th-largest state economy in India with ₹7.73 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹163,000. Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%. The state has witnessed significant emigration to Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, its economy depends on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community.
Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian and European cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad; the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, tea, coffee and spices are important; the state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres, around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions; the name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. One popular theory derives Kerala from alam; the word Kerala is first recorded as Keralaputra in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, one of his edicts pertaining to welfare.
The inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from "coconut tree". At that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil: Chera and Kera are variants of the same word; the word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for "lake". The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. Kerala is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics; the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal, referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil chera alam; the Greco-Roman trade map. According to Tamil classic Purananuru, Chera king Senkuttuvan conquered the lands between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it. According to the 17th century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu.
Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, the water receded as far as it reached. According to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari; the land which rose from sea was filled with unsuitable for habitation. Out of respect and all snakes were appo
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry by the Malayali people, it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India. Malayalam has official language status in the state of Kerala and in the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry and is spoken by 38 million people worldwide. Malayalam is spoken by linguistic minorities in the neighbouring states. Due to Malayali expatriates in the Persian Gulf, the language is widely spoken in Gulf countries; the origin of Malayalam remains a matter of dispute among scholars. One view holds that Malayalam and modern Tamil are offshoots of Middle Tamil and separated from it sometime after the c. 7th century. A second view argues for the development of the two languages out of "Proto-Dravidian" or "Proto-Tamil-Malayalam" in the prehistoric era. Designated a "Classical Language in India" in 2013, it developed into the current form by the influence of the poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century.
The oldest documents written purely in Malayalam and still surviving are the Vazhappalli Copper plates from 832 and Tharisapalli Copper plates from 849. The earliest script used to write Malayalam was the Vatteluttu alphabet, the Kolezhuttu, which derived from it; the current Malayalam script is based on the Vatteluttu script, extended with Grantha script letters to adopt Indo-Aryan loanwords. The oldest literary work in Malayalam, distinct from the Tamil tradition, is dated from between the 9th and 11th centuries; the first travelogue in any Indian language is the Malayalam Varthamanappusthakam, written by Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar in 1785. The word Malayalam originated from the words mala, meaning "mountain", alam, meaning "region" or "-ship"; the term referred to the land of the Chera dynasty Tamil dynasty, only became the name of its language. The language Malayalam is alternatively called Alealum, Malayali, Malean and Mallealle; the earliest extant literary works in the regional language of present-day Kerala date back to as early as the 12th century.
However, the named identity of this language appears to have come into existence only around the 16th century, when it was known as "Malayayma" or "Malayanma". The word "Malayalam" was coined in the period, the local people referred to their language as both "Tamil" and "Malayalam" until the colonial period; the held view is that Malayalam was the western coastal dialect of Tamil and separated from Tamil sometime between the 9th and 13th centuries. Some scholars however believe that both Tamil and Malayalam developed during the prehistoric period from a common ancestor,'Proto-Tamil-Dravidian', that the notion of Malayalam being a'daughter' of Tamil is misplaced; this is based on the fact that Malayalam and several Dravidian languages on the western coast have common features which are not found in the oldest historical forms of Tamil. Robert Caldwell, in his 1856 book "A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages", opined that Malayalam branched from Classical Tamil and over time gained a large amount of Sanskrit vocabulary and lost the personal terminations of verbs.
As the language of scholarship and administration, Old-Tamil, written in Tamil-Brahmi and the Vatteluttu alphabet greatly influenced the early development of Malayalam. The Malayalam script began to diverge from the Tamil-Brahmi script in the 9th centuries, and by the end of the 13th century a written form of the language emerged, unique from the Tamil-Brahmi script, used to write Tamil. Malayalam is similar to some Sri Lankan Tamil dialects, the two are mistaken by native Indian Tamil speakers; the Portuguese called the Kerala variant of Malayalam-Tamil Lingua Malabar Tamul. It was called Malabar Thamozhi; the first book to be printed in Lingua Malabar Tamul was Cartilha in 1554, which used Portuguese letters to write the Malabar Thamozhi. Ravikutty Pilla Por, written in the 17th century, is the shining example of Malayanma literature. Ananthapuri Varnanam, written in the 1800s, was among the last of these Malayalam-Tamil books. Itty Achudan, the famed Ayurvedic physician, used Malayanma and Kolezhuttu to write Hortus Malabaricus in 1678.
In the 17th century, the Malayanma script was extensively used by the Catholics of Kerala. Samkshepa Vedartham, in Malayanma, was printed in Rome in 1772; the Ramban Bible, written in Malayanma, was translated from Syriac by Fr. Phillipose and published in 1811. After this period, the British banned Malayanma and most of the books written in Malayanma disappeared; the British never supported or translated Malayanma books into Grantha Malayalam, which they chose to promote in the 19th century. Iravikutti Pilla Por, Vadakkan Pattu, Thacholi Pattu, Kannassa Ramayanam, Ramacharitham Ananthapuri Varnanam are a few of the Malayanma books which have survived. Malayanma, the indigenous Dravidian tongue, its great literary tradition were lost in history. In the 12th century, Kerala was invaded by the Tulu Bana Kings, with an army from Ahichatra on the Indo-Nepalese border. Keralolpathi mentions a Tulu invader called Banapperumal, the brother of Tulu king Kavi Raja Singhan of the Alupa dynasty, who invaded Kerala with a Large Nair army led by Pada Mala Nair.
Banapperumal established his capital at
Head of state
A head of state is the public persona who represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, there is a separate de facto leader with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation. In countries with parliamentary systems, the head of state is a ceremonial figurehead who does not guide day-to-day government activities or is not empowered to exercise any kind of political authority. In countries where the head of state is the head of government, the head of state serves as both a public figurehead and the highest-ranking political leader who oversees the executive branch. Former French president Charles de Gaulle, while developing the current Constitution of France, said that the head of state should embody l'esprit de la nation.
Some academic writers discuss states and governments in terms of "models". An independent nation state has a head of state, determines the extent of its head's executive powers of government or formal representational functions. In protocolary terms, the head of a sovereign, independent state is identified as the person who, according to that state's constitution, is the reigning monarch, in the case of a monarchy, or the president, in the case of a republic. Among the different state constitutions that establish different political systems, four major types of heads of state can be distinguished: The parliamentary system, with three subset models; the non-executive model, in which the head of state has either none or limited executive powers, has a ceremonial and symbolic role. The Parliamentary-Presidential model, or South African Method, where Parliament chooses the President, who acts as both Head of State and Head of Government; some argue this is unfair, becouse citizens dont get a direct say in their executive leadership.
However, this method makes it impossible for a dictator to come to power. The semi-presidential system, in which the head of state shares key executive powers with a head of government or cabinet. In a federal constituent or a dependent territory, the same role is fulfilled by the holder of an office corresponding to that of a head of state. For example, in each Canadian province the role is fulfilled by the Lieutenant Governor, whereas in most British Overseas Territories the powers and duties are performed by the Governor; the same applies to Indian states, etc.. Hong Kong's constitutional document, the Basic Law, for example, specifies the Chief Executive as the head of the special administrative region, in addition to their role as the head of government; these non-sovereign-state heads have limited or no role in diplomatic affairs, depending on the status and the norms and practices of the territories concerned. In parliamentary systems the head of state may be the nominal chief executive officer, heading the executive branch of the state, possessing limited executive power.
In reality, following a process of constitutional evolution, powers are only exercised by direction of a cabinet, presided over by a head of government, answerable to the legislature. This accountability and legitimacy requires that someone be chosen who has a majority support in the legislature, it gives the legislature the right to vote down the head of government and their cabinet, forcing it either to resign or seek a parliamentary dissolution. The executive branch is thus said to be responsible to the legislature, with the head of government and cabinet in turn accepting constitutional responsibility for offering constitutional advice to the head of state. In parliamentary constitutional monarchies, the legitimacy of the unelected head of state derives from the tacit approval of the people via the elected representatives. Accordingly, at the time of the Glorious Revolution, the English parliament acted of its own authority to name a new king and queen. In monarchies with a written constitution, the position of monarch is a creature of the constitution and could quite properly be abolished through a democratic procedure of constitutional amendment, although there are significant procedural hurdles imposed on such a procedure.
In republics with a parliamentary system the head of state is titled president and the principal functions of such presidents are ceremonial and symbolic, as opposed to the presidents in a presidential or semi-presidential system. In reality, numerous variants exist to the position of a head of state within a parliamentary system; the older the cons
C. Kesavan was the Chief Minister of Travancore-Cochin during 1950–1952, he was born in an Ezhava family in 1891 in the village of Mayyanad, near Kollam in the princely state of Travancore. Kesavan was influenced by the work of Padmanabhan Palpu, the social reform campaigner, a member of the backward Ezhava community and a founder of the Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana association, he became an activist for the Ezhava caste, seeking an improved socio-economic position for them, in the 1930s he suggested that they should abandon Hinduism. Thus he was an atheist. Kesavan wrote an incomplete autobiography, consisting of two volumes that described his life up to the time of his political prominence. A third volume was planned to cover that period but was unwritten at the time of his death; the work combined the story of his own life with a wider narrative concerning the plight of the Ezhava caste of which he was a member. Udaya Kumar says that his "early memories are tinged with two lines of injustice: the discrimination he suffered as an Ezhava boy on the streets and other public places, where he was forced to defer to upper-caste people, the unjust exercise of authority by the elders and the upper sub-divisions within the Ezhava caste".
The Kollam Corporation Town Hall was named the C. Kesavan Memorial Municipal Town Hall in Kesavan's memory, it is a decades-old building situated on the National Highway passing through the Kollam Cantonment. The building is now one of the main venues for several cultural events and meetings