PT Indonesia AirAsia, operating as Indonesia AirAsia, is a low-cost airline based in Tangerang, Indonesia. It operates scheduled domestic, international services and is an Indonesian associate carrier of Malaysian low-fare airline AirAsia, its main base is Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in Jakarta. Until July 2010, Indonesia Air Asia, along with many Indonesian airlines, was banned from flying to the EU due to safety concerns. However, the ban was lifted in July 2010. Indonesia AirAsia is listed in category 1 by the Indonesian Civil Aviation Authority for airline safety quality; the airline was established as Awair in 1999 by chairman of the Nahdlatul Ulama. It is the largest Muslim organisation in Indonesia, he had a 40% stake in the airline which he relinquished after being elected president of Indonesia in late October 1999. It started operations on 22 June 2000 with Airbus A300, A310 and A320 aircraft, but all flights were suspended in March 2002. Awair restarted operating domestically within Indonesia as an associate of AirAsia in January 2005.
On 1 December 2005, Awair changed its name to Indonesia AirAsia in line with the other AirAsia branded airlines in the region. AirAsia Berhad has a 49% share in the airline with Fersindo Nusaperkasa owning 51%. Indonesia's laws disallow majority foreign ownership on domestic civil aviation operations; the company appointed CIMB Securities Indonesia and Credit Suisse Securities Indonesia as joint-lead underwriters for the 20 percent IPO in the fourth quarter 2011. A buy out of Batavia Air was announced on 26 July 2012, it was to be in two stages with AirAsia to buy 76.95% shares form Metro Batavia in a partnership with Fersindo Nusaperkasa. By 2013, AirAsia was to acquire the remaining 23.05% held by other shareholders. The acquisition of Batavia Air by AirAsia Berhad and Fersindo created some controversy with Indonesian regulators at the time. By 11 October 2012 the deal between AirAsia Berhad, Fersindo Nusaperkasa and PT Metro Batavia had reversed; when the cancellation of the planned takeover between Batavia and AirAsia was announced on 11 October 2012 a joint statement was issued announcing a plan to proceed with an alliance encompassing ground handling and inventory systems in Indonesia.
The statement announced a plan to deliver operational alliances between Batavia and the Air Asia group. Batavia and Indonesia Air Asia announced a plan to form a separate joint venture to provide a regional pilot training centre in Indonesia. No details were provided on that new alliance when it was announced in early October 2012; the airline's head office is in Tangerang, adjacent to Soekarno-Hatta International Airport. It uses natural lighting; as of 2013 over 2,000 employees work there. Prior to the building's 2013 opening, the airline's employees worked in several offices in Jakarta, they were divided between Terminal 1A of Soekarno-Hatta Airport and Menara Batavia. On 28 June 2016, Indonesia AirAsia launched the Auto Bag Drop facility at Ngurah Rai International Airport. On 12 August 2016, AirAsia Indonesia moved its flight operations from Terminal 3 to Terminal 2 at Soekarno–Hatta International Airport; as of March 2019, Indonesia AirAsia serves the following destinations: Indonesia Banda Aceh – Sultan Iskandar Muda International Airport Bandung – Husein Sastranegara International Airport Denpasar – Ngurah Rai International Airport Hub Jakarta – Soekarno–Hatta International Airport Main Hub Lombok – Lombok International Airport Medan – Kuala Namu International Airport Hub Semarang – Achmad Yani International Airport Surabaya – Juanda International Airport Hub Yogyakarta – Adisutjipto International Airport Australia Perth – Perth Airport Malaysia Johor Bahru – Senai International Airport Kuala Lumpur – Kuala Lumpur International Airport Penang – Penang International Airport Singapore Singapore – Singapore Changi Airport Thailand Bangkok – Don Mueang International Airport As of January 2019, the Indonesia AirAsia fleet consists of the following aircraft: The airline operated the following aircraft: Airbus A310 Boeing 737-300 On 28 December 2014, Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501, an Airbus A320-216 registered PK-AXC with 155 passengers and 7 crew on board, crashed into the Java Sea whilst en route from Juanda International Airport, Surabaya to Changi International Airport, killing all 162 on board.
Regulatory licenses for the Surabaya-Singapore route as well as Medan-Palembang route have been suspended for Indonesia AirAsia since January 2015 due to suspected licensing breaches. Philippines AirAsia AirAsia X Thai AirAsia Indonesia AirAsia X Aviation in Indonesia Indonesia AirAsia fleet age Indonesia AirAsia fleet detail
Eurocopter AS350 Écureuil
The Eurocopter AS350 Écureuil, now Airbus Helicopters H125, is a single-engine light utility helicopter designed and manufactured in France by Aérospatiale and Eurocopter. In North America, the AS350 is marketed as the AStar; the AS355 Ecureuil 2 is a twin-engine variant, marketed in North America as the TwinStar. The Eurocopter EC130 is a derivative of the AS350 airframe and is considered by the manufacturer to be part of the Écureuil single-engine family. In the early 1970s, Aérospatiale decided to initiate a new development programme to produce a suitable replacement for the aging Aérospatiale Alouette II. While the Aérospatiale Gazelle, developed in the 1960s and 1970s, had been met with numerous orders by military customers, commercial sales of the type had been less than anticipated, thus the need for a new civil-orientated development was identified; the development of the new rotorcraft, headed by Chief Engineer René Mouille, was focused on the production of an economic and cost-effective aerial vehicle, thus both Aérospatiale's Production and Procurement departments were involved in the design process.
One such measure was the use of a rolled sheet structure, a manufacturing technique adapted from the automotive industry. It was decided that both civil and military variants of the emergent helicopter would be developed to conform with established military requirements. On 27 June 1974, the first prototype, an AS350 C powered by a Lycoming LTS101 turboshaft engine, conducted its maiden flight at Marignane, France; the Arriel-powered version, the AS350B, intended for sale throughout the world except for North America, was certified in France on 27 October 1977, while the Lycoming powered AS350C was certified by the US Federal Aviation Administration on 21 December 1977. In March 1978, deliveries to customers began for the AS350B, deliveries of the AS350C began in April 1978. Over time, the AS350 Écureuil/AStar has received further development. On 6 February 1987, a prototype AS350 B2 flew with a fenestron tail-rotor in the place of its normal conventional counterpart. On 1 March 1997, the first AS350 B3, equipped with an Arriel 2B engine, performed its first flight.
Various conversion programs and addons for AS350s have been produced and are offered by multiple third-party'aftermarket' aerospace firms in addition to those available directly from the type's prime manufacturer. New variants of the Arriel-powered AS350B, the AS350 B1, AS350 B2, AS350 B3, were progressively introduced. Prior to 2013, the type had been manufactured principally at Eurocopter's Marignane facility, near Marseille, France. S. commercial helicopter market. The Astar has been Eurocopter's biggest-selling product in the US commercial market, at one point selling one AS350 every business day. In March 2015, the first Columbus-assembled AS350 B3e received its FAA certification. In December 2015, Airbus Helicopters reported their intention to double the rate of AS350 production at Columbus in 2016 over the previous year, that the facility is capable of producing up to 65 AS350s per year; the AS350 is a single engine helicopter, powered either by a Lycoming LTS101 or Turbomeca Arriel powerplant, that drives a three-blade main rotor, furnished with a Starflex rotor head.
The type is well known for its high-altitude performance and has seen frequent use by operators in such environments. Both the main and tail rotors make use of composite material and are deliberately designed to minimize corrosion and maintenance requirements; the AS350 was developed to comply with the stringent noise requirements in place in locations such as national parks. The aircraft can be started up and shut down, useful during emergency medical services roles, it is equipped with hydraulically-assisted flight controls. Much of the AS350's avionics are provided by Garmin, such as the GI 106A course-deviation indicator, GNS 430 VHF/VOR/localizer/glideslope indicator/Global Positioning System receiver, GTX 327 Mode A and C transponder, GMA 340H intercom; the Vehicle and Engine Multifunction Display and the First Limit Indicator both serve to increase the aircraft's safety during flight, reducing the number of gauges that need to be monitored by the pilot and thereby reducing their workload.
For increased smoothness in flight, which positively affects passenger comfort as well as safety, stability augmentation systems can be installed. Later-production aircraft feature new avionics and systems such as the integration of an Automatic Flight Control System and autopilot, a glass cockpit featuring three liquid-crystal displays and digital avionics, such as the synthetic-vision terrain mapping system and Airbus's Multibloc center console upon which various radios may be mounted; the AS350 has proven popular in a wide range of roles.
Sumbawa is an Indonesian island, located in the middle of the Lesser Sunda Islands chain, with Lombok to the west, Flores to the east, Sumba further to the southeast. It is part of the province of West Nusa Tenggara, but there are presently steps being taken by the Indonesian government to turn the island into a separate province. Traditionally the island is sandalwood, its savanna-like climate and vast grasslands are used to hunt deer. Sumbawa has an area of 15,448 square kilometres or 5,965 square miles with a current population of around 1.39 million. It marks the boundary between the islands to the west, which were influenced by religion and culture spreading from India, the region to the east, less influenced. In particular this applies to both Islam; the 14th-century Nagarakretagama mentioned several principalities identified to be on Sumbawa. Four principalities in western Sumbawa were dependencies of the Majapahit Empire of eastern Java; because of Sumbawa's natural resources, it was invaded by outside forces – from the Javanese, Makassar, to the Dutch and Japanese.
The Dutch first arrived in 1605, but did not rule Sumbawa until the early 20th century. For a short period of time, the Balinese kingdom of Gelgel ruled a part of western Sumbawa; the eastern parts of the island, on the other hand, were home to the Sultanate of Bima, an Islamic polity that had links to the Bugis and Makassar peoples of South Sulawesi, as well as other Malay-Islamic polities in the archipelago. Historical evidence indicates that people on Sumbawa island were known in the East Indies for their honey, sappanwood, used to make red dye, sandalwood, used for incense and medications; the area was thought to be productive agriculturally. In the 18th century, the Dutch introduced coffee plantation on the western slopes of Mount Tambora, a volcano on the north side of Sumbawa, thus creating the Tambora coffee variant. Tambora's colossal eruption in 1815 was one of the most powerful of all time, ejecting 150 cubic kilometres of ash and debris into the atmosphere; the eruption killed up to 71,000 people and triggered a period of global cooling known as the "Year Without a Summer" in 1816.
It apparently destroyed a small culture of Papuan affinity, known to archaeologists as the "Tambora culture". Sumbawa is administratively divided into one kota, they are: Islam, the dominant faith of the island, was introduced by the Makassarese of Sulawesi. Sumbawa had speaking, three major linguistic groups who spoke languages that were unintelligible to each other. One group centered in the western side of the island speaks Basa Semawa, similar to the Sasak language from Lombok, they were once separated by the Tambora culture. After the demise of Tambora due to the 1815 eruption, local kingdoms based in Sumbawa Besar and Bima became the two focal points of Sumbawa; this division of the island into two parts remains today. The population of the island was 1.33 million at the latest decennial census in 2010, comprising 29.58% of the population of the entire province's with 4.5 million people. Due to lack of work opportunities on the island and its frequent droughts, many people on the island seek work in the Middle East as laborers or domestic servants.
The island is bound by bodies of water. The Sape Strait lies to the east of the island and separates Sumbawa from Flores and the Komodo Islands, there are a number bays and gulfs, most notably Bima Bay, Cempi Bay, Waworada Bay Sumbawa's most distinguishing features are Saleh Bay and the Sanggar Peninsula. On the latter stands Mount Tambora, a large stratovolcano famous for its VEI 7 eruption in 1815, one of only a few eruptions of such magnitude in the last 2,000 years; the eruption obliterated most of Tambora's summit, reducing its height by about a third and leaving a six kilometer-wide caldera. Regardless, Tambora remains the highest point on the island. Highlands rise in four spots on the island, as well as on Sangeang Island; the large western lobe of Sumbawa is dominated by a large central highland, Tambora and Bima each have more minor highlands. There are a number of large surrounding islands, most notably are Moyo Island, volcanically active Sangeang Island, the tourist Komodo Islands to the east.
There are a number of smaller offshore islands which fall within the regencies based on Sumbawa Island: Many of the island residents are at risk of starvation when crops fail due to lack of rainfall. The majority of the population works in agriculture. Tourism is nascent, with a few surf spots renowned for being world class and Supersuck Beaches near the mine, as well as Hu'u and Lakey Beach in the Gulf of Cempi. Due to the mine, Sumbawa Barat Regency, along with other remote mining towns, Jakarta, have the highest GDP per cap
Boeing 737 Classic
The Boeing 737 Classic refers to the -300/-400/-500 series of the Boeing 737. It is the second-generation derivative of the 737, following the original -100/-200 models that began production in 1966, they are short - to narrow-body jet airliners. Produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from 1984 to 2000, the 737 Classic includes three variants and can seat between 145 and 188 passengers. Improvements over the previous generation of 737 aircraft included CFM International CFM56 high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines, upgraded avionics, increased passenger capacity; the first model of the Classic series, the 737–300, entered service in 1984. It was followed by a stretched model, the 737-400, which entered service in 1988, followed by the shortened 737-500, the smallest variant in the classic series, in 1990. In total, 1,988 aircraft were delivered; the Classic series was introduced as the new generation of the 737, but following the introduction of the 737 Next Generation in the mid-1990s, was designated as the 737 Classic series.
Following the success of the Boeing 737-200 Advanced, Boeing wanted to increase capacity and range, incorporating improvements to upgrade the plane to modern specifications, while retaining commonality with previous 737 variants. Development began in 1979, in 1980, preliminary aircraft specifications were released at the Farnborough Airshow; the new series featured CFM56 turbofan engines, yielding significant gains in fuel economy and a reduction in noise, but posing an engineering challenge given the low ground clearance of the 737 - a trait of its 707-derived fuselage. Boeing and engine supplier CFM International solved the problem by placing the engine ahead of the wing, by moving engine accessories to the sides of the engine pod, giving the 737 a distinctive noncircular air intake; the wing incorporated a number of changes for improved aerodynamics. The wing tip was extended 9 inches; the leading-edge slats and trailing-edge flaps were adjusted. The flight deck was improved with the optional electronic flight instrumentation system, the passenger cabin incorporated improvements similar to those on the Boeing 757.
In March 1981, USAir and Southwest Airlines each ordered 10 aircraft of the 737-300 series, with an option for 20 more. That aircraft, the initial model of the 737 Classic series, first flew in February 1984 and entered service in December of that year with Southwest Airlines. A further stretched model, the 737-400, was launched with an order for 25 aircraft with 30 options from Piedmont Airlines in June 1986; that aircraft first flew in February 1988 and entered service that year with Piedmont Airlines. The final model of the series, the 737-500, was launched with an order for 30 aircraft from Southwest Airlines in May 1987; that aircraft, designed as a replacement for the 737-200 and had similar passenger capacity and dimensions, as well as the longest range of any member of the 737 Classic family, first flew in June 1989 and entered service with Southwest Airlines in 1990. Boeing selected the CFM56-3 to power the 737-300 variant; the 737 wings were closer to the ground than previous applications for the CFM56, necessitating several modifications to the engine.
The fan diameter was reduced, which reduced the bypass ratio, the engine accessory gearbox was moved from the bottom of the engine to the 9 o'clock position, giving the engine nacelle its distinctive flat-bottomed shape, nicknamed the "hamster pouch". The overall thrust was reduced, from 24,000 to 20,000 lbf due to the reduction in bypass ratio. Throughout the 1980s, the 737 Classic series attracted large orders from airlines in the United States and Europe, with its order totals exceeding those of preceding 737 models. By far, the most successful model was the 737-300, with deliveries totaling 1,113 aircraft. Major operators included US carriers, small national airlines, charter carriers. By the 1990s, when regular Boeing customer United Airlines bought the Airbus A320, this prompted Boeing to update the slower, shorter-range 737 Classic -400 into the rewinged, more efficient, longer 737NG-800. Production of the 737 Classic continued alongside that of the Next Generation for a period of time.
Six former Southwest 737-300s are modified and operated for aerial firefighting by British Columbia-based Coulson Group, supported by a C$3.4 million loan from the Canadian government. The converted 737 FireLiner can carry 4,000 US gal with a flow rate of 3,000 US gal /s, retains 66 seats; the first was deployed to Australia. The prototype of the -300 rolled out of the Renton plant on January 17, 1984, first flew on February 24, 1984. After it received its flight certification on November 14, 1984, USAir received the first aircraft on November 28. A popular aircraft, Boeing received 252 orders for it in 1985, over 1,000 throughout its production; the 300 series remained in production until 1999 when the last aircraft was delivered to Air New Zealand on December 17, 1999, registration ZK-NGJ. By 1,113 Boeing 737-300s were produced in a span of more than 15 years. In December 2008, Southwest Airlines selected Boeing to retrofit the 737-300 with a new set of instruments and software, to improve commonality with the 737-700, as well as to support the Required Navigation Performance initiative, but that order was cancelled and the retrofits never took place.
The 737-300 can be retrofitted with Aviation Partners
Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport
Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport is an international airport in Jakarta, Indonesia. The airport is located at East Jakarta. Aside from commercial scheduled flights, this airport is used for military and presidential purposes; the airport is used for corporate aviation with frequent arrivals and departures of corporate aircraft both domestically and internationally. About 5.6 million passengers used the airport in 2016. This airport takes its name from an Indonesian aviator, it is now home to a large number of turboprop and general aviation companies. It is a major air force base of the Indonesian Air Force and is home to most of its major squadrons, such as the 31st Squadron and the 17th VIP Squadron. In the 1960s, it was known as the Halim Perdana Kusumah Air Force Base, before that it was known as Tjililitan Airport or Tjililitan Airfield, after its borough; as a civilian airport, Halim Perdanakusuma was one the city's main airports, along with Kemayoran Airport, until the opening of Soekarno–Hatta International Airport in Tangerang in 1985.
Until it served all international routes bound for Jakarta, while Kemayoran handled domestic flights. The closure of Kemayoran in 1985 meant that Halim would serve as the secondary airport of Jakarta handling charter flights, general aviation, flying school base for the next 29 years. In the 1990s the Directorate General of Civil Aviation mandated that Halim would serve non-scheduled flights, as well as scheduled flights with aircraft under 100 passengers capacity. To ease Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, the Halim airport authority has announced to give 60 flight slots per hour for scheduled flights and, for the first time, the 2013 Haj pilgrims used this airport. Since 2014, the airport serves domestic scheduled flights with limitation capacity up to 2.2 million passengers per year from about 200,000 passengers in 2013. In 2014, Halim reopened for all scheduled flights as a congestion reliever for the overcrowded Soekarno–Hatta airport. An Airport Express train was planned to connect the airport to Soekarno–Hatta International Airport.
A feasibility study was conducted in December 2013. On January 10, 2014, Halim Perdanakusuma began to serve domestic scheduled commercial flights to ease the overloaded Soekarno–Hatta International Airport. Batik Air was the largest user, taking 32 slots from 74 slots available for all airlines a day; this terminal serves for all arriving flights. It operates for domestic flights only; this terminal is used by the President of the Republic of Indonesia and other government VIP flights. The feasibility study of an airport-to-airport Express Train has been finished and ready for prequalification offering; the Express Train initial plan is from Soekarno–Hatta International Airport to Manggarai, but to realize needs of transportation from Halim Perdanakusuma Airport, the route is extended from Manggarai to HPA. The route will stretch 33 kilometers, from Halim-Cawang-Manggarai-Tanah Abang-Sudirman-Pluit-Terminal 2&3 SHIA, on surface and elevated, has been agreed by Peraturan Menteri Nomor 1264 Tahun 2013 of Transportation Ministry.
The Express Train takes 30 minutes to travel between two airports instead of a 1 to 3 hours drive. On 24 June 1982, British Airways Flight 9, a Boeing 747-200 flew through a cloud of volcanic ash thrown up by the eruption of Mount Galunggung, causing the failure of all four engines; the crew diverted the aircraft to Jakarta and it landed safely. On 21 June 2012, an Indonesian Air Force Fokker F-27 crashed on landing and hit a housing complex near Halim airport. On 4 April 2016, Batik Air Flight 7703, a Boeing 737-800 registration PK-LBS, collided with a TransNusa ATR 42 while taxiing; the Boeing 737 wingtip sliced the tail of the ATR. The wingtip of the Boeing 737 burst into flames but was extinguished. No one on board were killed. PT. Angkasa Pura II: Halim Perdanakusuma Airport Airport information for WIHH at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006. Source: DAFIF. Current weather for WIHH at NOAA/NWS Airport information for HLP at Great Circle Mapper. Source: DAFIF. Accident history for HLP at Aviation Safety Network
Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas. It is the largest direct descendant of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company, was formed on November 30, 1999 by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ExxonMobil's primary brands are Exxon, Mobil and ExxonMobil Chemical; the world's second largest company by revenue, ExxonMobil from 1996 to 2017 varied from the first to sixth largest publicly traded company by market capitalization. The company was ranked ninth globally in the Forbes Global 2000 list in 2016. ExxonMobil was the tenth most profitable company in the Fortune 500 in 2017; as of 2018, the company ranked second in the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. ExxonMobil is one of the largest of the world's Big Oil companies; as of 2007, it had daily production of 3.921 million BOE. In 2008, this was 3% of world production, less than several of the largest state-owned petroleum companies.
When ranked by oil and gas reserves, it is 14th in the world—with less than 1% of the total. ExxonMobil's reserves were 20 billion BOE at the end of 2016 and the 2007 rates of production were expected to last more than 14 years. With 37 oil refineries in 21 countries constituting a combined daily refining capacity of 6.3 million barrels, ExxonMobil is the largest refiner in the world, a title, associated with Standard Oil since its incorporation in 1870. ExxonMobil has been criticized for its slow response to cleanup efforts after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska considered to be one of the world's worst oil spills in terms of damage to the environment. ExxonMobil has a history of lobbying for climate change denial and against the scientific consensus that global warming is caused by the burning of fossil fuels; the company has been the target of accusations of improperly dealing with human rights issues, influence on American foreign policy, its impact on the future of nations. ExxonMobil was formed in 1999 by the merger of two major oil companies and Mobil.
Both Exxon and Mobil were descendants of Standard Oil, established by John D. Rockefeller and partners in 1870 as the Standard Oil Company of Ohio. In 1882, it together with its affiliated companies was incorporated as the Standard Oil Trust with Standard Oil Company of New Jersey and Standard Oil Company of New York as its largest companies; the Anglo-American Oil Company was established in the United Kingdom in 1888. In 1890, Standard Oil, together with local ship merchants in Bremen established Deutsch-Amerikanische Petroleum Gesellschaft. In 1891, a sale branch for the Netherlands and Belgium, American Petroleum Company, was established in Rotterdam. At the same year, a sale branch for Italy, Società Italo Americana pel Petrolio, was established in Venice; the Standard Oil Trust was dissolved under the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1892. In 1893, the Chinese and the whole Asian kerosene market was assigned to Standard Oil Company of New York in order to improve trade with the Asian counterparts.
In 1898, Standard Oil of New Jersey acquired controlling stake in Imperial Oil of Canada. In 1899, Standard Oil Company of New Jersey became the holding company for the Standard Oil Interests; the anti-monopoly proceedings against the Standard Oil were launched in 1898. The reputation of Standard Oil in the public eye suffered badly after publication of Ida M. Tarbell's classic exposé The History of the Standard Oil Co. in 1904, leading to a growing outcry for the government to take action against the company. By 1911, with public outcry at a climax, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that Standard Oil must be dissolved and split into 34 companies. Two of these companies were Jersey Standard, which became Exxon, Socony, which became Mobil. Over the next few decades, Jersey Standard and Socony grew significantly. John Duston Archbold was the first president of Jersey Standard. Archbold was followed by Walter C. Teagle in 1917, who made it the largest oil company in the world. In 1919, Jersey Standard acquired a 50 % share in Humble Refining Co. a Texas oil producer.
In 1920, it was listed on the New York Stock Exchange. In the following years it acquired or established Tropical Oil Company of Colombia, Standard Oil Company of Venezuela, Creole Petroleum Company of Venezuela. Henry Clay Folger was head of Socony until 1923; the growing automotive market inspired the product trademark Mobiloil, registered by Socony in 1920. After dissolution of Standard Oil, Socony had refining and marketing assets but no production activities. For this reason, Socony purchased a 45% interest in Magnolia Petroleum Co. a major refiner and pipeline transporter, in 1918. In 1925, Magnolia became wholly owned by Socony. In 1926, Socony purchased General Petroleum Corporation of California. In 1928, Socony joined the Turkish Petroleum Company. In 1931, Socony merged with Vacuum Oil Company, an industry pioneer dating back to 1866, to form Socony-Vacuum. In the Asia-Pacific region, Jersey Standard has established through its Dutch subsidiary an exploration and production company Nederlandsche Koloniale Petroleum Maatschappij in 1912.
In 1922, it found oil in Indonesia and in 1927, it built a refinery in Sumatra. It had oil production and refineries but no marketing network. Socony-V
PT Lion Mentari Airlines, operating as Lion Air, is an Indonesian low-cost airline. Based in Jakarta, Lion Air is the country's largest run airline, the second largest low-cost airline in Southeast Asia after AirAsia and the largest airline of Indonesia; the airline operates domestic as well as international routes, which connects different destinations of Indonesia to Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, India and Saudi Arabia, as well as charter routes to China, Hong Kong, South Korea and Macau, with more than 630 flights per day. The airline has broken records for largest aircraft orders, such as its $24 billion order for 234 Airbus A320 jets, as well as its $22.4 billion order for 230 competing aircraft from Boeing. The airline signed agreement with US-based aircraft manufacturer Boeing for fifty 737 MAX 10 passenger jets worth $6.24 billion in June 2017. The airline is the second largest customer of Boeing, it had once been criticised for poor operational management in areas such as scheduling and safety, although steps have been taken to improve its safety: on 16 June 2016, the European Union lifted the ban it had placed on Lion Air from flying into European airspace.
In June 2018 it attained a positive safety rating following an ICAO audit. The airline was established in October 1999 by Rusdi and Kusnan Kirana and started operations on 30 June 2000, when it began scheduled passenger services from Jakarta to Denpasar and Pontianak using a leased Boeing 737-200, it was the first low-cost airline in Indonesia. The fleet was expanded with the wet-lease of five Yakovlev Yak-42Ds, two McDonnell Douglas MD-82s and two sub-leased Airbus A310-300s. Rapid growth enabled modernisation of the fleet with Boeing 737-400 aircraft. In 2003 a subsidiary airline was established, operating flights on lower density routes. Further subsidiaries were developed including Malindo Air in Malaysia in 2012, Thai Lion Air in Thailand in 2013 and domestically, Batik Air, a full-service subsidiary in 2013; the airline is planning to join the International Air Transport Association and therefore hoping to become the second IATA Indonesian member carrier after Garuda Indonesia. Lion Air failed, in early 2011, the initial IATA assessments for membership due to safety concerns.
Lion Air and Boeing pioneered the use of required navigation performance procedures in Indonesia, having performed validation flights at the two terrain-challenged airports of Ambon and Manado. From 19 July 2011, Lion Air grounded 13 aircraft due to sanctions caused by bad on-time performance; the transportation ministry recorded that Lion Air's OTP of 66.45 percent was the worst of six airlines in an assessment conducted from January to April 2011 at 24 airports nationwide. On the other hand, airlines using Jakarta airport faced considerable delays to their schedules due to runway congestion. On 18 November 2011, the airline jointly announced with Boeing a record-setting order of 201 Boeing 737 MAX and 29 Boeing 737-900ER aircraft, setting the record for the world's biggest single order of 230 paircraft for a commercial airline worth $21.7 billion. In January 2012, the Transportation Ministry said that it sanctioned Lion Air because some of its pilots and crew members were found in recent months to be in possession of crystal methamphetamine.
In late 2011 Muhammad Nasri and two other co-pilots were arrested at a party in Tangerang. On 4 February 2012, another Lion Air pilot was arrested following a positive urinalysis test for use of methamphetamine; the licenses of the pilots and crew were revoked. In June 2016 Lion Air was removed from the list of blacklisted airlines to fly into the EU; as of January 2014, Lion Air serves a total of 120 destinations: 20 international. The Boeing customer code for Lion Air is GP, which appears in the designation of its older Boeing aircraft as an infix, such as 737-8GP and 737-9GPER; as of February 2019, the Lion Air fleet consists of the following aircraft: Lion Air was the launch customer for the largest variant of the Boeing 737, the 737-900ER, for which it placed an order in 2005. On 26 May 2005, Lion Air signed a preliminary agreement with Boeing for the purchase of up to 60 Boeing 737 Next Generation aircraft, valued at $3.9 billion at list prices. Lion Air confirmed their order in July 2005 and became the launch customer for the Boeing 737-900ER with firm orders for 30 aircraft and options for 30 more, which were converted into firm orders.
The -900ER can carry up to 215 passengers in a single-class layout, is powered by CFM56-7B turbofan engines. On 27 April 2007, Boeing delivered the first 737-900ER to Lion Air; the aircraft was delivered in a special dual-paint scheme that combines Lion Air's logo on its vertical stabilizer and the Boeing "Dreamliner" livery on the fuselage. Lion Air set a world record when it placed an order for 230 aircraft from Boeing, making this the largest order in terms of aircraft ordered as well the cost of the order. In November 2011, Lion Air and Boeing announced that the airline planned to buy 29 additional Boeing 737 Next Generation and 201 Boeing 737 MAX aircraft, with options for 150 more, valued at $21.7 billion at the time. A firm order was signed on 14 February 2012, with the 737 MAX aircraft identified as 737 MAX 9s, making Lion Air the launch customer for that variant. By the time of the signing, the order's value had risen to $22.4 billion at list prices, the largest aircraft order in history.
Additionally, the engines for the -900ERs, CFM 56-7s, cost about $580 million and the engines for the MAXs, CFM LEAP-1Bs, cost about $4.8 billion. Deliveries of the additio