A tipi is a cone-shaped tent, traditionally made of animal skins upon wooden poles. Modern tipis have a canvas covering. A tipi is distinguished from other conical tents by the smoke flaps at the top of the structure; the tipi has been used by Indigenous people of the Plains in the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies of North America. They are still in use in these communities, though now for ceremonial purposes rather than daily living. A similar structure, the lavvu is used by the Sámi people of northern Europe. Tipis are stereotypically and incorrectly associated with all Native Americans in the United States and Indigenous peoples in Canada, despite their usage being unique to the peoples of the Plains. Native American tribes and First Nation band governments from other regions have used other types of dwellings; the tipi is durable, provides warmth and comfort in winter, is cool in the heat of summer, is dry during heavy rains. Tipis can be disassembled and packed away when people need to relocate and can be reconstructed upon settling in a new area.
This portability was important to Plains Indians with their at-times nomadic lifestyle. The word tipi comes into English from the Lakota language; the Lakota word thípi means "a dwelling" or "they dwell", from the verb thí, meaning "to dwell". The wigwam or "wickiup", a dome-shaped shelter made of bark layered on a pole-structure, was used by various tribes for hunting camps; the term wigwam has been incorrectly used to refer to a conical skin tipi. A typical family tipi is a conical, portable structure with two adjustable smoke flaps, multiple poles called lodge poles. Lewis H. Morgan noted that, The frame consists of thirteen poles from fifteen to eighteen feet in length, after being tied together at the small ends, are raised upright with a twist so as to cross the poles above the fastening, they are drawn apart at the large ends and adjusted upon the ground in the rim of a circle ten feet in diameter. A number of untanned and tanned buffalo skins, stitched together in a form adjustable to the frame, are drawn around it and lashed together, as shown in the figure.
The lower edges are secured to the ground with tent-pins. At the top there is an extra skin adjusted as a collar, so as to be open on the windward side to facilitate the exit of the smoke. A low opening is left for a doorway, covered with an extra skin used as a drop; the fire-pit and arrangements for beds are the same as in the Ojibwa lodge, grass being used in the place of spruce or hemlock twigs. Lodgepole pine is the preferred wood in the Northern and Central Plains and red cedar in the Southern Plains. Tipis have a detachable cover over the structure; the cover has been made of buffalo hide, an optional skin or cloth lining, a canvas or bison calf skin door. Modern lodges are more made of canvas. Ropes and wooden pegs are required to bind the poles, close the cover, attach the lining and door, anchor the resulting structure to the ground. Tipis are distinguished from other tents by two crucial elements: the opening at the top and the smoke flaps, which allow the dwellers to heat themselves and cook with an open fire.
Tipis were designed to be set up or taken down to allow camps to be moved to follow game migrations the bison. When dismantled the tipi poles were used to construct a dog- or horse-pulled travois on which additional poles and tipi cover were placed. Tipi covers are made by sewing together strips of canvas or tanned hide and cutting out a semicircular shape from the resulting surface. Trimming this shape yields a door and the smoke flaps that allow the dwellers to control the chimney effect to expel smoke from their fires. Old style traditional linings were hides and rectangular pieces of cloth hanging about four to five feet above the ground tied to the poles or a rope. Most tipis in a village would not be painted. Painted tipis depicted note-worthy historical battles and featured geometric portrayals of celestial bodies and animal designs. Sometimes tipis have been painted to depict personal experiences such as war hunting, a dream or vision; when depicting visions, "ceremonies and prayers were first offered, the dreamer recounted his dream to the priests and wise men of the community.
Those known to be skilled painters were consulted, the new design was made to fit anonymously within the traditional framework of the tribe's painted tipis." GeneralHolley, Linda A. Tipis-Tepees-Teepees: History and Design of the Cloth Tipi. Gibbs-Smith, 2007. Reginald Laubin, Gladys Laubin, Stanley Vestal, The Indian tipi: its history and use. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989, ISBN 978-0-8061-2236-6. American Anthropologist. Vol. 16. American Anthropological Association of Washington, 1914. Citations Notes History and evolution of tipis plus Photos and drawings Simply Differently.org: Tipi, tipi building resource, how-to manuals and online calculator for canvas lanes Tipi Instructions, a PDF document detailing the construction of a tipi
The domestic dog is a member of the genus Canis, which forms part of the wolf-like canids, is the most abundant terrestrial carnivore. The dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa as modern wolves are not related to the wolves that were first domesticated, which implies that the direct ancestor of the dog is extinct; the dog was the first species to be domesticated and has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, physical attributes. Their long association with humans has led dogs to be uniquely attuned to human behavior and they are able to thrive on a starch-rich diet that would be inadequate for other canid species. Dogs vary in shape and colors, they perform many roles for humans, such as hunting, pulling loads, assisting police and military, companionship and, more aiding disabled people and therapeutic roles. This influence on human society has given them the sobriquet of "man's best friend"; the term dog is applied both to the species as a whole, any adult male member of the same.
An adult female is a bitch. An adult male capable of reproduction is a stud. An adult female capable of reproduction is brood mother. Immature males or females are puppies. A group of pups from the same gestation period is called a litter; the father of a litter is a sire. It is possible for one litter to have multiple sires; the mother of a litter is a dam. A group of any three or more adults is a pack. In 1999, a study of mitochondrial DNA indicated that the domestic dog may have originated from multiple grey wolf populations, with the dingo and New Guinea singing dog "breeds" having developed at a time when human populations were more isolated from each other. In the third edition of Mammal Species of the World published in 2005, the mammalogist W. Christopher Wozencraft listed under the wolf Canis lupus its wild subspecies, proposed two additional subspecies: "familiaris Linneaus, 1758 " and "dingo Meyer, 1793 ". Wozencraft included hallstromi – the New Guinea singing dog – as a taxonomic synonym for the dingo.
Wozencraft referred to the mDNA study as one of the guides in forming his decision. The inclusion of familiaris and dingo under a "domestic dog" clade has been noted by other mammalogists; this classification by Wozencraft is debated among zoologists. The origin of the domestic dog includes the dog's evolutionary divergence from the wolf, its domestication, its development into dog types and dog breeds; the dog is a member of the genus Canis, which forms part of the wolf-like canids, was the first species and the only large carnivore to have been domesticated. The dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa, as modern wolves are not related to the population of wolves, first domesticated; the genetic divergence between dogs and wolves occurred between 40,000–20,000 years ago, just before or during the Last Glacial Maximum. This timespan represents the upper time-limit for the commencement of domestication because it is the time of divergence and not the time of domestication, which occurred later.
The domestication of animals commenced over 15,000 years ago, beginning with the grey wolf by nomadic hunter-gatherers. The archaeological record and genetic analysis show the remains of the Bonn–Oberkassel dog buried beside humans 14,200 years ago to be the first undisputed dog, with disputed remains occurring 36,000 years ago, it was not until 11,000 years ago that people living in the Near East entered into relationships with wild populations of aurochs, boar and goats. Where the domestication of the dog took place remains debated, with the most plausible proposals spanning Western Europe, Central Asia and East Asia; this has been made more complicated by the recent proposal that an initial wolf population split into East and West Eurasian groups. These two groups, before going extinct, were domesticated independently into two distinct dog populations between 14,000 and 6,400 years ago; the Western Eurasian dog population was and replaced by East Asian dogs introduced by humans at least 6,400 years ago.
This proposal is debated. Domestic dogs have been selectively bred for millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, physical attributes. Modern dog breeds show more variation in size and behavior than any other domestic animal. Dogs are predators and scavengers, like many other predatory mammals, the dog has powerful muscles, fused wrist bones, a cardiovascular system that supports both sprinting and endurance, teeth for catching and tearing. Dogs are variable in height and weight; the smallest known adult dog was a Yorkshire Terrier, that stood only 6.3 cm at the shoulder, 9.5 cm in length along the head-and-body, weighed only 113 grams. The largest known dog was an English Mastiff which weighed 155.6 kg and was 250 cm from the snout to the tail. The tallest dog is a Great Dane; the dog's senses include vision, sense of smell, sense of taste and sensitivity to the earth's magnetic field. Another study suggested; the coats of domestic dogs are of two varieties: "double" being common with dogs originating from colder climates, made up of a coarse guard hair and a soft down hair, or "single", with the topcoat only.
Breeds may have stripe, or "star" of white fur on their chest or underside. Regarding coat appearance or h
History of road transport
The history of road transport started with the development of tracks by humans and their beasts of burden. The first forms of road transport were horses, oxen carrying goods over tracks that followed game trails, such as the Natchez Trace. In the Paleolithic Age, humans did not need constructed tracks in open country; the first improved trails would have been through swamps. The first improvements would have consisted of clearing trees and big stones from the path; as commerce increased, the tracks were flattened or widened to accommodate human and animal traffic. Some of these dirt tracks were developed into extensive networks, allowing communications and governance over wide areas; the Incan Empire in South America and the Iroquois Confederation in North America, neither of which had the wheel, are examples of effective use of such paths. The first goods transport was on human backs and heads, but the use of pack animals, including donkeys and horses, developed during the Neolithic Age; the first vehicle is believed to have been the travois, a frame used to drag loads, which developed in Eurasia after the first use of bullocks for pulling ploughs.
In about 5000 BC, sleds developed, which are more difficult to build than travois, but are easier to propel over smooth surfaces. Pack animals, ridden horses and bullocks dragging travois or sleds require wider paths and higher clearances than people on foot and improved tracks were required; as a result, by about 5000 BC roads, including the Ridgeway, developed along ridges in England to avoid crossing rivers and bogging. In central Germany, such ridgeways remained the predominant form of long-distance road till the mid 18th century. Street paving has been found from the first human settlements around 4000 BC in cities of the Indus Valley Civilization on the Indian subcontinent in modern day Pakistan, such as Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Roads in the towns were long, intersecting one another at right angles. Wheels appear to have been developed in ancient Sumer in Mesopotamia around 5000 BC originally for the making of pottery, their original transport use may have been as attachments to sleds to reduce resistance.
It has been argued that logs were used as rollers under sleds prior to the development of wheels, but there is no archaeological evidence for this. Most early wheels appear to have been attached to fixed axles, which would have required regular lubrication by animal fats or vegetable oils or separation by leather to be effective; the first simple two-wheel carts developed from travois, appear to have been used in Mesopotamia and northern Iran in about 3000 BC and two-wheel chariots appeared in about 2800 BC. They were hauled by onagers, related to donkeys. Heavy four-wheeled wagons developed about 2500 BC, which were only suitable for oxen-haulage, therefore were only used where crops were cultivated Mesopotamia. Two-wheeled chariots with spoked wheels appear to have been developed around 2000 BC by the Andronovo culture in southern Siberia and Central Asia. At much the same time the first primitive harness enabling horse-haulage was invented. Wheeled-transport created the need for better roads.
Natural materials cannot be both soft enough to form well-graded surfaces and strong enough to bear wheeled vehicles when wet, stay intact. In urban areas it began to be worthwhile to build stone-paved streets and, in fact, the first paved streets appear to have been built in Ur in 4000 BC. Corduroy roads were built in Glastonbury, England in 3300 BC and brick-paved roads were built in the Indus Valley Civilization on the Indian subcontinent from around the same time. Improvements in metallurgy meant that by 2000 BC stone-cutting tools were available in the Middle East and Greece allowing local streets to be paved. Notably, in about 2000 BC, the Minoans built a 50 km paved road from Knossos in north Crete through the mountains to Gortyn and Lebena, a port on the south coast of the island, which had side drains, a 200 mm thick pavement of sandstone blocks bound with clay-gypsum mortar, covered by a layer of basaltic flagstones and had separate shoulders; this road could be considered superior to any Roman road.
In 500 BC, Darius I the Great started an extensive road system for Persia, including the famous Royal Road, one of the finest highways of its time. The road was used after the Roman times; because of the road's superior quality, mail couriers could travel 2,699 kilometres in seven days. From 268 BCE to 22 BCE, Ashoka built roads, water wells, education centres, rest houses and hospitals for human and animals along the highways across Indian subcontinent and planted trees like banyan and mango groves for the benefit of travelers; the Mauryan Empire built the Grand Trunk Road which stretched from modern day Bangladesh to modern day Peshawar in Pakistan. Its length was around 2000 miles. With the advent of the Roman Empire, there was a need for armies to be able to travel from one area to another, the roads that existed were muddy, which delayed the movement of large masses of troops. To solve this problem, the Romans built great roads. These'Roman roads' used deep roadbeds of crushed stone as an underlying layer to ensure that they kept dry, as the water would flow out from the crushed stone, instead of becoming mud in clay soils.
The legions made good time on these roads and some are still used millennia later. On the more traveled routes, there were additional layers that included six sided capstones, or pavers, that reduced the dust and reduced the drag from wheels; the pavers allowed the Roman chariots to travel quickly, ensuring good communication with the Roman pro
The Crow Fair was created in 1904 by an Indian government agent to bring the Crow Tribe of Indians into modern society. It welcomes all Native American tribes of the Great Plains to its festivities, functioning as a "giant family reunion under the Big Sky." Indeed, it is the largest Northern Native American gathering, attracting nearly 45,000 spectators and participants. Crow Fair is "the teepee capital of the world, over 1,500 teepees in a giant campground," according to 2011 Crow Fair General Manager Austin Little Light. Held annually the third week of August on land surrounding the Little Big Horn River near Billings, Crow Fair is similar to a County Fair, it serves as a venue for the display of the region's arts and culture, from crafts to physical feats. There are contests for best jam and household goods, activities such as woodcutting and games involving cash prizes; the Crow Fair traditionally includes its own unique version of a parade. The parade begins each morning of the Fair at ten o'clock.
The Color Guard leads active members of the armed services. Following the Color Guard are the President, Vice-President, First Vice-President of the Crow Fair; the President carries the American Flag. In the past, the royalty of the Crow Nation would follow the Presidents; the majority of participants in the parade are members of the Crow Nation, dressed in traditional wear with eagle feathers, old-time saddles, western saddles, reservation hats, extravagant beadwork. The beadwork of the Crow Nation is among the most technically proficient in the world; the parade takes place on Friday and Sunday of the Crow Fair. The Sunday parade involves the greatest number of participants, may extend as long as 1.5 miles in length. Crow Fair hosts one of several Dance Celebrations; the Crow Dance Celebration known as a pow-wow, is held every late afternoon and evening during the fair. The Crow Nation makes the distinction that dancing is the most fundamental form of celebration, as members may come to the dance arena for the pure joy elicited by dancing.
However, pow-wows do involve competition dancing. The Crow Fair Rodeo is sponsored annually by the Crow Nation; the rodeo is a daily feature at the Crow Fair, offering a full day's entertainment of youth events, professional Indian cowboys and cowgirls, horse racing. Rodeos occur throughout the United States, through the various rodeo associations like the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association; the Northern Plains Indian Rodeo Association, organized under the Indian National Finals Rodeo, is the current association that sanctions the rodeo event. The Crow Fair Rodeo is held in Crow Agency, Montana; the rodeo arena, race track and campgrounds are all part of this complex. On the last day of the Crow Fair week, the Crow Nation annually elects a new committee to organize the next Crow Fair Dance Celebration and Racemeet; the Tuesday morning and afternoon is filled with campcriers and announcers telling the campgrounds via megaphone of the candidates. Campcriers are hired by candidates to notify the campground of their candidacy.
Rumors are flying before and during the Crow Fair regarding which individuals will run for election for the committee. Crow Fair Article The Elsa Spear Byron Collection Crow Fair 2015 page on official tribe site Crow Celebrations
In geometry, an isosceles triangle is a triangle that has two sides of equal length. Sometimes it is specified as having two sides of equal length, sometimes as having at least two sides of equal length, the latter version thus including the equilateral triangle as a special case. Examples of isosceles triangles include the isosceles right triangle, the golden triangle, the faces of bipyramids and certain Catalan solids; the mathematical study of isosceles triangles dates back to ancient Egyptian mathematics and Babylonian mathematics. Isosceles triangles have been used as decoration from earlier times, appear in architecture and design, for instance in the pediments and gables of buildings; the two equal sides are called the legs and the third side is called the base of the triangle. The other dimensions of the triangle, such as its height and perimeter, can be calculated by simple formulas from the lengths of the legs and base; every isosceles triangle has an axis of symmetry along the perpendicular bisector of its base.
The two angles opposite the legs are equal and are always acute, so the classification of the triangle as acute, right, or obtuse depends only on the angle between its two legs. Euclid defined an isosceles triangle as a triangle with two equal sides, but modern treatments prefer to define isosceles triangles as having at least two equal sides; the difference between these two definitions is that the modern version makes equilateral triangles a special case of isosceles triangles. A triangle, not isosceles is called scalene. "Isosceles" is a compound word, made from the Greek roots "isos" and "skelos". The same word is used, for instance, for isosceles trapezoids, trapezoids with two equal sides, for isosceles sets, sets of points every three of which form an isosceles triangle. In an isosceles triangle that has two equal sides, the equal sides are called legs and the third side is called the base; the angle included by the legs is called the vertex angle and the angles that have the base as one of their sides are called the base angles.
The vertex opposite the base is called the apex. In the equilateral triangle case, since all sides are equal, any side can be called the base. Whether an isosceles triangle is acute, right or obtuse depends only on the angle at its apex. In Euclidean geometry, the base angles cannot be obtuse or right because their measures would sum to at least 180°, the total of all angles in any Euclidean triangle. Since a triangle is obtuse or right if and only if one of its angles is obtuse or right an isosceles triangle is obtuse, right or acute if and only if its apex angle is obtuse, right or acute. In Edwin Abbott's book Flatland, this classification of shapes was used as a satire of social hierarchy: isosceles triangles represented the working class, with acute isosceles triangles higher in the hierarchy than right or obtuse isosceles triangles; as well as the isosceles right triangle, several other specific shapes of isosceles triangles have been studied. These include the Calabi triangle, the golden triangle and golden gnomon, the 80-80-20 triangle appearing in the Langley’s Adventitious Angles puzzle, the 30-30-120 triangle of the triakis triangular tiling.
Five Catalan solids, the triakis tetrahedron, triakis octahedron, tetrakis hexahedron, pentakis dodecahedron, triakis icosahedron, each have isosceles-triangle faces, as do infinitely many pyramids and bipyramids. For any isosceles triangle, the following six line segments coincide: the altitude, a line segment from the apex perpendicular to the base, the angle bisector from the apex to the base, the median from the apex to the midpoint of the base, the perpendicular bisector of the base within the triangle, the segment within the triangle of the unique axis of symmetry of the triangle, the segment within the triangle of the Euler line of the triangle, their common length is the height h of the triangle. If the triangle has equal sides of length a and base of length b, the general triangle formulas for the lengths of these segments all simplify to h = 1 2 4 a 2 − b 2; this formula can be derived from the Pythagorean theorem using the fact that the altitude bisects the base and partitions the isosceles triangle into two congruent right triangles.
The Euler line of any triangle goes through the triangle's orthocenter, its centroid, its circumcenter. In an isosceles triangle with two equal sides, these three points are distinct, all lie on the symmetry axis of the triangle, from which it follows that the Euler line coincides with the axis of symmetry; the incenter of the triangle lies on the Euler line, something, not true for other triangles. If any two of an angle bisector, median, or altitude coincide in a given triangle, that triangle must be isosceles; the area T of an isosceles triangle can be derived from the formula for its height, from the general formula for the area of a triangle as half the product of base and height: T =