Economy of the United Kingdom
The economy of the United Kingdom is developed and market-orientated. It is the fifth-largest national economy in the world measured by nominal gross domestic product, ninth-largest by purchasing power parity, twenty second-largest by GDP per capita, comprising 3.5% of world GDP. In 2016, the UK was the tenth-largest goods exporter in the world and the fifth-largest goods importer, it had the second-largest inward foreign direct investment, the third-largest outward foreign direct investment. The UK is one of the most globalised economies, it is composed of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland; the service sector dominates, contributing around 80% of GDP. Britain's aerospace industry is the second-largest national aerospace industry, its pharmaceutical industry, the tenth-largest in the world, plays an important role in the economy. Of the world's 500 largest companies, 26 are headquartered in the UK; the economy is boosted by North Sea gas production. There are significant regional variations in prosperity, with South East England and North East Scotland being the richest areas per capita.
The size of London's economy makes it the largest city by GDP in Europe. In the 18th century the UK was the first country to industrialise, during the 19th century it had a dominant role in the global economy, accounting for 9.1% of the world's GDP in 1870. The Second Industrial Revolution was taking place in the United States and the German Empire; the costs of fighting World War I and World War II further weakened the UK's relative position. In the 21st century, the UK remains a great power with the ability to project power and influence around the world. Government involvement is exercised by Her Majesty's Treasury, headed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy. Since 1979 management of the economy has followed a broadly laissez-faire approach; the Bank of England is the UK's central bank, since 1997 its Monetary Policy Committee has been responsible for setting interest rates, quantitative easing, forward guidance. The currency of the UK is the pound sterling, the world's fourth-largest reserve currency after the United States Dollar, the Euro and the Japanese Yen, is one of the 10 most-valued currencies in the world.
The UK is a member of the Commonwealth, the European Union, the G7, the G20, the International Monetary Fund, the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Bank, the World Trade Organization, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the United Nations. After the Second World War, a new Labour government nationalised the Bank of England, civil aviation, telephone networks, gas and the coal and steel industries, affecting 2.3 million workers. Post-war, the United Kingdom enjoyed a long period without a major recession; the annual rate of growth between 1960 and 1973 averaged 2.9%, although this figure was far behind other European countries such as France, West Germany and Italy. Deindustrialisation meant the closure of operations in mining, heavy industry, manufacturing, resulting in the loss of paid working-class jobs; the UK's share of manufacturing output had risen from 9.5% in 1830 during the Industrial Revolution to 22.9% in the 1870s. It fell to 13.6% by 1913, 10.7% by 1938, 4.9% by 1973.
Overseas competition, lack of innovation, trade unionism, the welfare state, loss of the British Empire, cultural attitudes have all been put forward as explanations. It reached crisis point in the 1970s against the backdrop of a worldwide energy crisis, high inflation, a dramatic influx of low-cost manufactured goods from Asia. During the 1973 oil crisis, the 1973–74 stock market crash, the secondary banking crisis of 1973–75, the British economy fell into the 1973–75 recession and the government of Edward Heath was ousted by the Labour Party under Harold Wilson, which had governed from 1964 to 1970. Wilson formed a minority government in March 1974 after the general election on 28 February ended in a hung parliament. Wilson secured a three-seat overall majority in a second election in October that year; the UK recorded weaker growth than many other European nations in the 1970s. In 1976, the UK was forced to apply for a loan of £2.3 billion from the International Monetary Fund. Denis Healey Chancellor of the Exchequer, was required to implement public spending cuts and other economic reforms in order to secure the loan, for a while the British economy improved, with growth of 4.3% in early 1979.
However, following the Winter of Discontent, when the UK was hit by numerous public sector strikes, the government of James Callaghan lost a vote of no confidence in March 1979. This triggered the general election on 3 May 1979 which resulted in Margaret Thatcher's Conservative Party forming a new government. A new period of neo-liberal economics began with this election. During the 1980s, many state-owned industries and utilities were privatised, taxes cut, trade union reforms passed and markets deregulated. GDP fell by 5.9% but growth subsequently returned and rose to an annual rate of 5% at its
Arup is a multinational professional services firm headquartered in London which provides engineering, planning, project management and consulting services for all aspects of the built environment. Founded by Sir Ove Arup in 1946, the firm has over 14,000 staff based in 92 offices across 35 countries, is present in Africa, the Americas, East Asia and the Middle East. Arup has participated in projects in over 160 countries. Arup is owned by trusts, the beneficiaries of which are Arup's past and present employees, who receive a share of the firm's operating profit each year; the firm was founded in London as the Ove N. Arup Consulting Engineers by Ove Arup, he set out to build a firm where professionals of diverse disciplines could work together to produce projects of greater quality than was achievable by them working in isolation. In 1963, together with the architect Philip Dowson, Arup Associates was formed. In 1970, the firm reformed as "Ove Arup & Partners", it is best known for its design work for the built environment.
Projects to which it has contributed include the Sydney Opera House, credited with launching Arup into the premier league of engineering consultancies. The BBC and RIBA documentary The Brits who Built the Modern World highlighted Arup’s collaboration with architects and described Arup as "the engineering firm which Lord Norman Foster and his peers Lord Richard Rogers, Sir Nicholas Grimshaw, Sir Michael Hopkins and Sir Terry Farrell most relied upon." Eastgate Centre, Zimbabwe Letsibogo Dam, Botswana Constitutional Court, South Africa Scottish Livingstone Hospital, Botswana Central Terminal at OR Tambo International Airport Green Star, a green building rating system based on the Australian Green Star Offices Tool Dwabor Kindergarten, Ghana Gautrain Rapid Rail Link Johannesburg to Pretoria, Sandton to OR Tambo International Airport, South Africa Apple Park is the corporate headquarters of Apple Inc. Cupertino, United States. Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, Los Angeles, USA De Young Museum, San Francisco, USA Michael Lee-Chin Crystal at the Royal Ontario Museum, Canada California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA Y2E2 Building, Stanford University, Palo Alto, USA New Tappan Zee Bridge, New York City Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Headquarters, Seattle, WA, USA Fulton Center, New York City, USA High Roller, Las Vegas, NV, USA Gerald Desmond Bridge Design-Build Project, Long Beach, California Second Avenue Subway, New York City, USA Lake Mead Intake No.
3, Nevada, USA Druk White Lotus School was built to survive the Ladakhi weather. Kingdom Centre, The third tallest skyscraper in Saudi Arabia, the second tallest in Riyadh and an icon of it. HSBC Main Building, Hong Kong Kansai International Airport, Japan Petron Megaplaza, Philippines International Finance Centre, Hong Kong National Aquatics Centre, China Beijing National Stadium, China CCTV Headquarters, China Fusionopolis, Singapore Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, Telangana, India Singapore Flyer, Singapore Stonecutters Bridge, Hong Kong Dongtan, China Canton Tower, China Marina Bay Sands Integrated Resort, Singapore The Helix, Singapore Downtown Line 1 Bugis, Singapore Singapore Sports Hub, Singapore (structural and specialist engi
Construction industry of the United Kingdom
The construction industry of the United Kingdom contributed gross value of £64,747 million to the UK economy in 2004. The industry employed around 2.2 million people in the fourth quarter of 2009. There were around 194,000 construction firms in Great Britain in 2009, of which around 75,400 employed just one person and 62 employed over 1,200 people. In 2009 the construction industry in Great Britain received total orders of around £18.7 billion from the private sector and £15.1 billion from the public sector. While manufacturing in the United Kingdom shrank as a proportion of the economy between 1948 and 2013, replaced by the service sector, construction remained flat at about 6% of the economy. In 2013 the government unveiled the Construction 2025 industrial strategy; as of 2012, the largest construction project in the UK is Crossrail. Due to open in 2018, it will be a new railway line running east to west through London and into the surrounding counties with a branch to Heathrow Airport; the main feature of the project is construction of 42 km of new tunnels connecting stations in central London.
It is Europe's biggest construction project with a £15 billion projected cost. Prospective major construction projects include either expansion of London Heathrow Airport or expansion of Gatwick Airport, construction of the High Speed 2 rail line between London and the West Midlands, construction of the Crossrail 2 rail line in London; the industry was pushed into a period of turmoil following the Brexit vote in June 2016. Fears of a lack of EU labour post-Brexit were cited as a key reason for the uncertainty. Despite this, the industry has been performing better than expected in the months since, leading to cautious optimism in some quarters. Build UK Architecture of the United Kingdom Construction Products Association Housing in the United Kingdom Construction 2025
CH2M HILL known as CH2M, was a global engineering company that provided consulting, design and operations services for corporations, federal and local governments. The firm's headquarters was in Meridian, an unincorporated area of Douglas County, Colorado, in the Denver-Aurora Metropolitan Area; the postal designation of nearby Englewood was listed as the company's location in corporate filings and local news accounts. As of December 2016, CH2M had 20,000 employees and revenues totaled $5.24 billion. In December 2017, it was announced that CH2M had been acquired by Jacobs Engineering Group, a Dallas engineering firm for $3.3 billion. CH2M was founded in 1946 in Corvallis, Oregon, by Oregon State University civil engineering professor Fred Merryfield and three of his students: Holly Cornell, James Howland and Thomas Burke Hayes. Cornell and Hayes were all graduates of Oregon State University; the company became CH2M HILL, after a merger in 1971. The firm remained headquartered in Oregon until 1980, when a decision was made to relocate to Colorado, a more central location in the United States.
On August 2, 2017, CH2M was acquired by Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. in a US$3.3 billion cash and stock deal. Shareholders approved the deal in December 2017, the completion of the acquisition was announced on 18 December; the company developed and publishes its own method for managing projects for clients, called the CH2M Hill Project Delivery System, which may be found at popular internet book retailers. As a firm specializing in project management, CH2M Hill has been associated in several large, complex projects around the world. In 2005, a CH2M Hill joint venture known as Kaiser Hill decommissioned and closed a former nuclear weapons facility at the Rocky Flats site in Colorado. In Singapore, the company was part of a joint venture to replace the country's sanitary services infrastructure; the new Singapore Deep Tunnel System was designed to improve reliability and economy of operation, to help handle Singapore's increasing waterfront utilization. CH2M Hill assisted in reconstruction efforts along the US Gulf Coast in the wake of Hurricane Katrina.
Its main assignments included providing temporary housing, debris removal, other services. Other large projects include a $660 million gas fired power plant in Australia, in conjunction with General Electric, an $11.7 billion project to relocate American military bases in Korea. In August 2007, the Panama Canal Authority selected CH2M Hill to manage the $5.25 billion Panama Canal expansion project, which will add new locks to the Pacific and Atlantic ends of the canal and allow Post Panamax ships passage through the canal for the first time. In 2009, a CH2M Hill consortium was named program partner to oversee construction of the Crossrail project to expand London's transit system. On August 30, 2006, as part of joint venture CLM, CH2M Hill was a supplier for the London 2012 Olympics; the other two members of the venture are project management service provider Mace Group and Laing O'Rourke, the largest owned construction firm in the United Kingdom. In 2008, the U. S. Department of Energy contracted a CH2M Hill company, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC, to manage deconstruction and remediation of the Central Plateau on the Hanford Nuclear Site in eastern Washington, one of the world's largest environmental cleanup projects.
The project focused on shrinking the environmental footprint of the Hanford Site from a 586-square-mile area to 75 square miles or less. Key acquisitions include Black, Crow & Eidsness in 1977, Gee & Jensen in August 2002, DeMil International in 2002, EHS Consultants Ltd, BBS Corporation in October 2005. On September 7, 2007, CH2M HILL finalized the purchase of most of the components of VECO, an Alaska based firm specialising in services to the oil and energy sector that had become embroiled in the Alaska political corruption probe. In December 2007, CH2M Hill acquired Trigon EPC. In March 2008, CH2M Hill acquired Texas based Goldston Engineering, a company specialising in marine and coastal transportation engineering services. In 2014, CH2M HILL acquired TERA Environmental Consultants, a Canadian environmental consulting firm that has worked with pipeline and powerline clients and oil and gas companies for 30 years. In December 2017, Jacobs Engineering announced that it had acquired CH2M; the acquisition was supported by 96% of CH2M employee shareholders.
Top 100 US Federal Contractors LaMont Matthews Oral History Interview
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group, the chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. In some organizations, the chairman position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president, the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator and convenor; the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is called the speaker. The term chair is sometimes used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist, it is used today, has been used as a substitute for chairman since the middle of the 17th century, with its earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary dated 1658–1659, only four years after the first citation for chairman.
Major dictionaries state that the word derives from a person. A 1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as "chairman", to most presiding women as "chairperson" or as "chairwoman"; the Chronicle of Higher Education uses "chairman" for men and "chairperson" for women. An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times and chairwoman 68 times; the National Association of Parliamentarians adopted a resolution in 1975 discouraging the use of “chairperson” and rescinded it in 2017. The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and United Press International all use "chairwoman" or "chairman" when referring to women, forbid use of "chair" or of "chairperson" except in direct quotations. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called "Mr. Chairman" and female chairs are called "Madame Chair"; the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using "chair" or "chairperson", rather than "chairman".
The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the gender-neutral forms are gaining ground. It advocates using "chair" to refer both to women; the Telegraph style guide bans the use of both "Chair" and "Chairperson" on the basis that "Chairman" is correct English. The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be "in the chair" and is referred to as "the chair". Parliamentary procedure requires that members address the "chair" as "Mr. Chairman" rather than using a name – one of many customs intended to maintain the presiding officer's impartiality and to ensure an objective and impersonal approach. In the United States, the presiding officer of the lower house of a legislative body, such as the House of Representatives, is titled the Speaker, while the upper house, such as the Senate, is chaired by a President. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U.
S. President George H. W. Bush used "chairman" for men and "chair" for women. In the British music hall tradition, the Chairman was the master of ceremonies who announced the performances and was responsible for controlling any rowdy elements in the audience; the role was popularised on British TV in the 1960s and 1970s by Leonard Sachs, the Chairman on the variety show The Good Old Days."Chairman" as a quasi-title gained particular resonance when socialist states from 1917 onward shunned more traditional leadership labels and stressed the collective control of soviets by beginning to refer to executive figureheads as "Chairman of the X Committee". Vladimir Lenin, for example functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president but in roles such as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR". Note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong: "Chairman Mao". In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the chairman has the duties of presiding over meetings.
Such duties at meetings include: Calling the meeting to order Determining if a quorum is present Announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up Recognition of members to have the floor Enforcing the rules of the group Putting questions to a vote Adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the chairman should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group. In committees or small boards, the chairman votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the chairman should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the chairman only has one vote; the powers of the chairman vary across organizations. In some organizations the chairman has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the chairman only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the chairman has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the chairman depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself.
If the chairman exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform t