Life insurance is a contract between an insurance policy holder and an insurer or assurer, where the insurer promises to pay a designated beneficiary a sum of money in exchange for a premium, upon the death of an insured person. Depending on the contract, other events such as terminal illness or critical illness can trigger payment; the policy holder pays a premium, either or as one lump sum. Other expenses, such as funeral expenses, can be included in the benefits. Life policies are legal contracts and the terms of the contract describe the limitations of the insured events. Specific exclusions are written into the contract to limit the liability of the insurer. Modern life insurance bears some similarity to the asset management industry and life insurers have diversified their products into retirement products such as annuities. Life-based contracts tend to fall into two major categories: Protection policies – designed to provide a benefit a lump sum payment, in the event of a specified occurrence.
A common form—more common in years past—of a protection policy design is term insurance. Investment policies – the main objective of these policies is to facilitate the growth of capital by regular or single premiums. Common forms are whole life, universal life, variable life policies. An early form of life insurance dates to Ancient Rome; the first company to offer life insurance in modern times was the Amicable Society for a Perpetual Assurance Office, founded in London in 1706 by William Talbot and Sir Thomas Allen. Each member made an annual payment per share on one to three shares with consideration to age of the members being twelve to fifty-five. At the end of the year a portion of the "amicable contribution" was divided among the wives and children of deceased members, in proportion to the number of shares the heirs owned; the Amicable Society started with 2000 members. The first life table was written by Edmund Halley in 1693, but it was only in the 1750s that the necessary mathematical and statistical tools were in place for the development of modern life insurance.
James Dodson, a mathematician and actuary, tried to establish a new company aimed at offsetting the risks of long term life assurance policies, after being refused admission to the Amicable Life Assurance Society because of his advanced age. He was unsuccessful in his attempts at procuring a charter from the government, his disciple, Edward Rowe Mores, was able to establish the Society for Equitable Assurances on Lives and Survivorship in 1762. It was the world's first mutual insurer and it pioneered age based premiums based on mortality rate laying "the framework for scientific insurance practice and development" and "the basis of modern life assurance upon which all life assurance schemes were subsequently based". Mores gave the name actuary to the chief official—the earliest known reference to the position as a business concern; the first modern actuary was William Morgan, who served from 1775 to 1830. In 1776 the Society carried out the first actuarial valuation of liabilities and subsequently distributed the first reversionary bonus and interim bonus among its members.
It used regular valuations to balance competing interests. The Society sought to treat its members equitably and the Directors tried to ensure that policyholders received a fair return on their investments. Premiums were regulated according to age, anybody could be admitted regardless of their state of health and other circumstances; the sale of life insurance in the U. S. began in the 1760s. The Presbyterian Synods in Philadelphia and New York City created the Corporation for Relief of Poor and Distressed Widows and Children of Presbyterian Ministers in 1759. Between 1787 and 1837 more than two dozen life insurance companies were started, but fewer than half a dozen survived. In the 1870s, military officers banded together to found both the Army and the Navy Mutual Aid Association, inspired by the plight of widows and orphans left stranded in the West after the Battle of the Little Big Horn, of the families of U. S. sailors. The person responsible for making payments for a policy is the policy owner, while the insured is the person whose death will trigger payment of the death benefit.
The owner and insured may not be the same person. For example, if Joe buys a policy on his own life, he is both the insured, but if Jane, his wife, buys a policy on Joe's life, she is the owner and he is the insured. The policy owner is the guarantor and he will be the person to pay for the policy; the insured is a participant in the contract, but not a party to it. The beneficiary receives policy proceeds upon the insured person's death; the owner designates the beneficiary. The owner can change the beneficiary. If a policy has an irrevocable beneficiary, any beneficiary changes, policy assignments, or cash value borrowing would require the agreement of the original beneficiary. In cases where the policy owner is not the insured, insurance companies have sought to limit policy purchases to those with an insurable interest in the CQV. For life insurance policies, close family members and business partners will be found to have an insurable interest; the insurable interest requirement demon
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth. A natural disaster can cause loss of life or damage property, leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population's resilience, or ability to recover and on the infrastructure available. An adverse event will not rise to the level of a disaster if it occurs in an area without vulnerable population. In a vulnerable area, such as Nepal during the 2015 earthquake, an earthquake can have disastrous consequences and leave lasting damage, which can require years to repair. A landslide is described as an outward and downward slope movement of an abundance of slope-forming materials including rock, artificial, or a combination of these things. During World War I, an estimated 40,000 to 80,000 soldiers died as a result of avalanches during the mountain campaign in the Alps at the Austrian-Italian front. Many of the avalanches were caused by artillery fire. An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves.
At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by vibration and sometimes displacement of the ground. Earthquakes are caused by slippage within geological faults; the underground point of origin of the earthquake is called the seismic focus. The point directly above the focus on the surface is called the epicenter. Earthquakes by themselves kill people or wildlife, it is the secondary events that they trigger such as building collapse, fires and volcanoes. Many of these could be avoided by better construction, safety systems, early warning and planning; when natural erosion, human mining or underground excavation makes the ground too weak to support the structures built on it, the ground can collapse and produce a sinkhole. For example, the 2010 Guatemala City sinkhole which killed fifteen people was caused when heavy rain from Tropical Storm Agatha, diverted by leaking pipes into a pumice bedrock, led to the sudden collapse of the ground beneath a factory building. Volcanoes can cause widespread consequent disaster in several ways.
The effects include the volcanic eruption itself that may cause harm following the explosion of the volcano or falling rocks. Secondly, lava may be produced during the eruption of a volcano, so as it leaves the volcano the lava destroys many buildings and animals due to its extreme heat. Thirdly, volcanic ash meaning the cooled ash, may form a cloud, settle thickly in nearby locations; when mixed with water this forms a concrete-like material. In sufficient quantities, ash may cause roofs to collapse under its weight but small quantities will harm humans if inhaled. Since the ash has the consistency of ground glass, it causes abrasion damage to moving parts such as engines; the main killer of humans in the immediate surroundings of a volcanic eruption is the pyroclastic flows, which consist of a cloud of hot volcanic ash which builds up in the air above the volcano and rushes down the slopes when the eruption no longer supports the lifting of the gases. It is believed. A lahar is landslide; the 1953 Tangiwai disaster was caused by a lahar, as was the 1985 Armero tragedy in which the town of Armero was buried and an estimated 23,000 people were killed.
Volcanoes rated at 8 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index are known as supervolcanoes. According to the Toba catastrophe theory, 75,000 to 80,000 years ago a supervolcanic eruption at what is now Lake Toba in Sumatra reduced the human population to 10,000 or 1,000 breeding pairs, creating a bottleneck in human evolution, killed three-quarters of all plant life in the northern hemisphere. However, there is considerable debate regarding the veracity of this theory; the main danger from a supervolcano is the immense cloud of ash, which has a disastrous global effect on climate and temperature for many years. A violent and destructive change either in the quality of Earth's water or in the distribution or movement of water on land below the surface or in the atmosphere. A flood is an overflow of water that'submerges' land; the EU Floods Directive defines a flood as a temporary covering the land with water, not covered by water. In the sense of'flowing water', the word may be applied to the inflow of the tides.
Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, which overflows, causing some of the water to escape its usual boundaries. While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, it is not a significant flood unless the water covers land used by man, like a village, city or other inhabited area, expanses of farmland, etc. A tsunami known as a seismic sea wave or as a tidal wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water in an ocean or a large lake. Tsunamis can be caused by undersea earthquakes such as the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, or by landslides such as the one in 1958 at Lituya Bay, Alaska, or by volcanic eruptions such as the ancient eruption of Santorini. On March 11, 2011, a tsunami occurred near Fukushima and spread through the Pacific Ocean. A limnic eruption occurs when a gas CO2 erupts from deep lake water, posing the threat of suffocating wildlife and humans.
Such an eruption may cause tsunamis in the la
Repatriation is the process of returning an asset, an item of symbolic value or a person – voluntarily or forcibly – to its owner or their place of origin or citizenship. The term may refer to non-human entities, such as converting a foreign currency into the currency of one's own country, as well as to the process of returning military personnel to their place of origin following a war, it applies to diplomatic envoys, international officials as well as expatriates and migrants in time of international crisis. For refugees, asylum seekers and illegal migrants, repatriation can mean either voluntary return or deportation. Voluntary return is the return of eligible persons, such as refugees, to their country of origin or citizenship on the basis of expressed willingness to such return. Voluntary return, unlike expulsion and deportation, which are actions of sovereign states, is defined as a personal right under specific conditions described in various international instruments, such as the OAU Convention, along with customary international law.
Some countries offer financial support to refugees and immigrants in order to facilitate the process of starting a new life in their country of origin. Examples of 21st century voluntary return include the Danish government, which began in 2009, offering £12,000 each to immigrants to return, Switzerland offering around 6,500 Francs, targeted for business startups upon returning home, as well Ireland. Germany in 2016 allocated €150 million over three years for migrants willing to return, the Swedish government began offering £3,500 each. 544 Nigerians returned home from Switzerland in 2013. This financial support may be considered as residency buyouts. Two countries may have a re-admission agreement, which establishes procedures, on a reciprocal basis, for one state to return irregular non-nationals to their country of origin or a country through which they have transited. Illegal immigrants are repatriated as a matter of government policy. Repatriation measures of voluntary return, with financial assistance, as well as measures of deportation are used in many countries.
As repatriation can be voluntary or forced the term is used as a euphemism for deportation. Involuntary or forced repatriation is the return of refugees, prisoners of war, or civil detainees to their country of origin under circumstances that leave no other viable alternatives. According to contemporary international law, prisoners of war, civil detainees, or refugees refusing repatriation if motivated by fears of political persecution in their own country, should be protected from refoulement and given, if possible, temporary or permanent asylum; the forced return of people to countries where they would face persecution is more known as refoulement, against international law. While repatriation brings an individual to his or her territory of origin or citizenship, a return includes bringing the person back to the point of departure; this could be to a third country, including a country of transit, a country the person has traveled through to get to the country of destination. A return could be within the territorial boundaries of a country, as in the case of returning internally displaced persons and demobilized combatants.
The distinction between repatriation and return, voluntary or involuntary, is not always clear. Repatriation is linked with health care due to the costs and resources associated with providing medical treatment to travelers and immigrants pursuing citizenship. For example, if a foreign national is in the United States with a visa and becomes ill, the insurance that the visa holder has in his or her native country may not apply in the United States if it is a country with universal health care coverage; this scenario forces hospitals to choose one of three options: Limit their services to emergency care only Offer charity care free of charge or at a reduced rate Repatriate the patient back to his or her native country where he or she will be covered according to that country's policyDetermining which option is the most ethical is very challenging for hospital administrators. In some cases, a traveler's personal insurance company is required to repatriate the patient for medical treatment; the method of repatriation could be by ground, or by air ambulance.
Medical repatriation is different from the act of medical evacuation. In the 20th century, following all European wars, several repatriation commissions were created to supervise the return of war refugees, displaced persons, prisoners of war to their country of origin. Repatriation hospitals were established in some countries to care for the ongoing medical and health requirements of returned military personnel. In the Soviet Union, the refugees seen as traitors for surrendering were killed or sent to Siberian concentration camps. Issues surrounding repatriation have been some of the most heatedly debated political topics of the 20th and 21st centuries. Many forced back to the Soviet Union by Allied forces in World War II still hold this forced migration against the United States of America and the United Kingdom; the term repatriation was used by Communist governments to describe the large-scale state-sponsored ethnic cleansing actions and expulsion of national groups. Poles born in territories that were annexed by the Soviet Union, although deported to the State of Poland, were settled in the annexed former German territories.
In the process they were told. The Korean War marked the first time that the United States or any nation began returning the bodies of battlefield casualties as soon a
A concierge is an employee of a multi-tenant building, such as a hotel or apartment building, who receives guests. The concept has been applied more to other hospitality settings and to personal concierges who manage the errands of private clients; the concierge serves guests of an apartment building, hotel, or office building with duties similar to those of a receptionist. The position can be maintained by a security guard over the late night shift. In medieval times, the concierge was an officer of the king, charged with executing justice, with the help of his bailiffs. On in the 18th century, the concierge was a high official of the kingdom, appointed by the king to maintain order and oversee the police and prisoner records. In 19th-century and early 20th-century apartment buildings in Paris, the concierge was known as a "Suisse", as the post was filled by Swiss people, he had a small apartment on the ground floor, called la loge, was able to monitor all comings and goings. However, such settings are now rare.
Some larger apartment buildings or groups of buildings retain the use of concierges. The concierge may, for instance, keep the mail of absented dwellers, be entrusted with the apartment keys to deal with emergencies when residents are absent, provide information to residents and guests, provide access control, enforce rules, act as a go-between for residents and management when management is not on-site. A modern concierge may serve as a lifestyle manager, like a secretary or a personal assistant. In hotels or resorts, a concierge assists guests by performing various tasks such as making restaurant reservations, booking hotels, arranging for spa services, recommending night life hot spots, booking transportation, coordinating porter service, procuring tickets to special events, assisting with various travel arrangements and tours of local attractions. Concierges assist with sending and receiving parcels. In hospitals, concierge services are becoming available. A hospital concierge provides similar services to those of a hotel concierge, but serves patients and employees as well.
This helps hospital employees who work long shifts, helps to provide work-life balance. There are numerous independent personal concierge companies that provide errand services and information services for their members. Services include informational requests, setting dinner reservations, making telephone calls, researching travel arrangements and more. Concierge companies will bill on an hourly rate, depending upon the type of task, fees can vary drastically. Other companies bill a flat monthly fee based upon the number of requests a member is allowed to place each month. In the United Kingdom, since the year 2000 and as of 2010, concierge has become a key marketing and loyalty tool in the banking sector and offered as a benefit on luxury credit cards; this service offering is known as lifestyle management. Concierges entertain their clients. In the luxury yachting industry, concierge services are available to meet the demands of yacht owners and charter guests travelling on board. Enlisted by yacht captains and crew, yacht concierges provide entertainment and excursions for guests in their destination and can assist with support services for the crew and yacht itself offered by ships agents.
Airport concierge services help travellers make it through security and immigration faster, provide lounge access. The owners and operators of concierge, lifestyle management and errand service businesses are supported and advocated by the non-profit International Concierge and Lifestyle Management Association and the National Concierge Association; the French word concierge is derived from the Old French cumcerges, itself related to the Medieval Latin consergius or the Latin conservus. Another possibility, suggested by French authors as early as the 19th century, is that "concierge" is a contraction of comte des cierges, a servant responsible for maintaining the lighting and cleanliness of medieval palaces. Concierge medicine Doorman Property caretaker Receptionist Shopping concierge Duty officer The International Concierge and Lifestyle Management Association Les Clefs d'Or USA, a part of the international Les Clefs d'Or professional association National Concierge Association American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute Yachting Pages
Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Australia)
The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade is the department of the Government of Australia responsible for foreign policy, foreign relations, foreign aid, consular services, trade and investment. The head of the department is the Secretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, presently Frances Adamson, who reports to the Minister for Foreign Affairs, presently Senator Marise Payne. Subordinate ministers include the Minister for Trade and Investment, presently Senator Simon Birmingham; the department finds its origins in two of the seven original Commonwealth Departments established following Federation: the Department of Trade and Customs and the Department of External Affairs, headed by Harry Wollaston and Atlee Hunt respectively. The department was abolished on 14 November 1916 and its responsibilities were undertaken by the Prime Minister's Department and the Department of Home and Territories, it was re-established on 21 December 1921. Until the Second World War, Australia's status as a dominion of the British Empire in the British Commonwealth meant its foreign relations were defined by the United Kingdom.
During this time, Australia's overseas activities were predominantly related to trade and commercial interests, while its external affairs were concerned with immigration and publicity. The political and economic changes wrought by the Great Depression and Second World War, the adoption of the 1931 Statute of Westminster, necessitated the establishment and expansion of Australian representation overseas, independent of the British Foreign Office. Australia began to establish its first overseas missions in 1940, beginning with Washington, D. C. and now has a network of over 80 diplomatic posts. The Department of External Affairs was renamed the Department of Foreign Affairs in 1970. On 24 July 1987, the Department of Foreign Affairs and the Department of Trade were amalgamated by the Hawke Labor Government to form the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. In 2005, DFAT became embroiled in the Oil-for-Food Programme scandal after it was revealed it had approved the Australian Wheat Board's request allowing it to pay'trucking charges' to Alia, a Jordanian trucking company with no actual involvement in the trucking of Australian wheat within Iraq.
The Cole Inquiry into the AWB was established, however its terms of reference excluded any investigation of the role of DFAT. The functions of the department are broadly classified into the following matters as laid out in an Administrative Arrangements Order issued on 18 September 2013: External Affairs, including: relations and communications with overseas governments and United Nations agencies treaties, including trade agreements bilateral and multilateral trade policy international trade and commodity negotiations market development, including market access trade and international business development investment promotion international development co-operation diplomatic and consular missions international security issues, including disarmament, arms control and nuclear non-proliferation public diplomacy, including information and cultural programs International expositions Provision to Australian citizens of secure travel identification Provision of consular services to Australian citizens abroad Overseas property management, including acquisition and disposal of real property Tourism industry International development and aid Development and co-ordination of international climate change policy International climate change negotiations DFAT is administered by a senior executive, comprising a secretary and five deputy secretaries.
On the recommendation of the Prime Minister, the Governor-General has appointed the following individuals as Secretary to the department: The department is responsible to the Minister for Foreign Affairs, the Minister for Trade and Investment, the Minister for International Development and the Pacific, the Assistant Minister for Trade and Investment. The department has around 3,300 employees, of whom 1,300 are foreign staff employed by missions directly, 1,500 are Australian employees based in Australia, some 500 are diplomats serving overseas. Office of the Secretary Internal Audit Branch Strategic Policy and Futures Branch Executive BranchGlobal Cooperation and Partnerships Group Multilateral Policy Division Development Policy Division Multilateral Development and Finance Division Public Diplomacy, Communications & Scholarships Division Centre for Health Security Office of Development Effectiveness Innovation Xchange Office of the Ambassador for the EnvironmentInternational Security and Consular Group International Security Division Consular and Crisis Management Division Humanitarian, NGOs and Partnerships Division Legal Division Middle East and Africa Division Australian Safeguards and Non-proliferation Office Office of the Ambassador for Cyber AffairsIndo-Pacific Group South-East Asia Division North Asia Division Pacific Division US and Indo-Pacific Strategy Division South-West Asia DivisionTrade and Business Engagement Group Office of Trade Negotiations Investment and Economic Division Free Trade Agreement Division Europe and Latin America DivisionServices Delivery Group People Branches Diplomatic Academy Finance Branches Security Branches Information Management and Technology Division Australian Passport Office Overseas Property Office Protocol Branch Contracting and Aid Managemen
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements. Airline companies are recognized with an air operating certificate or license issued by a governmental aviation body. Airlines vary in size, from small domestic airlines to full-service international airlines with double decker airplanes. Airline services can be categorized as being intercontinental, regional, or international, may be operated as scheduled services or charters; the largest airline is American Airlines Group. DELAG, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft I was the world's first airline, it was founded on November 16, 1909, with government assistance, operated airships manufactured by The Zeppelin Corporation. Its headquarters were in Frankfurt; the first fixed wing scheduled airline was started on January 1, 1914, from St. Petersburg, Florida, to Tampa, Florida.
The four oldest non-dirigible airlines that still exist are Netherlands' KLM, Colombia's Avianca, Australia's Qantas, the Czech Republic's Czech Airlines. The earliest fixed wing airline in Europe was Aircraft Transport and Travel, formed by George Holt Thomas in 1916. Using a fleet of former military Airco DH.4A biplanes, modified to carry two passengers in the fuselage, it operated relief flights between Folkestone and Ghent. On 15 July 1919, the company flew a proving flight across the English Channel, despite a lack of support from the British government. Flown by Lt. H Shaw in an Airco DH.9 between RAF Hendon and Paris – Le Bourget Airport, the flight took 2 hours and 30 minutes at £21 per passenger. On 25 August 1919, the company used DH.16s to pioneer a regular service from Hounslow Heath Aerodrome to Le Bourget, the first regular international service in the world. The airline soon gained a reputation for reliability, despite problems with bad weather, began to attract European competition.
In November 1919, it won the first British civil airmail contract. Six Royal Air Force Airco DH.9A aircraft were lent to the company, to operate the airmail service between Hawkinge and Cologne. In 1920, they were returned to the Royal Air Force. Other British competitors were quick to follow – Handley Page Transport was established in 1919 and used the company's converted wartime Type O/400 bombers with a capacity for 12 passengers, to run a London-Paris passenger service; the first French airline was Société des lignes Latécoère known as Aéropostale, which started its first service in late 1918 to Spain. The Société Générale des Transports Aériens was created in late 1919, by the Farman brothers and the Farman F.60 Goliath plane flew scheduled services from Toussus-le-Noble to Kenley, near Croydon, England. Another early French airline was the Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes, established in 1919 by Louis-Charles Breguet, offering a mail and freight service between Le Bourget Airport and Lesquin Airport, Lille.
The first German airline to use heavier than air aircraft was Deutsche Luft-Reederei established in 1917 which started operating in February 1919. In its first year, the D. L. R. Operated scheduled flights on routes with a combined length of nearly 1000 miles. By 1921 the D. L. R. Network was more than 3000 km long, included destinations in the Netherlands and the Baltic Republics. Another important German airline was Junkers Luftverkehr, which began operations in 1921, it was a division of the aircraft manufacturer Junkers, which became a separate company in 1924. It operated joint-venture airlines in Austria, Estonia, Hungary, Norway, Poland and Switzerland; the Dutch airline KLM made its first flight in 1920, is the oldest continuously operating airline in the world. Established by aviator Albert Plesman, it was awarded a "Royal" predicate from Queen Wilhelmina, its first flight was from Croydon Airport, London to Amsterdam, using a leased Aircraft Transport and Travel DH-16, carrying two British journalists and a number of newspapers.
In 1921, KLM started scheduled services. In Finland, the charter establishing Aero O/Y was signed in the city of Helsinki on September 12, 1923. Junkers F.13 D-335 became the first aircraft of the company, when Aero took delivery of it on March 14, 1924. The first flight was between Helsinki and Tallinn, capital of Estonia, it took place on March 20, 1924, one week later. In the Soviet Union, the Chief Administration of the Civil Air Fleet was established in 1921. One of its first acts was to help found Deutsch-Russische Luftverkehrs A. G. a German-Russian joint venture to provide air transport from Russia to the West. Domestic air service began around the same time, when Dobrolyot started operations on 15 July 1923 between Moscow and Nizhni Novgorod. Since 1932 all operations had been carried under the name Aeroflot. Early European airlines tended to favor comfort – the passenger cabins were spacious with luxurious interiors – over speed and efficiency; the basic navigational capabilities of pilots at the time meant that delays due to the weather were commonplace.
By the early 1920s, small airlines were struggling to compete, there was a movement towards increased rationalization and consolidation. In 1924, Imperial Airways was formed from the merger of Instone Air Line Company, British Marine Air Navigation, Daimler Airway and Handley Page Transport Co Ltd. to allow British airlines to compete with stiff competition from French and German airlines that were enjoying heavy government subsidies. The ai
A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere. This region is referred to as the Northwestern Pacific Basin, is the most active tropical cyclone basin on Earth, accounting for one-third of the world's annual tropical cyclones. For organizational purposes, the northern Pacific Ocean is divided into three regions: the eastern and western; the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for tropical cyclone forecasts is in Japan, with other tropical cyclone warning centers for the northwest Pacific in Hawaii, the Philippines and Hong Kong. While the RSMC names each system, the main name list itself is coordinated among 18 countries that have territories threatened by typhoons each year A hurricane is a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean or the northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, a tropical cyclone occurs in the South Pacific or the Indian Ocean. Within the northwestern Pacific, there are no official typhoon seasons as tropical cyclones form throughout the year.
Like any tropical cyclone, there are a few main requirements for typhoon formation and development: sufficiently warm sea surface temperatures, atmospheric instability, high humidity in the lower to middle levels of the troposphere, enough Coriolis effect to develop a low pressure center, a pre-existing low level focus or disturbance, a low vertical wind shear. While the majority of storms form between June and November, a few storms do occur between December and May. On average, the northwestern Pacific features the most numerous and intense tropical cyclones globally. Like other basins, they are steered by the subtropical ridge towards the west or northwest, with some systems recurving near and east of Japan; the Philippines receive the brunt of the landfalls, with China and Japan being impacted less. Some of the deadliest typhoons in history have struck China. Southern China has the longest record of typhoon impacts for the region, with a thousand-year sample via documents within their archives.
Taiwan has received the wettest known typhoon on record for the northwest Pacific tropical cyclone basins. The term typhoon is the regional name in the northwest Pacific for a severe tropical cyclone, whereas hurricane is the regional term in the northeast Pacific and northern Atlantic. Elsewhere this is called severe tropical cyclone, or severe cyclonic storm; the Oxford English Dictionary cites Urdu ṭūfān and Chinese tai fung giving rise to several early forms in English. The earliest forms -- "touffon" "tufan", "tuffon", others—derive from Urdu ṭūfān, with citations as early as 1588. From 1699 appears "tuffoon" "tiffoon", derived from Chinese with spelling influenced by the older Urdu-derived forms; the modern spelling "typhoon" dates to 1820, preceded by "tay-fun" in 1771 and "ty-foong", all derived from the Chinese tai fung. The Urdu source word توفان ṭūfān comes from the Persian (Persian: توفان/طوفان tūfān meaning "storm" which comes from the verb (Persian: توفیدن/طوفیدن tūfīdan; the word طوفان is derived from Arabic as coming from ṭāfa, to turn round.
The Chinese source is the word tai taifeng. The modern Japanese word, 台風, is derived from Chinese; the first character is used to mean "pedestal" or "stand", but is a simplification of the older Chinese character 颱, which means "typhoon". The Ancient Greek Τυφῶν has secondarily contaminated the word; the Persian term may have been influenced by the Greek word. A tropical depression is the lowest category that the Japan Meteorological Agency uses and is the term used for a tropical system that has wind speeds not exceeding 33 knots. A tropical depression is upgraded to a tropical storm should its sustained wind speeds exceed 34 knots. Tropical storms receive official names from RSMC Tokyo. Should the storm intensify further and reach sustained wind speeds of 48 knots it will be classified as a severe tropical storm. Once the system's maximum sustained winds reach wind speeds of 64 knots, the JMA will designate the tropical cyclone as a typhoon—the highest category on its scale. From 2009 the Hong Kong Observatory started to further divide typhoons into three different classifications: typhoon, severe typhoon and super typhoon.
A typhoon has wind speed of 64-79 knots, a severe typhoon has winds of at least 80 knots, a super typhoon has winds of at least 100 knots. The United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center unofficially classifies typhoons with wind speeds of at least 130 knots —the equivalent of a strong Category 4 storm in the Saffir-Simpson scale—as super typhoons. However, the maximum sustained wind speed measurements that the JTWC uses are based on a 1-minute averaging period, akin to the U. S.' National Hurricane Center and Central Pacific Hurricane Center. As a result, the JTWC's wind reports are higher than JMA's measurements, as the latter is based on a 10-minute averaging interval. There are six main requirements for tropical cyclogenesis: sufficiently warm sea surface temperatures, atmospheric instability, high humidity in the lower to middle levels of the troposphere, enough Coriol