In baseball or softball, a strikeout occurs when a batter racks up three strikes during a time at bat. It means the batter is out. A strikeout is a statistic recorded for both pitchers and batters, is denoted by K. A strikeout looking is denoted by a Ʞ. Although a strikeout suggests that the pitcher dominated the batter, the free-swinging style that generates home runs leaves batters susceptible to striking out; some of the greatest home run hitters of all time — such as Alex Rodriguez, Reggie Jackson, Sammy Sosa — were notorious for striking out. A pitched ball is ruled a ball by the umpire if the batter did not swing at it and, in that umpire's judgement, it does not pass through the strike zone. Any pitch at which the batter swings unsuccessfully or, that in that umpire's judgement passes through the strike zone, is ruled a strike; each ball and strike affects the count, incremented for each pitched ball with the exception of a foul ball on any count with two strikes. That is, a third strike may only occur by the batter swinging and missing at a pitched ball, or the pitched ball being ruled a strike by the umpire with no swing by the batter.
A pitched ball, struck by the batter with the bat on any count, is not a foul ball or foul tip, is in play. A batter may strike out by bunting if the ball is hit into foul territory. A pitcher receives credit for a strikeout on any third strike, but a batter is out only if one of the following is true: The third strike is pitched and caught in flight by the catcher. Thus, it is possible for a batter to strike out, but still become a runner and reach base safely if the catcher is unable to catch the third strike cleanly, he does not either tag out the batter or force him out at first base. In Japan, this is called furinige, or "swing and escape". In Major League Baseball, it is known as an uncaught third strike; when this happens, a strikeout is recorded for both the pitcher and the batter, but no out is recorded. Because of this, a pitcher may be able to record more than three strikeouts in one half-inning, it is possible for a strikeout to result in a fielder's choice. With the bases loaded and two strikes with two outs, the catcher drops the ball or catches it on the bounce.
The batter-runner is obliged to run for first base and other base-runners are obliged to attempt to advance one base. Should the catcher field the ball and step on home plate before the runner from third base can score the runner from third base is forced out. In baseball scorekeeping, a swinging strikeout is recorded as a K, or a K-S. A strikeout looking is scored with a backwards K, sometimes as a K-L, CK, or Kc. Despite the scorekeeping custom of using "K" for strikeout, "SO" is the official abbreviation used by Major League Baseball."K" is still used by fans and enthusiasts for purposes other than official record-keeping. One baseball ritual involves fans attaching a succession of small "K" signs to the nearest railing, one added for every strikeout notched by the home team's pitcher, following a tradition started by New York Mets fans in honor of "Dr. K", Dwight Gooden; the "K" may be placed backwards in cases where the batter strikes out looking, just as it would appear on a scorecard.
Every televised display of a high-strikeout major league game will include a shot of a fan's strikeout display, if the pitcher continues to strike out batters, the display may be shown following every strikeout. The use of "K" for a strikeout was invented by Henry Chadwick, a newspaper journalist, credited as the originator of the box score and the baseball scorecard; as is true in much of baseball, both the box score and scorecard remain unchanged to this day. Chadwick decided to use "K", the last letter in "struck", since the letter "S" was used for "sacrifice." Chadwick was responsible for several other scorekeeping conventions, including the use of numbers to designate player positions. Those unaware of Chadwick's contributions have speculated that "K" was derived from the last name of 19th century pitcher Matt Kilroy. If not for the evidence supporting Chadwick's earlier use of "K", this explanation would be reasonable. Kilroy raised the prominence of the strikeout, setting an all-time single-season record of 513 strikeouts in 1886, only two years after overhand pitching was permitted.
His record, however, is limited to its era since the pitcher's mound was only 50 feet from the batter during that season. It was moved to its current distance of 60'6" in 1893; the modern record is 383 strikeouts, held by Nolan Ryan, one better than Sandy Koufax's 382. For 55 years, Walter Johnson held the career strikeout record, at 3,508; that record fell in 1982 to Nolan Ryan, passed by Steve Carlton, before Ryan took the career strikeout record for good at 5,714. Early rules stated that "three balls being struck at and missed and the last one caught, is a hand-out; the modern rule has changed little. The addition of the called strike came in 1858. In 1880, the rules were changed to specify. A adjustment to the dropped third strike rule specified that a batter is automatically out when there are fewer than two out and a runner on first base. In 1887, the number of strikes for an out was changed to four, but it was promptly changed back to three the next season. A swinging strik
In baseball and softball, a relief pitcher or reliever is a pitcher who enters the game after the starting pitcher is removed due to injury, fatigue, ejection, or for other strategic reasons, such as inclement weather delays or pinch hitter substitutions. Relief pitchers are further divided informally into various roles, such as closers, setup men, middle relief pitchers, left/right-handed specialists, long relievers. Whereas starting pitchers rest several days before pitching in a game again due to the number of pitches thrown, relief pitchers are expected to be more flexible and pitch more games but with fewer innings pitched. A team's staff of relievers is referred to metonymically as a team's bullpen, which refers to the area where the relievers sit during games, where they warm-up prior to entering the game. In the early days of Major League Baseball, substituting a player was not allowed except for sickness or injury. An ineffective pitcher would switch positions with another player on the field.
The first relief appearance in the major leagues was in 1876 with Boston Red Caps outfielder Jack Manning switching positions with pitcher Joe Borden. In this early era, relief pitchers changing from a position role to the pitcher's box in this way were called "change" pitchers; this strategy of switching players between the mound and the outfield is still employed in modern baseball, sometimes in long extra inning games where a team is running out of players. In 1889, the first bullpen appearance occurred after rules were changed to allow a player substitution at any time. Early relief pitchers were starting pitchers pitching one or two innings in between starts. In 1903, during the second game of the inaugural World Series, Pittsburgh's Bucky Veil became the first relief pitcher in World Series history. Firpo Marberry is credited with being the first prominent reliever. From 1923 to 1935, he pitched in 551 games. Baseball historian Bill James wrote that Marberry was "a modern reliever—a hard throwing young kid who worked in relief and was used to nail down victories."
Another reliever, Johnny Murphy, became known as "Fireman" for his effectiveness when inserted into difficult situations in relief. Nonetheless, the full-time reliever, entrusted with important situations was more the exception than the rule at this point. A team's ace starting pitcher was used in between his starts to "close" games. Research would reveal that Lefty Grove would have been in his league's top three in saves in four different seasons, had that stat been invented at the time. After World War II, full-time relievers became more acceptable and standard; the relievers were pitchers that were not good enough to be starters. Relievers in the 1950s started to develop oddball pitches to distinguish them from starters. For example, Hoyt Wilhelm threw a knuckleball, Elroy Face threw a forkball. In 1969, the pitcher's mound was lowered and umpires were encouraged to call fewer strikes to give batters an advantage. Relief specialists were used to counter the increase in offense. Relievers became more respected in the 1970s, their pay increased due to free agency.
All teams began having a closer. The 1980s were the first time in MLB. In 1995, there were nearly four saves for every complete game, it is unclear whether the specialization and reliance on relief pitchers led to pitch counts and fewer complete games, or whether pitch counts led to greater use of relievers. As closers were reduced to one-inning specialists, setup men and middle relievers became more prominent. In past decades, the relief pitcher was an ex-starter who came into a game upon the injury, ineffectiveness, or fatigue of the starting pitcher; the bullpen was for old starters. Many of these pitchers would be able to flourish in this diminished role; those such as Dennis Eckersley, as with many others prolonged their tapering careers and sparked them to new life. The added rest to their arms as well as the lessened exposure of their abilities became an advantage many would learn to capitalize on; because these pitchers only faced some batters once a season, the opposing side would have greater difficulty preparing to face relief pitchers.
Being a relief pitcher has become more of a career, rather than a reduced position. Many of today's top prospects are considered for their relief pitching skills. In the quest for a managerial edge, managers as time goes on have carried more pitchers in the bullpen, used them in more specialized situations. Acknowledgment of the platoon edge has prompted managers to ensure that opposing lefty hitters face as many lefty pitchers as possible, that the same occur with respect to righty hitters and pitchers. Tony La Russa was well known for making frequent pitching changes on this basis; when Mike Marshall set the all-time record with 106 games pitched in 1974, he threw 208.1 innings. Although some relievers still do appear in a large number of games per season, the workload for each individual pitcher has been much reduced. Since 2008, Pedro Feliciano has three of the top four seasons in games pitched, with 92, 88 and 86. However, Feliciano only averaged 58 innings pitched during those seasons; the last pitcher to throw 100 or more innings in a season without starting a game was Scott Proctor in 2006.
Pitching staffs on MLB teams have grown from 9 or 10 to as many as 12 or 13 pitchers, due to the increased importance of relief pitching. The staff consists of five starting pitchers, with the remaining pitchers assigned as relievers. A team's re
2000 Major League Baseball season
The 2000 Major League Baseball season ended with the New York Yankees defeating the New York Mets in five games, for their third consecutive World Series title. The 2000 World Series was known as the Subway Series because both fans and the two teams could take the subway to and from every game of the series. A then-record 5,693 home runs were hit during the regular season in 2000. Ten teams hit at least 200 home runs each, while for the first time since 1989 and only the fifth since 1949 no pitcher pitched a no-hitter. Postseason MVPs World Series MVP – Derek Jeter ALCS MVP – David Justice NLCS MVP – Mike Hampton All-Star Game, July 11 at Turner Field – American League, 6–3. Commissioner Bud Selig says he will listen to what the doctors say before deciding what punishment—if any—will be handed down to the pitcher. January 11 – The baseball writers elect catcher Carlton Fisk and first baseman Tony Pérez to the Hall of Fame. Fisk is chosen in his 2nd year on the ballot. January 31 – Braves reliever John Rocker is suspended from baseball until May 1 by Commissioner Bud Selig for his racial and ethnic remarks in an article published in Sports Illustrated last month.
He's fined $20,000 and ordered to undergo sensitivity training. February 10 – The Seattle Mariners accommodate center fielder Ken Griffey, Jr. trading him to his hometown Cincinnati Reds in exchange for four players. Cincinnati resisted giving up infielder Pokey Reese. February 29 – Manager Sparky Anderson, 19th-century star Bid McPhee, Negro League player Norman "Turkey" Stearnes are elected to the Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee. March 1 – Independent arbitrator Shyam Das cuts Braves pitcher John Rocker's suspension from 28 days to 14 days. Rocker, allowed to report to spring training with the team has his fine cut. March 29 – The Chicago Cubs open the major league season in the Tokyo Dome in Tokyo, Japan, by defeating the New York Mets 5–3, in the first big league game played outside of North America. Jon Lieber gets Mike Hampton takes the loss. Shane Andrews hits the first home run of the season. Mark Grace and Mike Piazza homer. April 3 – Andrés Galarraga hits a home run in his first game back after missing the entire 1999 season following cancer surgery.
Atlanta defeat the Colorado Rockies 2–0. April 3 – The Los Angeles Dodgers defeat the Montréal Expos 10–4, behind Eric Karros' grand slam. Right fielder Vladimir Guerrero hits a pair of home runs for Montreal as a new major league record for Opening Day is set with five players having multiple home run games. April 4 – Expos closer Ugueth Urbina strikes out the Dodgers in the top of the ninth inning on nine pitches, tying a major league record. April 7 – A total of 57 home runs are hit in the 15 games played, for a new major league record; the previous mark of 55 was set in 17 games on August 13, 1999. There were 36 homers hit in the AL. April 7 – The Tampa Bay Devil Rays open their home schedule playing home games at Tropicana Field on the new FieldTurf artificial surface, the first professional baseball venue to use that material, they lose to the Cleveland Indians, 14–5. April 9 – The Minnesota Twins defeat the Kansas City Royals 13–7. In the process, they become the first teams in major league history to each hit back-to-back-to-back home runs in the same game.
Ron Coomer, Jacque Jones, Matt LeCroy hit consecutive homers for Minnesota in the 6th inning, followed by three in a row by Carlos Beltrán, Jermaine Dye, Mike Sweeney of Kansas City an inning later. April 10 – Colorado beats Cincinnati 7–5, despite Ken Griffey, Jr.'s 400th career home run. At age of 30, Griffey is the youngest player in major league history to reach that milestone. April 11 – The Los Angeles Dodgers edge the San Francisco Giants 6–5 in the first game played at Pacific Bell Park in San Francisco. Shortstop Kevin Elster leads the Dodger attack with three home runs. April 11 – The Detroit Tigers sink the Seattle Mariners 5–2 in the first game played at Comerica Park in Detroit. April 15 – The Baltimore Orioles defeat the Twins 6–4, as Cal Ripken, Jr. gets the 3,000th hit of his career. Ripken goes 3-for-5 in becoming the 24th player to reach the milestone, the 7th to get 3,000 hits and 400 home runs. April 16 – Cleveland Indians starter Chuck Finley, the only pitcher to strike out four batters in one inning twice, does it for the third time, striking out Tom Evans, Royce Clayton, Chad Curtis and Rafael Palmeiro in the third inning.
Finley beats the Texas Rangers 2–1 with the help of back-to-back ninth-inning home runs from Manny Ramírez and Jim Thome. April 21 – The Anaheim Angels down the Tampa Bay Devil Rays 9–6. Mo Vaughn and Tim Salmon hit back-to-back home runs for Anaheim in the fourth inning do so again in the ninth. Troy Glaus homers in both the fourth and the ninth; this the first time in major league history that three players homer in the same inning on two occasions in the same game. The Angels' three players with two home runs. April 23 – In the New York Yankees' 10–7 victory over the Toronto Blue Jays, Yankees Bernie Williams and Jorge Posada each hit home runs from both sides of the plate, marking the first time in major league history that a pair of teammates accomplish the feat in the same game. April 29 – The San F
Pendleton County, West Virginia
Pendleton County is a county located in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,695, making it the fifth-least populous county in West Virginia, its county seat is Franklin. The county was created by the Virginia General Assembly in 1788 from parts of Augusta and Rockingham Counties and was named for Edmund Pendleton, a distinguished Virginia statesman and jurist. Pendleton County was pro-Confederate during the American Civil War. Spruce Knob, located in Pendleton County, is the highest point in the state and in the Alleghenies, its elevation being 4,863 feet. Parts of the Monongahela and George Washington National Forests are located in Pendleton. By the 1740s, the three main valleys of what became Pendleton County had been visited and named by white hunters and prospectors. One of the hunters, a single man named Abraham Burner, built himself a log cabin about a half mile downstream of the future site of Brandywine in 1745, he was the county's first white settler.
A local historian recorded that: The site... on the left bank of the river, near the beginning of a long, eastward bend. From at his door his huntsman's eye was at times gladdened by seeing fifty deer either drinking from the steam or plunging in their heads up to their ears in search of moss. By 1747, immigrants were impinging on the borders of Pendleton from two directions: the larger community was Germans moving up the valley of the South Branch Potomac. In an April 1758 surprise raid of Fort Seybert and nearby Fort Upper Tract occasioned by the French and Indian War, most of the 60 white settlers sheltering there were massacred by Shawnee and Delaware warriors and the forts were burned. Pendleton County was created by the Virginia General Assembly in 1788 from parts of Augusta and Rockingham Counties and was named for Edmund Pendleton, a distinguished Virginia statesman and jurist. Pendleton County was split between Southern sympathies during the American Civil War; the northern section of the county, including the enclave in the Smoke Hole community were staunchly Unionist.
In June 1863, the county was included by the federal government in the new state of West Virginia against many of the inhabitants' wishes. In fall 1863, Union Brigadier General W. W. Averell swept up the South Branch valley and destroyed the Confederate saltpetre works above Franklin. At Franklin, the Pendleton County seat, the South Branch of the Potomac River crested at 22.6 feet during the 1985 Election day floods. Flood stage in the shallow riverbed was only 7 feet. Most of the 47 people killed in this incident were in Pendleton and Grant counties, according to the National Weather Service. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 698 square miles, of which 696 square miles is land and 2.1 square miles is water. It is the fifth-largest county in West Virginia by area. US 33 US 220 WV 28 WV 55 Grant County Hardy County Rockingham County, Virginia Augusta County, Virginia Highland County, Virginia Pocahontas County Randolph County George Washington National Forest Monongahela National Forest Spruce Knob-Seneca Rocks National Recreation Area United States National Radio Quiet Zone Germany Valley Karst Area Sinnett-Thorn Mountain Cave System Pendleton County's economy consists of small to medium-sized farms and small businesses.
Most of these are in the county's only incorporated town. The North Fork Valley, on the western side of the county, has a number of businesses that cater to tourists who come for the area's outdoor recreation opportunities; these include motels and guide services. In recent years, maple syrup has emerged as a major growth industry in the county. Dry Fork Maple Works, the state's largest maple sugaring operation, is based in Pendleton County; the county is home to a number of non-profits whose reaches extend well beyond the county lines. These include Almost Heaven Habitat for Humanity, Future Generations and Future Generations Graduate School, The Mountain Institute, Mountain Springs Farm and Heritage Center. Sugar Grove Station, an electronic listening post for the National Security Agency, is located near the southeast corner of the Pendleton County; as of the census of 2000, there were 8,196 people, 3,350 households, 2,355 families residing in the county. The population density was 12 people per square mile.
There were 5,102 housing units at an average density of 7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.34% White, 2.12% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.28% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. 0.89% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,350 households out of which 28.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.40% were married couples living together, 8.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.70% were non-families. 25.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.87. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.80% under the age of 18, 7.30% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 26.10% from 45 to 64, 17.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 101.30 males.
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it
Boston Red Sox
The Boston Red Sox are an American professional baseball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. The Red Sox compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League East division; the Red Sox have won nine World Series championships, tied for the third-most of any MLB team, they have played in 13. Their most recent appearance and win was in 2018. In addition, they won the 1904 American League pennant, but were not able to defend their 1903 World Series championship when the New York Giants refused to participate in the 1904 World Series. Founded in 1901 as one of the American League's eight charter franchises, the Red Sox' home ballpark has been Fenway Park since 1912; the "Red Sox" name was chosen by the team owner, John I. Taylor, circa 1908, following the lead of previous teams, known as the "Boston Red Stockings", including the forerunner of the Atlanta Braves. Boston was a dominant team in the new league, defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates in the first World Series in 1903 and winning four more championships by 1918.
However, they went into one of the longest championship droughts in baseball history, dubbed the "Curse of the Bambino" after its alleged inception due to the Red Sox' sale of Babe Ruth to the rival New York Yankees two years after their world championship in 1918, an 86-year wait before the team's sixth World Championship in 2004. The team's history during that period was punctuated with some of the most memorable moments in World Series history, including Enos Slaughter's "mad dash" in 1946, the "Impossible Dream" of 1967, Carlton Fisk's home run in 1975, Bill Buckner's error in 1986. Following their victory in the 2018 World Series, they became the first team to win four World Series trophies in the 21st century, including championships in 2004, 2007, 2013 and 2018. Red Sox history has been marked by the team's intense rivalry with the Yankees, arguably the fiercest and most historic in North American professional sports; the Boston Red Sox are owned by Fenway Sports Group, which owns Liverpool F.
C. of the Premier League in England. The Red Sox are one of the top MLB teams in average road attendance, while the small capacity of Fenway Park prevents them from leading in overall attendance. From May 15, 2003 to April 10, 2013, the Red Sox sold out every home game—a total of 820 games for a major professional sports record. Both Neil Diamond's "Sweet Caroline", The Standells's "Dirty Water" have become anthems for the Red Sox; the name Red Sox, chosen by owner John I. Taylor after the 1907 season, refers to the red hose in the team uniform beginning in 1908. Sox had been adopted for the Chicago White Sox by newspapers needing a headline-friendly form of Stockings, as "Stockings Win!" in large type did not fit in a column. The team name "Red Sox" had been used as early as 1888 by a'colored' team from Norfolk, Virginia; the Spanish language media sometimes refers to the team as Medias Rojas, a translation of "red socks". The official Spanish site uses the variant "Los Red Sox"; the Red Stockings nickname was first used by a baseball team by the Cincinnati Red Stockings, who were members of the pioneering National Association of Base Ball Players.
Managed by Harry Wright, Cincinnati adopted a uniform with white knickers and red stockings and earned the famous nickname, a year or two before hiring the first professional team in 1869. When the club folded after the 1870 season, Wright was hired by Boston businessman Ivers Whitney Adams to organize a new team in Boston, he did, bringing three teammates and the "Red Stockings" nickname along; the Boston Red Stockings won four championships in the five seasons of the new National Association, the first professional league. When a new Cincinnati club was formed as a charter member of the National League in 1876, the "Red Stockings" nickname was reserved for them once again, the Boston team was referred to as the "Red Caps". Other names were sometimes used before Boston adopted the nickname "Braves" in 1912. In 1901, the upstart American League established a competing club in Boston. For seven seasons, the AL team had no official nickname, they were "Boston", "Bostonians" or "the Bostons". Their 1901–1907 jerseys, both home, road, just read "Boston", except for 1902 when they sported large letters "B" and "A" denoting "Boston" and "American."
Newspaper writers of the time used other nicknames for the club, including "Somersets", "Plymouth Rocks", "Beaneaters", the "Collinsites"", "Pilgrims." For years many sources have listed "Pilgrims" as the early Boston AL team's official nickname, but researcher Bill Nowlin has demonstrated that the name was used, if at all, during the team's early years. The origin of the nickname appears to be a poem entitled "The Pilgrims At Home" written by Edwin Fitzwilliam, sung at the 1907 home opener; this nickname was used during that season because the team had a new manager and several rookie players. John I. Taylor had said in December 1907 that the Pilgrims "sounded too much like homeless wanderers." The National League club in Boston, though called the "Red Stockings" anymore, still wore red trim. In 1907, the Nat
Harrisonburg is an independent city in the Shenandoah Valley region of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. It is the county seat of the surrounding Rockingham County, although the two are separate jurisdictions; as of the 2010 census, the population was 48,914, with a census-estimated 2016 population of 53,078. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Harrisonburg with Rockingham County for statistical purposes into the Harrisonburg, Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a 2011 estimated population of 126,562. Harrisonburg is home to James Madison University, a public research university with an enrollment of over 20,000 students, Eastern Mennonite University, a private, Mennonite-affiliated liberal arts university. Although the city has no historical association with President James Madison, JMU was nonetheless named in his honor as Madison College in 1938 and renamed as James Madison University in 1977. EMU owes it existence to the sizable Mennonite population in the Shenandoah Valley, to which many Pennsylvania Dutch settlers arrived beginning in the mid-18th century in search of rich, unsettled farmland.
The city has become a bastion of ethnic and linguistic diversity in recent years. Over 1,900 refugees have been settled in Harrisonburg since 2002; as of 2014, Hispanics or Latinos of any race comprise 19% of the city's population. Harrisonburg City Public Schools students speak 55 languages in addition to English, with Spanish and Kurdish being the most common languages spoken. Over one-third of HCPS students are English as a second language learners. Language learning software company Rosetta Stone was founded in Harrisonburg in 1992, the multilingual "Welcome Your Neighbors" yard sign originated in Harrisonburg in 2016; the earliest documented English exploration of the area prior to settlement was the "Knights of the Golden Horseshoe Expedition", led by Lt. Gov. Alexander Spotswood, who reached Elkton, whose rangers continued and in 1716 passed through what is now Harrisonburg. Harrisonburg known as "Rocktown", was named for Thomas Harrison, a son of English settlers. In 1737, Harrison settled in the Shenandoah Valley laying claim to over 12,000 acres situated at the intersection of the Spotswood Trail and the main Native American road through the valley.
In 1779, Harrison deeded 2.5 acres of his land to the "public good" for the construction of a courthouse. In 1780, Harrison deeded an additional 50 acres; this is the area now known as "Historic Downtown Harrisonburg." In 1849, trustees chartered a mayor–council form of government, although Harrisonburg was not incorporated as an independent city until 1916. Today, a council–manager government administers Harrisonburg. On June 6, 1862, an American Civil War skirmish took place at Good's Farm, Chestnut Ridge near Harrisonburg between the forces of the Union and the forces of the Confederacy at which the C. S. Army Brigadier General, Turner Ashby, was killed; when the slaves of the Shenandoah Valley were freed in 1865, they set up near modern-day Harrisonburg a town called Newtown. This settlement was annexed by the independent city of Harrisonburg some years probably around 1892. Today, the old city of Newtown is still the home of the majority of Harrisonburg's predominantly black churches, such as First Baptist and Bethel AME.
The modern Boys and Girls Club of Harrisonburg is located in the old Lucy Simms schoolhouse used for the black students in the days of segregation. A large portion of this black neighborhood was dismantled in the 1960s when – in the name of urban renewal – the city government used federal redevelopment funds from the Housing Act of 1949 to force black families out of their homes and bulldozed the neighborhood; this effort, called "Project R4", focused on the city blocks east of Main, north of Gay, west of Broad, south of Johnson. According to Bob Sullivan, an intern working in the city planner's office in 1958, the city planner at the time, David Clark had to convince the city council that Harrisonburg had slums. Newtown, a low socioeconomic status housing area, was declared a slum. Federal law mandated; the vote was close with 1,024 votes in favor and 978 against R4. After the vote, the Harrisonburg Redevelopment and Housing Authority was formed. All of the members were white men; the project began and, due to eminent domain, the government could force the people of Newtown to sell their homes.
They were offered rock bottom prices for their homes. Many people couldn't afford a new home and had to move into public housing projects and become dependent on the government. Many of the businesses of Newtown that were bought out could not afford to reestablish themselves. Kline's, a white-owned business, was one of the few businesses in the area, able to reopen; the city sold the land to commercial developers. In early 2002, the Harrisonburg community discussed the possibility of creating a pedestrian mall downtown. Public meetings were held to discuss the drawbacks of pursuing such a plan; the community decided to keep its Main Street open to traffic. From these discussions, however, a strong voice emerged from the community in support of downtown revitalization. On July 1, 2003, Harrisonburg Downtown Renaissance was incorporated as a 501 nonprofit organization with the mission of rejuvenating the downtown district. In 2004, downtown was designated as the Harrisonburg Downtown Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places and a designated Virginia Main Street Community, with the neighboring Old Town Historic District residential community gaining histori