The Westinghouse Broadcasting Company known as Group W, was the broadcasting division of Westinghouse Electric Corporation. It owned several radio and television stations across the United States and distributed television shows for syndication. Westinghouse Broadcasting was formed in the 1920s as Inc.. It was renamed Westinghouse Broadcasting Company in 1954, adopted the Group W moniker on May 20, 1963, it was a self-contained entity within the Westinghouse corporate structure. It kept national sales offices in Los Angeles. Group W stations are best known for using a distinctive corporate typeface, introduced in 1963, for their logos and on-air imaging. Styled typefaces had been used on some non-Group W stations as well and several former Group W stations still use it today; the Group W corporate typeface has been digitized and released by John Sizemore. The font is used in the video game Damnation. Westinghouse Broadcasting was well known for two long-running television programs, the Mike Douglas Show and PM Magazine.
The Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company entered broadcasting with the November 2, 1920, sign-on of KDKA radio in Pittsburgh. The oldest surviving licensed commercial radio station in the United States, KDKA was an outgrowth of experimental station 8XK, a 75-watt station, located in the Pittsburgh suburb of Wilkinsburg, founded in 1916 by Westinghouse assistant chief engineer Frank Conrad. Westinghouse launched three more radio stations in 1921: WJZ licensed to Newark, New Jersey, in September. WBZA in Boston, a station which shared WBZ's frequency and simulcasted WBZ's programming, signed on in November 1924. Westinghouse was one of the founding owners of the Radio Corporation of America in 1919, in 1926 RCA established the National Broadcasting Company, a group of 24 radio stations that made up the first radio network in the United States. Westinghouse owned a 20 percent stake in NBC, as a result, all of Westinghouse's stations became affiliates of NBC's Blue Network when it was launched on January 1, 1927.
Most of the Blue Network's programming originated at WJZ, which in 1923 had its license moved to New York City, its ownership transferred to RCA. In 1931, Westinghouse switched the call letters of its two Massachusetts stations, with WBZA moving to Springfield and WBZ going to Boston; the two stations had suffered from interference problems, though the Boston facility was the more powerful of the two. In 1934, KYW was moved from Chicago to Philadelphia following a Federal Communications Commission-dictated frequency realignment. Westinghouse's next station was its first purchase: WOWO in Fort Wayne, Indiana joined the group in August 1936; the North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement of 1941 saw all of Westinghouse's original stations move to their current dial positions. With WOWO's power increase to 50,000 watts that year, the Westinghouse stations were now clear-channel stations. A decade the FCC forbade common ownership of two or more clear channel stations with overlapping nighttime coverage, though the commission allowed Westinghouse to keep WBZ, KYW, KDKA, WOWO together under a grandfather clause.
Among them, the four stations' nighttime signals blanketed all of the eastern half of North America. Despite the assignments which resulted from NARBA, WBZA became a 1,000-watt daytime-only operation as it continued to share a frequency with WBZ; the Westinghouse group survived the government-dictated split of NBC's radio division in 1943. WBZ/WBZA, KDKA, KYW became affiliates of NBC's Red Network while WOWO, which had a secondary affiliation with the Blue Network, fell back on its primary relationship with CBS. Westinghouse expanded to the West Coast in 1944 with its purchase of 5,000-watt KEX in Portland, Oregon, a station which shared a frequency with WOWO. Westinghouse would increase KEX's power to 50,000 watts in 1948. In the 1940s, Westinghouse moved on to develop FM and television stations as the FCC began to issue permits for those services. Westinghouse built FM sister stations for WBZ/WBZA, KDKA, KYW, KEX, WOWO, all of which were on the air by the end of the decade. FM radio was an unsuccessful venture for Westinghouse, the company would silence most of its FM stations during the 1950s.
Of the early Westinghouse FMs, only the original KDKA-FM and the second WBZ-FM facility proved to be worth keeping, Westinghouse sold those outlets in the early 1980s. Moving back to AM radio, Westinghouse returned to Chicago with its 1956 purchase of WIND. In 1962, Westinghouse re-entered the New York market when it bought WINS a local Top-40 powerhouse. Having reached the FCC's then-limit of seven AM stations, Westinghouse sold KEX to actor and singer Gene Autry, decided to shut down WBZA and return its license to the FCC. In 1966, Westinghouse agreed to buy KFWB in Los Angeles. On April 19, 1965, WINS instituted a 24-hour, all-news format. KYW went all-news six months on September 12, three months after Westinghouse regained control of the station. KFWB would adopt the format on March 11, 1968; the three stations all prospered with their new formats ranking among the five highest-rated stations in their marke
Cox Enterprises, Inc. is a held global conglomerate headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia with 55,000 employees and $21 billion in total revenue. Its major operating subsidiaries are Cox Automotive and Cox Media Group; the company's major national brands include AutoTrader, Kelley Blue Book, Cox Homelife and more. Through Cox Automotive, the company's international operations stretch across Asia, Australia and Latin America. Cox Enterprises is led by Alexander C. Taylor, a fourth-generation Cox family member and great-grandson of founder James M. Cox. James M. Cox's grandson, James C. Kennedy and other members of the Cox family are on the company's board of directors; the company was founded in Dayton, Ohio by James M. Cox, who purchased the Dayton Daily News in 1898. Cox became the Democratic Party candidate for president of the United States in the presidential election of 1920, running unsuccessfully on a ticket that included Franklin D. Roosevelt as the vice presidential candidate; the company is well-known for its ownership of Bing Crosby Productions and Rysher Entertainment the two companies merged in 1993.
Cox shut down the company and sold its distribution assets to Viacom and now they are a part of the archives of CBS Television Distribution as well as the back catalog of Paramount Pictures. James M. Cox Jr. became the company's chairman after his father died in 1957. The family and company were highlighted in a 2015 Forbes article called "This Billionaire Knows the Secret to Saving a Family Business". Cox Jr. died in his sisters inherited ownership. Barbara Cox's second husband Garner Anthony and son by her first husband James Cox Kennedy have served as chairman, in 2018 Anne Cox's grandson Alexander C. Taylor became chief executive officer and president. Cox Communications is the third-largest U. S. cable company, serving 6 million residences and businesses. It provides advanced digital video, Internet and home security and automation services over tis own nationwide IP network. Cox Communications formed an alliance with the Cleveland Clinic to take Healthcare to the home in February 2015; the company has been deploying residential gigabit internet service.
Cox Media Group is an integrated broadcasting, direct marketing and digital media company. Its properties include broadcast television and radio stations, daily newspapers runs metro newspapers, non-daily publications, has more than 100 digital services. In 2019 Cox Enterprises reached an agreement with Apollo Funds to buy majority interest in Cox Media Group's broadcast television stations, including the company's radio, newspaper and TV properties in Ohio. Cox will maintain a minority stake and will join the Apollo Funds in forming a new company to operate these stations. Cox Media Group is involved in automated and programmatic sales through Videa. Cox Automotive is a provider of vehicle remarketing services and digital marketing and software solutions for automotive dealers and consumers, its mission is to "make buying, selling and using cars easier for everyone." Cox Automotive brands include Manheim, Clutch Technologies, Dealer-Auction Ltd, AutoTrader, Kelley Blue Book, vAuto, Dealer.com, NextGear Capital, Vinsolutions and a host of global businesses and brands serving auto dealers and financial institutions.
In June 2015, Cox Automotive announced the biggest vendor acquisition in the history of auto retailing by agreeing to pay $4 billion in cash for dealer software giant Dealertrack Technologies Inc. The acquisition closed in October 2015. Official website Media related to Cox Enterprises at Wikimedia Commons
Streaming media is multimedia, received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. The verb "to stream" refers to the process of obtaining media in this manner. A client end-user can use their media player to start playing digital video or digital audio content before the entire file has been transmitted. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies to telecommunications networks, as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming or inherently non-streaming. For example, in the 1930s, elevator music was among the earliest popular music available as streaming media; the term "streaming media" can apply to media other than video and audio, such as live closed captioning, ticker tape, real-time text, which are all considered "streaming text". Live streaming is the delivery of Internet content in real-time much as live television broadcasts content over the airwaves via a television signal. Live internet streaming requires a form of source media, an encoder to digitize the content, a media publisher, a content delivery network to distribute and deliver the content.
Live streaming does not need to be recorded at the origination point, although it is. There are challenges with streaming content on the Internet. If the user does not have enough bandwidth in their Internet connection, they may experience stops, lags, or slow buffering of the content; some users may not be able to stream certain content due to not having compatible computer or software systems. Some popular streaming services include the video sharing website YouTube and Mixer, which live stream the playing of video games. Netflix and Amazon Video stream movies and TV shows, Spotify, Apple Music and TIDAL stream music. In the early 1920s, George O. Squier was granted patents for a system for the transmission and distribution of signals over electrical lines, the technical basis for what became Muzak, a technology streaming continuous music to commercial customers without the use of radio. Attempts to display media on computers date back to the earliest days of computing in the mid-20th century.
However, little progress was made for several decades due to the high cost and limited capabilities of computer hardware. From the late 1980s through the 1990s, consumer-grade personal computers became powerful enough to display various media; the primary technical issues related to streaming were having enough CPU power bus bandwidth to support the required data rates, creating low-latency interrupt paths in the operating system to prevent buffer underrun, enabling skip-free streaming of the content. However, computer networks were still limited in the mid-1990s, audio and video media were delivered over non-streaming channels, such as by downloading a digital file from a remote server and saving it to a local drive on the end user's computer or storing it as a digital file and playing it back from CD-ROMs. In 1991 the first commercial Ethernet Switch was introduced, which enabled more powerful computer networks leading to the first streaming video solutions used by schools and corporations such as expanding Bloomberg Television worldwide.
In the mid 1990s the World Wide Web was established, but streaming audio would not be practical until years later. During the late 1990s and early 2000s, users had increased access to computer networks the Internet. During the early 2000s, users had access to increased network bandwidth in the "last mile"; these technological improvements facilitated the streaming of audio and video content to computer users in their homes and workplaces. There was an increasing use of standard protocols and formats, such as TCP/IP, HTTP, HTML as the Internet became commercialized, which led to an infusion of investment into the sector; the band Severe Tire Damage was the first group to perform live on the Internet. On June 24, 1993, the band was playing a gig at Xerox PARC while elsewhere in the building, scientists were discussing new technology for broadcasting on the Internet using multicasting; as proof of PARC's technology, the band's performance was broadcast and could be seen live in Australia and elsewhere.
In a March 2017 interview, band member Russ Haines stated that the band had used "half of the total bandwidth of the internet" to stream the performance, a 152-by-76 pixel video, updated eight to twelve times per second, with audio quality, "at best, a bad telephone connection". Microsoft Research developed a Microsoft TV application, compiled under MS Windows Studio Suite and tested in conjunction with Connectix QuickCam. RealNetworks was a pioneer in the streaming media markets, when it broadcast a baseball game between the New York Yankees and the Seattle Mariners over the Internet in 1995; the first symphonic concert on the Internet took place at the Paramount Theater in Seattle, Washington on November 10, 1995. The concert was a collaboration between The Seattle Symphony and various guest musicians such as Slash, Matt Cameron, Barrett Martin; when Word Magazine launched in 1995, they featured the first-ever streaming soundtracks on the Internet. Metro
Home Theater Network
Home Theater Network was an American premium cable television network, owned by Group W Satellite Communications. Targeted at a family audience, the channel focused on theatrically released motion pictures, along with travel interstitials that aired between select films. Home Theater Network launched on September 1, 1978; the service operated for four hours a day, expanded its schedule to 12 hours a day. The channel boasted a policy of not running R-rated feature films, marketed itself as a lower-priced alternative to HBO, Cinemax and The Movie Channel. Prior to The Disney Channel's April 1983 launch, Walt Disney Pictures licensed select live-action films to many premium cable networks. Other films that HTN featured included The Private Eyes. In addition, the channel showcased travel-related programming as filler between films, billing these segments as "The Travel Channel". From 1984 to 1985, Home Theater Network aired a live 90-minute call-in trivia program called Movie Talk America, in a Thursday primetime timeslot, used to broadcast feature films.
Hosted by Earle Ziff, the popular program would feature live calls from viewers as they competed for various prizes, as well as celebrity interviews and promotions for upcoming programs to be seen on HTN. In October 1986, Group W Satellite Communications announced that it would shut down the network, citing a lack of subscriber growth despite a positive cash flow. Home Theater Network shut down on January 31, 1987, Group W sold the transponder slot on Satcom 3-R and the "Travel Channel" name to Trans World Airlines to launch the present-day basic cable channel now known as the Travel Channel. HBO Cinemax Showtime The Movie Channel Spotlight
HGTV is an American basic cable and satellite television channel, owned by Discovery, Inc. The network broadcasts reality programming related to home improvement and real estate; as of February 2015 95,628,000 American households receive HGTV. In 2016, HGTV overtook CNN as the third most-watched cable channel in the United States, behind Fox News and ESPN. Kenneth W. Lowe envisioned the concept of HGTV in 1992. With modest financial support from the E. W. Scripps corporate board, he purchased Cinetel, a small video production company in Knoxville, as the base and production hub of the new network. Lowe cofounded the channel with Susan Packard. Cinetel became Scripps Productions, but it found producing more than 30 programs daunting; the organization brought in former CBS television executive Ed Spray, who implemented a system of producing programming through independent production houses around the United States. Burton Jablin, as Vice President of Programming, set the tone and oversaw the production of the early series.
About 90 percent of the channel's programming consisted of original productions at launch, with ten percent licensed and rerun from Canadian channels, PBS, other sources. Using local Scripps cable franchises, the Federal Communications Commission "must carry" provisions of Scripps medium-market television stations, other small television operators to gain cable carriage, the channel launched on December 1, 1994; the major programming themes, unchanged since the beginning, were home building and remodeling and gardening, decorating and design, crafts and hobbies. During its development, the channel was named the Home and Garden Channel; the name was shortened and a logo was developed. The logo was amended in 2010, with this version debuting on March 1 of that year; the square with the "G" in it was removed, the roof was increased in size and the "HGTV" letters are now set in Gotham Black, with the other Gotham fonts being used around the network. The network debuted with a skeletal staff, but with gradual acceptance by other cable operators, it now reaches 94 million households in the United States and has either partner networks, or network interests, in Canada and elsewhere.
It is now referred to as "HGTV". In July 2008, the E. W. Scripps Company spun off the channel and the other Scripps cable channels and web-based properties into a separate company, Scripps Networks Interactive. W. Scripps broadcast newspaper properties remain as part of the original company. In December 2011, the channel began broadcasting all of its programming in 16:9 aspect ratio format on its primary standard definition channel; this results in the appearance of black bars on the top and bottom of the screen on 4:3 aspect ratio televisions. HGTV's current programming focuses on home-buying and reality shows following the business of house flipping. SNI CEO Ken Lowe stated of the programming strategy. We're not going to throw you a curve ball. It's not easy to create content that people are passionate about and somewhat addicted to, somewhat repetitive." As of 2016, HGTV has invested at least $400 million annually on original programming. An annual promotion held by the network is the HGTV Dream Home, a sweepstakes which awards a custom-built house as its grand prize.
The 1080i high definition simulcast feed of HGTV launched on March 31, 2008. The HD channel did not simulcast the standard definition feed of HGTV. Instead, the HD channel featured programming separate from the standard channel; the standard definition feed of the channel began to carry the full 16:9 aspect ratio downgraded from the HD feed in a letterboxed format in early 2013. On December 31, 2009, Scripps Networks Interactive removed the Food Network and HGTV from New York City-area cable provider Cablevision, on the day that its carriage contract was set to expire. After months of negotiations, an agreement between Scripps and Cablevision was not reached, prompting the removal of the two channels. On January 21, 2010, Cablevision and Scripps reached a deal and the channels were restored to Cablevision's systems in the New York City area on the same day and by the next day in other areas. On November 5, 2010, AT&T U-verse dropped the DIY Network, Cooking Channel, Food Network, Great American Country and HGTV, due to a carriage dispute with Scripps Networks.
The carriage dispute was resolved two days on November 7, 2010, through a new carriage agreement. On June 13, 2012, representatives for HGTV admitted that scenes featured in the original series House Hunters are re-creations of prior events. In many cases, the final decision and purchase were made prior to filming. In some cases, homes visited were not on the market. In May 2014, HGTV decided not to premiere the Benham Brothers' series Flip It Forward, due to a controversy regarding the Brothers' beliefs concerning homosexuality and pro-life beliefs. In 1997, Atlantis Communications and Scripps Networks launched a Canadian version of HGTV as a Category B specialty channel. Through a series of acquisitions over the years, Corus Entertainment became Scripps Networks' partner in the network; the Canadian version features much of the same programming as the U. S. channel, along with domestical
TLC (TV network)
TLC is an American pay television channel, owned by Discovery, Inc. Focused on educational and learning content, by the late 1990s, the network began to focus towards reality series involving lifestyles, family life, personal stories; as of February 2015, TLC was available to watch in 95 million American households in the United States. The channel was founded in 1972 by the Department of Health and Welfare and NASA as the Appalachian Community Service Network, was an informative and instructional network focused on providing real education through the medium of television. ACSN was privatized in 1980, its name was changed to The Learning Channel in November of that year; the channel featured documentary content pertaining to nature, history, current events, technology, home improvement, other information-based topics. These are agreed to have been more focused, more technical, of a more academic nature than the content, being broadcast at the time on its rival, The Discovery Channel; the channel was geared toward an inquisitive and narrow audience during this time, had modest ratings except for the boating safety series Captain's Log and hosted by Mark Graves, a.k.a.
Captain Mark Gray. Captain's Log aired weekly in primetime on TLC from 1987 to 1990, it achieved between a 4.5 to 6 share in the ratings and was the highest compensated series in the history of TLC with over 30 times the compensation of any other TLC series. By the early 1990s, The Learning Channel was a sister channel to the Financial News Network, which owned 51 percent of the channel with Infotechnology Inc. After FNN went into bankruptcy in 1991, the Discovery Channel's owners went into discussions to purchase The Learning Channel. An agreement was made with Infotech to buy their shares for $12.75 million. The non-profit Appalachian Community Service Network owned 35 percent of the network, was bought out; the Learning Channel continued to focus on instructional and educational programming through much of the 1990s, but began to air shows less focused on education and themed more toward popular consumption and mass marketing. TLC still aired educational programs such as Paleoworld, though more and more of its programming began to be devoted to niche audiences for shows regarding subjects like home improvement and crafts, crime programs such as The New Detectives, medical programming, other shows that appealed to daytime audiences housewives.
This was to be indicative of a major change in programming content and target audience over the next few years. Due to poor ratings from a narrow target audience, TLC began to explore new avenues starting in the late 1990s, deemphasizing educational material in favor of entertainment. "Ready Set Learn", the network's children's program block, was reduced through the years as the network deliberately redirected viewers towards the full-day lineup of children's programming on Discovery Kids. The block was dropped in late 2008, Cable in the Classroom programming, meant for recording by teachers, had disappeared by the early 2000s. In 1998, the channel began to distance itself from its original name "The Learning Channel", instead began to advertise itself only as "TLC". During this period, there was a huge shift in content, with most new programming being geared towards reality-drama and interior design shows; the huge success of shows like Trading Spaces, Junkyard Wars, A Wedding Story, A Baby Story exemplified this new shift in programming towards more mass-appeal shows.
This came at a time when Discovery itself was overhauling much of its own programming, introducing shows like American Chopper. Much of the old, more educationally focused programming can still be found dispersed amongst other channels owned by Discovery Communications. Most of TLC's programming today is geared towards reality-based drama or interests such as home design, emergency room or medical dramas, extreme weather, law enforcement and human interest programs. On March 27, 2006, the network launched a new look and promotional campaign, dropping the "Life Unscripted" tag and introducing a new theme, "Live and learn", trying to turn around the network's reliance on decorating shows and reality programming; as part of the new campaign, the channel's original name, "The Learning Channel", returned to occasional usage in promotions. The new theme played on life lessons, which featured in the network's advertising and promotional clips; this campaign used humor to appeal to a target audience in their 30s.
In early March 2008, TLC launched a refreshed look and promotional campaign, alongside a new slogan: "Life surprises". This new slogan came as TLC began to shift more to personal stories, away from the once-dominating home improvement shows. Programs focused on family life became the core of the channel. Jon & Kate Plus 8, which by 2008 was the highest-rated program on TLC, Little People, Big World were joined by 17 Kids and Counting, Table for 12 in 20
Cox Communications is an American owned subsidiary of Cox Enterprises providing digital cable television, telecommunications and Home Automation services in the United States. It is the third-largest cable television provider in the United States, serving more than 6.2 million customers, including 2.9 million digital cable subscribers, 3.5 million Internet subscribers, 3.2 million digital telephone subscribers, making it the seventh-largest telephone carrier in the country. Cox is headquartered at 6205 Peachtree Dunwoody Rd in Sandy Springs, Georgia, U. S. in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Cox Enterprises expanded into the cable television industry in 1962 by purchasing a number of cable systems in Lewistown, Lock Haven and Tyrone, followed by systems in California and Washington; the subsidiary company, Cox Broadcasting Corporation, was not formed until 1964, when it was established as a public company traded on the New York Stock Exchange. It was taken private by Cox Enterprises in 1985. In 1993, Cox began offering telecommunication services to businesses it was the first multiple system cable operator to do so.
This grew into Cox Business, which now represents $1 billion in annual revenue. In 1995, Cox acquired the Times Mirror cable properties. In 1997, Cox became the first multiple system cable operator to offer phone services to customers following the 1996 Telecom Act. Two years in 1999, Cox acquired the cable television assets of Media General in Fairfax County and Fredericksburg, Virginia; the following year, Cox Communications acquired Multimedia Cablevision with assets in Kansas and North Carolina. In 2004, the Fairfax County Board of Supervisors found Cox Communications guilty of violating an agreement with the county which stated that all homes served by Cox within Fairfax County would be digital ready with the new fiber optic network by June 2003; when this term expired with less than 30% of the county having been completed, the Board of Supervisors decided to fine Cox $100 per day from the agreed completion date, until work was completed on January 2006. The Board forbade Cox from raising rates to recover the cost of the fine for a period of 10 years from the actual completion date.
The total fine was $93,000. By November 1, 2005, Cox announced the sale of all of its Texas, Missouri and North Carolina properties, as well as some systems in Arkansas, California and Oklahoma to Cebridge Communications; the sale closed in 2006 and those systems were transitioned by their new owner from Cox branding to Suddenlink Communications. On May 14, 2007, Cox announced that they had sold their investment in Discovery Communications for the Travel Channel, related assets, $1.3 billion. In 2007, DiversityInc magazine named Cox Communications #25 in its Top 50 Companies for Diversity. Cox climbed to the sixth position on Diversity Inc.'s 2008 list. In 2008, Cox was named #8 on the Top 10 Companies for African Americans. Two years on November 19, 2010, Cox began offering wireless services in Orange County, California. In February 2011, Cox Communications completed its Alternative Energy Project which included two fuel cell installations at each of the company's San Diego, CA and Rancho Santa Margarita, CA headquarters.
Two separate PureCell System 400 kilowatt installations will generate enough onsite power to reduce the company's dependence of the local power grid and decrease its carbon footprint. In September 2011, Cox Home Security was added to their suite of products listed on their website; this new service uses advanced technologies similar to the home security products offered by other MSOs such as Comcast. In August 2013, Cox launched a new television platform known as Contour, which features recommendations and a user profile system across multiple devices. In 2015, Cox licensed Comcast's Xfinity X1 platform. Cox stated that at least 1 million subscribers were on the X1-based Contour as of October 2017. In 2016, Cox Business reached 3 billion in annual revenue. Cox Business: Provides business level video and Internet services. Cox Media: Advertising sales Travel Media, Inc.: Travel Channel and TravelChannel.com. Cox Communications Virginia created the philanthropic Cox Charities to annually provide grants to nonprofits serving youth.
The organizations must have education programs that focus on science and technology, literacy and other areas. In the 2016-2017 program, 15 nonprofits received a total of $150,000, they were: An Achievable Dream ForKids Horizons Hampton Roads REACH The Salvation Army - Hampton Roads Area Command The UP Center Virginia Peninsula Foodbank Educacion Para Nuestro Futuro Main Street Child Development Center Hopecam Fairfax Futures Literary Council of Northern Virginia Boys and Girls Clubs of Southwest Virginia Child Health Investment Partnership of Roanoke Valley Total Action for ProgressOther state branches of Cox Communications donate money annually through a Community Investment Grant program. The money goes to 501 organizations; the organizations will differ from state to state, year to year, but also have a focus on education, social issues, the arts. These programs can be found in Oklahoma, Arkansas and Iowa, the Southea