Washington and Lee University
Washington and Lee University is a private liberal arts university in Lexington, United States. The campus is approximately 50 miles from Roanoke, Virginia,140 miles from Richmond, Virginia and Lee was founded in 1749 as a small classical school named Augusta Academy by Scots-Irish Presbyterian pioneers, though the University has never claimed any sectarian affiliation. In 1796, George Washington endowed the academy with a gift of stock. In gratitude, the school was renamed for the first United States President and Lee is the ninth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the second-oldest in Virginia. The University consists of three units, The College, the Williams School of Commerce and Politics. The University hosts 24 intercollegiate athletic teams compete as part of the Old Dominion Athletic Conference of the NCAA Division III. The classical school from which Washington and Lee descended was established in 1749 by Scots-Irish Presbyterian pioneers and soon named Augusta Academy, in 1776, it was renamed Liberty Hall in a burst of revolutionary fervor.
The academy moved to Lexington in 1780, when it was chartered as Liberty Hall Academy, the academy granted its first bachelors degree in 1785. Liberty Hall is said to have admitted its first African-American student when John Chavis and he is believed to be the first black student to enroll in higher education in the United States, although he did not receive a degree. Washington and Lee enrolled its next African-American student in 1966 in the law school, in 1796, George Washington endowed the academy with $20,000 in James River Canal stock, at the time one of the largest gifts ever given to an educational institution in the United States. Washingtons gift continues to provide nearly $1.87 a year toward every students tuition, the gift rescued Liberty Hall from near-certain insolvency. In gratitude, the changed the schools name to Washington Academy. An 8-foot tall statue of George Washington, carved by Matthew Kahle, the current statue is made of bronze, the original wooden statue was restored and now resides in the universitys library.
The campus took its current architectural form in the 1820s when a merchant, Jockey John Robinson. For the dedication celebration in 1824, Robinson supplied a huge barrel of whiskey, but according to a contemporary history, the rabble broke through the barriers and created pandemonium, which ended only when college officials demolished the whiskey barrel with an axe. A justice of the Virginia State Supreme Court, Alex, M. Harman, Jr. re-created the episode in 1976 for the dedication of the new law school building by having several barrels of Scotch imported. Robinson left his estate to Washington College, the estate included between 70 and 80 slaves. Until 1852, the institution benefited from their labor and, in some cases
J. E. B. Stuart
James Ewell Brown Jeb Stuart was a United States Army officer from the U. S. state of Virginia, who became a Confederate States Army general during the American Civil War. He was known to his friends as Jeb, from the initials of his given names, Stuart was a cavalry commander known for his mastery of reconnaissance and the use of cavalry in support of offensive operations. While he cultivated an image, his serious work made him the trusted eyes and ears of Robert E. Lees army. Stuart graduated from West Point in 1854, and served in Texas and Kansas with the U. S. Army. He was a veteran of the conflicts with Native Americans and the violence of Bleeding Kansas. He established a reputation as a cavalry commander and on two occasions circumnavigated the Union Army of the Potomac, bringing fame to himself and embarrassment to the North. At the Battle of Chancellorsville, he distinguished himself as a commander of the wounded Stonewall Jacksons infantry corps. During the 1864 Overland Campaign, Union Maj.
Gen. Philip Sheridans cavalry launched an offensive to defeat Stuart, Stuarts widow wore black for the rest of her life in remembrance of her deceased husband. Stuart was born at Laurel Hill Farm, a plantation in Patrick County, Virginia and he was of Scottish American and Scots-Irish background. He was the eighth of eleven children and the youngest of the five sons to survive past early age and his great-grandfather, Major Alexander Stuart, commanded a regiment at the Battle of Guilford Court House during the American Revolutionary War. Archibald was a cousin of Alexander Hugh Holmes Stuart, elizabeth Letcher Pannill Stuart, Jebs mother, who was known as a strict religious woman with a good sense for business, ran the family farm. He entered Emory and Henry College when he was fifteen, during the summer of 1848, Stuart attempted to enlist in the U. S. Army, but was rejected as underaged. He obtained an appointment in 1850 to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, from Representative Thomas Hamlet Averett, Stuart was a popular student and was happy at the Academy.
Although not handsome in his teen years, his classmates called him by the nickname Beauty and he possessed a chin so short and retiring as positively to disfigure his otherwise fine countenance. He quickly grew a beard after graduation and a fellow officer remarked that he was the man he ever saw that beard improved. Robert E. Lee was appointed superintendent of the Academy in 1852, Lees nephew, Fitzhugh Lee, arrived at the academy in 1852. In Stuarts final year, in addition to achieving the rank of second captain of the corps. Stuart graduated 13th in his class of 46 in 1854 and he ranked tenth in his class in cavalry tactics
Gray or grey is a coat color of horses characterized by progressive silvering of the colored hairs of the coat. Most gray horses have black skin and dark eyes, unlike many depigmentation genes and their adult hair coat is white, dappled, or white intermingled with hairs of other colors. Gray horses may be any base color, depending on other color genes present. White hairs begin to appear at or shortly after birth and become lighter as the horse ages. Graying can occur at different rates—very quickly on one horse and very slowly on another, gray horses appear in many breeds, though the color is most commonly seen in breeds descended from Arabian ancestors. People who are unfamiliar with horses may refer to horses as white. However, a horse whose hair coat is completely white will still have black skin. This is how to discern a gray horse from a white horse, white horses usually have pink skin and sometimes even have blue eyes. Young horses with hair coats consisting of a mixture of colored, Some horses that carry dilution genes may be confused with white or gray.
While gray is commonly called a color by breed registries. It is a dominant allele, and thus a horse only one copy of the gray allele. A homozygous gray horse, one carrying two gray alleles, will always produce gray foals, gray is common in many breeds. Today, about one horse in 10 carries the mutation for graying with age, the vast majority of Lipizzaners are gray, as are the majority of Andalusian horses. Many breeds of French draft horse such as the Percheron and Boulonnais are often gray as well, gray is found among Welsh Ponies and American Quarter Horses. All of these breeds have common ancestry in the Arabian horse, in particular, all gray Thoroughbreds descend from a horse named Alcocks Arabian, a gray born in 1700. The gray coat color makes up about 3% of Thoroughbreds, gray occurs in spotted horses such as pintos or Appaloosas, but its effects wash out the contrast of the markings of these patterns. For this reason, some breed registries refuse or cancel registration of gray horses. A gray foal may be any color
Captain (armed forces)
The army rank of captain is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers. The rank is used by some air forces and marine forces. Today, a captain is typically either the commander or second-in-command of a company or artillery battery, in the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army, a captain may command a company, or be the second-in-command of a battalion. In NATO countries, the rank of captain is described by the code OF-2 and is one rank above an OF-1, the rank of captain is generally considered to be the highest rank a soldier can achieve while remaining in the field. The rank of captain should not be confused with the rank of captain or with the British-influenced air force rank of group captain. The term ultimately goes back to Late Latin capitaneus meaning chief, prominent, in Middle English adopted as capitayn in the 14th century, the military rank of captain was in use from the 1560s, referring to an officer who commands a company. The naval sense, an officer who commands a man-of-war, is earlier, from the 1550s.
He would in turn receive money from another nobleman to serve as his lieutenant, the funding to provide for the troops came from the monarch or his government, the captain had to be responsible for it. If he was not, or was otherwise court-martialed, he would be dismissed, the only pension for the captain was selling the right to another nobleman when he was ready to retire. In most countries, the air force is the junior service, such as the United States Air Force, use a rank structure and insignia similar to those of the army. However, the United Kingdoms Royal Air Force, many other Commonwealth air forces, a group captain is OF-5 and was derived from the naval rank of captain. In the unified system of the Canadian Forces, the air force rank titles are pearl grey, a variety of images illustrative of different forces insignia for captain are shown below, Captain Captain Senior captain Staff captain
The Dukes of Hazzard
The Dukes of Hazzard is an American action-comedy television series that aired on CBS from January 26,1979 to February 8,1985. The show aired for a total of 147 episodes spanning seven seasons, the series was inspired by the 1975 film Moonrunners, which was created by Gy Waldron and had many identical or similar character names and concepts. Several other technicalities of their probation came into play at various times and he is always looking for ways to get them out of the picture so that his plots have a chance of succeeding. Many episodes revolve around Hogg trying to engage in an illegal scheme, some of these are get-rich-quick schemes, though many others affect the financial security of the Duke farm, which Hogg has long wanted to acquire for various reasons. Other times, Hogg hires criminals from out of town to do his dirty work for him, Bo and Luke always seem to stumble over Hoggs latest scheme, sometimes by curiosity, and often by sheer luck, and put it out of business. Owing to their fundamentally good natures, the Dukes often wind up helping Boss Hogg out of trouble, more than once Hogg is targeted by former associates who are either seeking revenge or have double crossed him after a scheme has unraveled in one way or another.
Sheriff Coltrane finds himself in some instances and these instances became more frequent as the show progressed, and seasons saw a number of stories where the Dukes and Hogg temporarily work together. The series was developed from the 1975 film Moonrunners, created by Gy Waldron in collaboration with ex-moonshiner Jerry Rushing, this movie shares many identical and very similar names and concepts with the subsequent TV series. Although itself essentially a comedy, this movie was much cruder and edgier than the family-friendly TV series that would evolve from it. In 1977, Waldron was approached by Warner Bros. with the idea of developing Moonrunners into a television series, Waldron reworked various elements from Moonrunners, and from it was devised what would become The Dukes of Hazzard. Production began in October 1978 with the intention of only nine episodes being produced as mid-season filler. The first five episodes were filmed in Covington and Conyers and surrounding areas, after completing production on the fifth episode, High Octane, the cast and crew broke for Christmas break, expecting to return in several weeks time to complete the ordered run of episodes.
Rushing appeared as shady used car dealer Ace Parker in the third episode produced, although he remained on good terms with cast and crew and in recent years has made appearances at several fan conventions. By the end of the first season, the tone of The Dukes of Hazzard was mostly in place. When the show returned for a season in Fall 1979, with a few further minor tweaks. By the third season, starting in Fall 1980, the template was well set in place for that which would be associated with the show. Of the characters, only Uncle Jesse and Boss Hogg appeared in all 145 episodes, Daisy appears in all but one, the General Lee appears in all but one. Lucas K. Luke Duke is the dark-haired, older Duke boy, more mature and rational than his cousin Bo, he is typically the one who thinks of the plan that will get the two out of whatever trouble they have gotten into
Sorrel is an alternative term for the chestnut, one of the most common equine coat colors in horses. The term probably comes from the color of the spike of the sorrel herb. Chestnut is more used to describe this color in England and on the east coast of the United States. Some horse enthusiasts insist that chestnut and sorrel are two distinct colorations, but there is no genetic difference between the two and no clear consensus on what the distinction is. Some argue that sorrel should be used to describe only lighter shades, or shades with a very clear reddish tint, while chestnut denotes darker shades or shades with more brown in them. The American Quarter Horse Association, which uses both terms, describes a sorrel as a type of copper-red chestnut, but allows that chestnut is a correct term, in terms of equine coat color genetics there is no difference at all. Solid reddish-brown color is a color of horses, caused by the recessive e gene. A sorrel and a bay, especially a blood bay, may be confused with one another, all bays have black points - a black mane and lower legs.
Light-colored sorrels, sometimes called blond sorrels, especially if they have flaxen manes and tails, true palomino coloration is the result of a horses being heterozygous for the cream dilution gene. Some definitions list sorrel as a color, used to describe only horses whose mane, tail. Other definitions are broader and include reddish-brown horses with flaxen manes, many organizations simply avoid the whole fuss and choose one of the two terms to denote all reddish or brown colorations that are not bay. Web Site accessed January 12, 2008*AQHA General Glossary
Battle of Malvern Hill
Including inactive reserves, more than fifty thousand soldiers from each side took part, using more than two hundred pieces of artillery and three warships. Confederate commander-in-chief Joseph E. Johnston fended off McClellans repeated attempts to take the city, when Johnston was wounded, Lee took command and launched a series of counterattacks, collectively called the Seven Days Battles. These attacks culminated in the action on Malvern Hill, the Unions V Corps, commanded by Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter, took up positions on the hill on June 30. Confederate preparations were hindered by several mishaps, Magruder and D. H. Hill, respectively. In each phase, the effectiveness of the Federal artillery was the factor, repulsing attack after attack. After the battle, McClellan and his forces withdrew from Malvern Hill to Harrisons Landing and his plan to capture Richmond had been thwarted. These errors provided Union forces with an opportunity to inflict heavy casualties, in the aftermath of the battle, the Confederate press heralded Lee as the savior of Richmond.
In stark contrast, McClellan was accused of being absent from the battlefield, in spring 1862, Union commander Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan developed an ambitious plan to capture Richmond, the Confederate capital, on the Virginia Peninsula. The bold and sweeping landing was executed with few incidents, when McClellans army finally did attack on May 4, the defensive earthworks around Yorktown were undefended. After some hours, the Army of the Potomac pursued the retreating Confederates, when Union troops encountered the Confederate rearguard at Williamsburg, the two armies fought an inconclusive battle. The Confederates continued their withdrawal that night, to stymie the Southerners retreat, McClellan sent Brig. Gen. William F. Baldy Smith to Elthams Landing by boat, resulting in a battle there on May 7. When the Union Army tried to attack Richmond by way of the James River, all the while, McClellan continued his pursuit of Confederate forces, who were withdrawing quickly towards Richmond. The lack of action on the Virginia Peninsula spurred President Abraham Lincoln to order McClellans army to move into positions close to Richmond.
By May 30, McClellan had begun moving troops across the Chickahominy River, heavy rains and thunderstorms on the night of May 30 caused the water level to swell, washing away two bridges and splitting the Federal army in two across the Chickahominy. Johnstons plan fell apart, and McClellan lost no ground, late in the battle, Johnston was hit in the right shoulder by a bullet and in the chest by a shell fragment, his command went to Maj. Gen. Gustavus W. Smith. Smiths tenure as commander of the Army of Northern Virginia was short, the subsequent two weeks on the peninsula were mostly quiet. On June 25, though, an attack by McClellan began a series of six major battles over the next week near Richmond—the Seven Days Battles. On the first day, as Lee led the Army of Northern Virginia toward the Union lines, Lees men successfully warded off the Union assault, and Lee continued with his plans
Rochester, New York
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in the western portion of the U. S. state of New York, and the seat of Monroe County. The citys population was the third largest — after New York City. This area, which is part of the Western New York region, had a population of 1,079,671 at the time of the 2010 Census, a Census estimate of July 1,2012, raised that number to 1,082,284. Rochester was one of Americas first boomtowns, and rose to prominence as the site of many mills along the Genesee River. Several of the universities have renowned research programs. In addition, Rochester is the site of important inventions and innovations in consumer products. Until 2010, the Rochester metropolitan area was the second-largest regional economy in New York State, internal Revenue Service, after the New York City metropolitan area. Rochesters GMP has since ranked just below that of Buffalo, New York, the 25th edition of the Places Rated Almanac rated Rochester as the most livable city in 2007, among 379 U. S. metropolitan areas.
In 2010 Forbes rated Rochester as the third-best place to raise a family, in 2012 Kiplinger rated Rochester as the fifth-best city for families, citing low cost of living, top public schools, and a low jobless rate. Of the 19 places in the United States named Rochester at least eight were named directly after Rochester, New York, having been founded or settled by former residents. These include Rochester, Rochester, Rochester, Rochester, Rochester, Rochester, Rochester and Rochester, Ohio. The Seneca tribe of Native Americans lived in and around Rochester until they lost their claim to most of land in the Treaty of Big Tree in 1797. Settlement before the Seneca tribe is unknown, development of modern Rochester followed the American Revolution, and forced cession of their territory by the Iroquois after the defeat of Great Britain. Allied with the British, four major Iroquois tribes were forced from New York. As a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a land grant on the Grand River in Canada.
Rochester was founded shortly after the American Revolution by a wave of English-Puritan descended immigrants from New England who were looking for new agricultural land and they would be the dominant cultural group in Rochester for over a century. They chose the site because its three cataracts on the Genesee offered great potential for water power, beginning in 1811, and with a population of 15, the three founders surveyed the land and laid out streets and tracts. In 1817, the Brown brothers and other landowners joined their lands with the Hundred Acre Tract to form the village of Rochesterville, by 1821, Rochesterville was the seat of Monroe County
Greenbrier County, West Virginia
Greenbrier County /ˈɡriːnbraɪər/, is a county in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 35,480, the county was formed in 1778 from Botetourt and Montgomery counties in Virginia. Prior to the arrival of European settlers around 1740, Greenbrier County and this land, which they called Can-tuc-kee, was thought to be inhabited by ghosts of Azgens, a white people from an eastern sea who were said to have been killed off by the Shawnees ancestors. If we did, these ghosts would rise from their caves and mounds and slay us, hunting parties were permitted to camp in the area, permanent settlements east and south of the Spay-lay-we-theepi were forbidden. Shawnee leaders viewed the white settlements as a violation of the Azgen taboo, and they feared the loss of their hunting lands, they realized it would only be a matter of time before the white settlers crossed the river and occupied their land in present-day Ohio. By 1774, the Earl of Dunmore, governor of the colonies of New York and Virginia, half of these men were inducted at Fort Pitt, while the other half assembled at Fort Union, the site of present-day Lewisburg, under the command of General Andrew Lewis.
One of the defenders of Fort Donnally was an African American slave named Dick Pointer. Pointer, said to have been nearly 7 feet tall, defended the log door with Philip Hamman, giving the settlers time to awaken. Pointer addressed the Virginia General Assembly and gave an appeal that in the decline of life he requested to be freed for his defense of Fort Donnally. Historic accounts differ as to whether the legislature granted his wish and his grave is marked beside Carnegie Hall in the county seat of Lewisburg, and a historical marker stands prominently in the midst of the Lewisburg Cemetery. Pointer’s gun is on permanent display at The Greenbrier Historical Society, during the secession crisis of 1861 Greenbrier citizens chose Samuel Price as their delegate to the Richmond convention. On April 17,1861, the day Virginias secession ordinance was passed he voted against it, when the public vote on the secession ordinance was held on May 23,1861, Greenbrier county voted 1,000 to 100 in favor of secession.
The Civil War came to the county in mid 1861, and several battles were fought in the area, including Lewisburg in May 1862 and White Sulphur Springs in August 1863. Greenbrier County became part of the new state of West Virginia although it never participated in any of the held by the Restored Government in Wheeling. During the war approximately 2,000 men from Greenbrier county joined the Confederate army, what is claimed to be the oldest golf course in the United States was founded in 1884 just north of White Sulphur Springs by the Montague family. During the decade prior to World War II, several Civilian Conservation Corps camps were located along the Greenbrier River, for most of the 20th century, the Meadow River Lumber Company operated the worlds largest hardwood sawmill in Rainelle. During World War II The Greenbrier hotel was used as a hospital, when the war ended, it was returned to its former use as a hotel. Later, during the Cold War, the Greenbrier served as the site of a secret Congressional bunker, in the June 2016 floods that affected the state of West Virginia, Greenbrier county suffered 16 casualties, the most of any county
A stallion is a male horse that has not been gelded. Stallion is used to refer to males of other equids, including zebras, contrary to popular myths, many stallions do not live with a harem of mares. Nor, in natural settings, do they fight each other to the death in competition for mares, being social animals, stallions who are not able to find or win a harem of mares usually band together in stallions-only bachelor groups which are composed of stallions of all ages. Even with a band of mares, the stallion is not the leader of a herd, the leadership role in a herd is held by a mare, known colloquially as the lead mare or boss mare. The mare determines the movement of the herd as it travels to obtain food and she determines the route the herd takes when fleeing from danger. When the herd is in motion, the dominant stallion herds the straggling members closer to the group, when the herd is at rest, all members share the responsibility of keeping watch for danger. The stallion is usually on the edge of the group, to defend the herd if needed, there is usually one dominant mature stallion for every mixed-sex herd of horses.
In some cases, a single mature male may be tolerated on the fringes of the herd. One theory is that young male is considered a potential successor. Fillies usually soon join a different band with a dominant stallion different from the one that sired them, colts or young stallions without mares of their own usually form small, all-male, bachelor bands in the wild. Living in a group gives these stallions the social and protective benefits of living in a herd, a bachelor herd may contain older stallions who have lost their herd in a challenge. Other stallions may directly challenge a herd stallion, or may attempt to steal mares and form a new. In either case, if the two meet, there rarely is a true fight, more often there will be bluffing behavior. Even if a fight for dominance occurs, rarely do opponents hurt each other in the wild because the weaker combatant has a chance to flee. Fights between stallions in captivity may result in injuries and other forms of confinement make it more difficult for the losing animal to safely escape.
In the wild, feral stallions have been known to steal or mate with domesticated mares, the stallions reproductive system is responsible for his sexual behavior and secondary sex characteristics. The external genitalia comprise, the testes, which are suspended horizontally within the scrotum. The testes of a stallion are ovoids 8 to 12 cm long,6 to 7 cm high by 5 cm wide
Second Battle of Bull Run
The Second Battle of Bull Run or Battle of Second Manassas was fought August 28–30,1862 in Prince William County, Virginia, as part of the American Civil War. Withdrawing a few miles to the northwest, Jackson took up strong concealed defensive positions on Stony Ridge, on August 28,1862, Jackson attacked a Union column just east of Gainesville, at Brawners Farm, resulting in a stalemate but successfully getting Popes attention. On that same day, the wing of Lees army commanded by Maj. Gen. James Longstreet broke through light Union resistance in the Battle of Thoroughfare Gap, Pope became convinced that he had trapped Jackson and concentrated the bulk of his army against him. On August 29, Pope launched a series of assaults against Jacksons position along a railroad grade. The attacks were repulsed with casualties on both sides. At noon, Longstreet arrived on the field from Thoroughfare Gap, on August 30, Pope renewed his attacks, seemingly unaware that Longstreet was on the field. The Union left flank was crushed and the army was back to Bull Run.
Only an effective Union rear guard action prevented a replay of the First Manassas defeat, Popes retreat to Centreville was nonetheless precipitous. Success in this battle emboldened Lee to initiate the ensuing Maryland Campaign, after the collapse of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellans Peninsula Campaign in the Seven Days Battles of June 1862, Pope had achieved some success in the Western Theater, and Lincoln sought a more aggressive general than McClellan. Popes mission was to two basic objectives, protect Washington and the Shenandoah Valley, and draw Confederate forces away from McClellan by moving in the direction of Gordonsville. This allowed him to relocate Jackson to Gordonsville to block Pope, Lee had larger plans in mind. Since the Union Army was split between McClellan and Pope and they were separated, Lee saw an opportunity to destroy Pope before returning his attention to McClellan. He committed Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill to join Jackson with 12,000 men, on August 3, General-in-Chief Henry W. Halleck directed McClellan to begin his final withdrawal from the Peninsula and to return to Northern Virginia to support Pope.
McClellan protested and did not begin his redeployment until August 14, on August 9, Nathaniel Bankss corps attacked Jackson at Cedar Mountain, gaining an early advantage, but a Confederate counterattack led by A. P. Hill drove Banks back across Cedar Creek. Jacksons advance was stopped, however, by the Union division of Brig. Gen. James B, by now Jackson had learned that Popes corps were all together, foiling his plan of defeating each in separate actions. He remained in position until August 12, withdrew to Gordonsville, on August 13, Lee sent Longstreet to reinforce Jackson. From August 22 to 25, the two fought a series of minor actions along the Rappahannock River
Bay is a hair coat color of horses, characterized by a reddish-brown body color with a black mane, ear edges, and lower legs. Bay is one of the most common colors in many horse breeds. The black areas of a bay horses hair coat are called points, and without them. Black points may sometimes be covered by white markings, however such markings do not alter a horses classification as bay, bay horses have dark skin, except under white markings - where the skin is pink. Genetically, bay occurs when a horse carries both the Agouti gene and a base coat. The addition of genes creates many additional coat colors. While the basic concepts behind bay coloring are fairly simple, the genes themselves, the genetics of dark shades of bay are still under study. A DNA test said to detect the seal brown allele was developed, sooty genetics appear to darken some horse bay coats, and that genetic mechanism is yet to be fully understood. Bay horses range in color from a copper red, to a rich red blood bay to a very dark red or brown called dark bay, mahogany bay, black-bay.
The dark, brown shades of bay are referred to in other languages by words meaning black-and-tan. Dark bays/browns may be so dark as to have black coats, with brownish-red hairs visible only under the eyes, around the muzzle, behind the elbow. Dark bay should not be confused with Liver chestnut, which is a dark brown color, but a liver chestnut has a brown mane and legs. The pigment in a bay coat, regardless of shade, is rich. This makes bays particularly lustrous in the sun if properly cared for, some bay horses exhibit dappling, which is caused by textured, concentric rings within the coat. Dapples on a bay horse suggest good condition and care, though many well-cared for horses never dapple, the tendency to dapple may be, to some extent, genetic. Bays often have a hair shaft, which, if shaved too closely, may cause the horse to appear several shades lighter. However, as the hair out, it will darken again to the proper shade. This phenomenon is part of bay color genetics, but usually not seen in shades of bay because there is less red in the hair shaft