The Spencer family is one of Britain's preeminent aristocratic families. Founded in the 15th century, it has spawned numerous aristocratic titles including the extant dukedom of Marlborough, the earldoms of Sunderland and Spencer, the Churchill barony. Two prominent members of the family during the 20th century were British prime minister Sir Winston Churchill and British royal family member Diana, Princess of Wales; the House was founded in the 15th century by one Henry Spencer. In the 16th century the claim arose that the Spencers were a cadet branch of the ancient House Le Despencer, though this theory has since been debunked, in particular by J. Horace Round in his essay The Rise of the Spencers; the Spencers were first granted a coat of arms in 1504, "Azure a fess Ermine between 6 sea-mews’ heads erased Argent," but this bears no resemblance to the arms used by the family after c. 1595, which were derived from the Despencer arms, "Quarterly Argent and Gules in the second and third quarters a Fret Or overall on a Bend Sable three Escallops of the first".
Round argued that the Despencer descent was fabricated by Richard Lee, a corrupt Clarencieux King of Arms. Citing Round, The Complete Peerage dismissed the alleged Despencer descent as an "elaborate imposture" which "is now incapable of deceiving the most credulous." A close relative of Henry Spencer was John Spencer, who in 1469 had become feoffee of Wormleighton in Warwickshire and a tenant at Althorp in Northamptonshire in 1486. His nephew, Sir John Spencer, first made a living by trading in livestock and other commodities and saved enough money to purchase both the Wormleighton and Althorp lands. Wormleighton was bought in 1506, the manor house was completed in 1512. In 1508, Spencer purchased the estate of Althorp with its moated house and several hundred acres of farmland, he had grazed sheep here from the 1480s. Impressed by the quality of the land, he bought it and rebuilt the house in 1508. At that time, his estate and mansion in Warwickshire were larger, the house in Wormleighton was four times the size of Althorp.
In 1511 he made further purchases to acquire the villages of Little Brington and Great Brington as well their parish church of St Mary the Virgin, from Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset. By putting down roots at Althorp, Spencer provided what was to become a home for the next 19 generations. In 1519 he was knighted by King Henry VIII, died three years and was buried in the new family chapel at Great Brington; the Spencers rose to opulent prominence during the 16th century. Sir John Spencer's grandson Sir John Spencer was a Knight of the Shire for Northamptonshire; the Spencers’ administration of their Northamptonshire and Warwickshire estates was admired and emulated by gentlemen all over England. Sheep from their pastures were purchased for breeding and it is probable that the family's success as farmers was equalled in the century. In the late 16th century, the latter Sir John Spencer's grandson Sir Robert Spencer represented Brackley in Parliament. In 1601, he was made a Knight of the Garter, created Baron Spencer, of Wormleighton, in the Peerage of England in 1603.
During the reign of King James I he was reputed to be the richest man in England. The humble origins of the Spencers as sheep farmers once caused a heated exchange of words between wealthy yet upstart Spencers with the more established Howards whose FitzAlan ancestors had been the Earls of Arundel since the 13th century. During a debate in the House of Peers, Lord Spencer was speaking about something that their great ancestors had done when the Earl of Arundel cut him off and said "My Lord, when these things you speak of were doing, your ancestors were keeping sheep". Lord Spencer instantly replied, "When my ancestors as you say were keeping sheep, your ancestors were plotting treason." Robert Spencer, 1st Baron Spencer, was succeeded in his peerage and estates by his eldest surviving son, William. He had represented Northamptonshire in Parliament. Two of his sons received additional peerages: His eldest son, succeeded as 3rd Baron Spencer in 1636 and was created Earl of Sunderland in the Peerage of England in 1643.
The younger son, sat in the House of Commons from 1660 to 1679 and was created Viscount Teviot in the Peerage of Scotland in 1685. The senior branch of the Spencers is represented by His Grace Jamie Spencer-Churchill, 12th Duke of Marlborough, direct descendant via the eldest male-line of Sir John Spencer, knighted by King Henry VIII in 1519 while the cadet branch of the family, the Spencers of Althorp who descends via the male-line from the younger son of the 3rd Earl Sunderland is represented by The Right Honorable Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer. Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland was Lord President of the Council from 1685 to 1688 and a Knight of the Garter, his son Charles, 3rd Earl of Sunderland, was Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, Lord Privy Seal, Secretary of State for both the Northern and Southern Departments, Lord President of the Council, First Lord of the Treasury and a Knight of the Garter. His second wife was Lady Anne Churchill, the second daughter of the distinguished soldier John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough.
After Churchill's death in 1722, the Marlborough titles first passed to his eldest daughter Henrietta to Anne's second son, Charles. After the death of his elder brother, Robert, in 1729, Charles Spencer had inherited the titles of 4th Earl of Sunderland and Baron Spencer of Wormleighton as well as the Spencer family
Barnardo's is a British charity founded by Thomas John Barnardo in 1866, to care for vulnerable children. In the late 20th century, it was implicated in the scandal involving British children sent abroad as child slaves; as of 2013, it raised and spent around £200 million each year running around 900 local services, aimed at helping these same groups. It is the UK's largest children's charity, in terms of charitable expenditure, its headquarters are in Barkingside in the London Borough of Redbridge. The National Incorporated Association for the Reclamation of Destitute Waif Children otherwise known as Dr. Barnardo's Homes was founded by Thomas Barnardo, who opened a school in the East End of London to care for and educate children of the area left orphaned and destitute by a recent cholera outbreak. In 1870 he founded a boys' orphanage at 18 Stepney Causeway and opened a girls' home. By the time of his death in 1905, Barnardo's institutions cared for over 8,500 children in 96 locations, his work was carried on by his many supporters under the name Dr. Barnardo's Homes National Incorporated Association.
Following societal changes in the mid-20th century, the charity changed its focus from the direct care of children to fostering and adoption, renaming itself Dr. Barnardo's in 1965. Following the closure of its last traditional orphanage in 1988, it took the still simpler name of Barnardo's; the official mascot of Barnardo's is a bear called Barney. The Duchess of Cornwall is the current patron of Barnardo's, its chief executive is Javed Khan. There was controversy early on with Barnardo's work, he was accused of kidnapping children without parents' permission and of falsifying photographs of children to make the distinction between the period before they were rescued by Barnardo's and afterwards seem more dramatic. He confessed to the former of these charges, describing it as'philanthropic abduction' and basing his defence on the idea that the ends justified the means. In all, he was taken to court on 88 occasions on the charge of kidnapping. However, being a charismatic speaker and popular figure, he rode through these scandals unscathed.
Other charges brought against him included presenting staged images of children for Barnardo's'before and after' cards and neglecting basic hygiene for the children under his care. Between 1945 and 1974, Barnado's supported and participated in colonisation policies that saw around 150,000 children exported to imperial colonies where they were abused and neglected. Barnardo's has used advertising campaigns to raise attention for its work. A 2003 advert which featured a new-born baby with a cockroach crawling out of its mouth was subsequently banned by the ASA. In 2008 its'Break the cycle' TV advert featuring a girl being hit around the head by her father prompted a number of complaints but was cleared by the ASA which said the imagery was justified, given the context. In 2009 Martin Narey Chief executive of Barnardo's, stated that he believed that more children should be taken into care; this statement caused considerable controversy as historical references were made by journalists to Barnardo's original practice of'philanthropic abduction'.
By 2012, there was little opposition to Narey's claim, publicly supported by the NSPCC and Action For Children who called for an overhaul of the law on neglect. Since 2011 Barnardo's has been criticised for its work in Cedars, the name chosen by UK Immigration Enforcement for what it describes as "pre-departure accommodation" near Gatwick Airport used to hold families with children pending deportation. Barnardo's provide "welfare and social care facilities" at the detention centre, managed on behalf of UK Visas and Immigration by private security company G4S. Barnardo's has been criticised by Frances Webber of the Institute of Race Relations for "legitimising child detention". Activists opposed to the detention of children, such as members of the No Border network, have mounted a campaign against the charity's involvement in Cedars including actions such as occupying Barnardo's London head office in February 2012, disrupting the "Barnardo's Young Supporters" choir concert at the Royal Albert Hall in April 2012.
In response to criticism, Anne Marie Carrie Chief Executive of Barnardo's, stated that the decision to provide welfare and social care services at Cedars is in the children's best interests, outlining Barnardo's'red lines' and the action it will take if the welfare and dignity of any asylum seeking families and children is at risk. The 2014–2015 Northern Ireland Historical Institutional Abuse Inquiry included Barnardo's Sharonmore Project and Barnardo's Macedon, Newtownabbey among the institutions under investigation. A number of children that were sent to Canada were died in mysterious circumstances. Barnados have seen additional scrutiny in 2018, as investigations and inquiries into NGO corruption expand. During the 1950s children from the homes made recordings, including appearing on Petula Clark's 1952 recording of "Where Did My Snowman Go?". They made recordings as a vocal group for Polygon and Pye Nixa Records. Barnardo's employs 450 staff in Barkingside, including secondments and visitors.
Since September 2013 operations were consolidated in one, building on the Barkingside site. The new building was financed by housing developments undertaken after public consultation and discussions with local residents in Barkingside. Barnardo's is a founding member of Fostering Through Social Enterprise, a consortium of voluntary and non-profit fostering agencies that advocate for children in respect of regulation, as well as representing its membership at cent
John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer
Edward John "Johnnie" Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer, styled Viscount Althorp until June 1975, was a British peer and nobleman. He was the father of Diana, Princess of Wales, which makes him the maternal grandfather of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex second and sixth in the line of succession to the British throne. Lord Spencer was born Edward John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, the only son and younger child of Albert Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer, on 24 January 1924, he was educated at Eton, the Royal Military College at Sandhurst, the Royal Agricultural College. Popularly known to his family and friends as Johnnie Althorp, he served as a Captain in the Royal Scots Greys from 1944 to 1945, was Mentioned in Despatches. From 1947 to 1950, he served as Aide-de-Camp to His Excellency Lieutenant-General Sir Willoughby Norrie Governor of South Australia. Spencer held the offices of County Councillor for Northamptonshire, High Sheriff of Northamptonshire and Justice of the Peace for Norfolk.
He served as Equerry to King George VI and to Queen Elizabeth II, was invested as a member of the Royal Victorian Order in 1954. He was known by the courtesy title Viscount Althorp until 1975 when he became the 8th Earl Spencer upon his father's death, he was Member of the House of Lords from 9 June 1975 until his own death. On 1 June 1954 Spencer and Frances Ruth Roche, the younger daughter of the 4th Baron Fermoy, were married in Westminster Abbey by Percy Herbert, Bishop of Norwich; the Queen and other members of the Royal Family attended the wedding ceremony. They had five children: Lady Sarah McCorquodale, married Neil Edmund McCorquodale on 17 May 1980 and had issue. Jane Fellowes, Baroness Fellowes, married Robert Fellowes, Baron Fellowes in March 1978 and had issue; the Honourable John Spencer, died within ten hours of his birth on 12 January 1960. Diana, Princess of Wales, had issue. Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer, married first Victoria Lockwood from 1989 to 1997 and had issue, married second Caroline Hutton from 2001 to 2007 and had issue, married third Karen Villeneuve on 18 June 2011 and had issue.
John and Frances Spencer divorced in 1969. Frances married Peter Shand Kydd and in 1976, Lord Spencer married Raine, Countess of Dartmouth, the former wife of the 9th Earl of Dartmouth, the daughter and only child of the romantic novelist Barbara Cartland and Alexander McCorquodale. In 1978, Spencer suffered a severe stroke, from which, at one stage, he was not expected to recover, which kept him in hospital for eight months, he died of a heart attack on 29 March 1992, was succeeded by his son Charles, the brother of Diana, Princess of Wales. John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer at Find a Grave Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer
Earl of Carrick
Earl of Carrick or Mormaer of Carrick is the title applied to the ruler of Carrick, subsequently part of the Peerage of Scotland. The position came to be associated with the Scottish crown when Robert the Bruce, who had inherited it from his maternal kin, became King of the Scots in the early 14th century. Since the 15th century the title of Earl of Carrick has automatically been held by the heir apparent to the throne, meaning Prince Charles is the current Earl; the earldom emerged in 1186, out of the old Lordship of Galloway, which had encompassed all of what is now known as Galloway as well as the southern part of Ayrshire. Though the Lords of Galloway recognised the King of Scots as their overlord, their lordship was a separate kingdom, had its own laws; the first Lord recorded is Fergus, who died in 1161 leaving two sons: Gille Brigte. As was the custom the two brothers shared the lordship and the lands between them. In 1174, they joined with King William the Lion in his invasion of Northumberland.
However, after King William was taken prisoner by the English, the Galwegians broke into rebellion. Uchtred, who remained loyal to the Scottish king, was savagely murdered by Gille Brigte's son Máel Coluim, Gille Brigte took control of the entirety of Galloway. In 1175, King William was restored to liberty, he marched an army into Galloway to bring justice upon Gille Brigte. However, he seems to have contented himself with exacting a fine, leaving Gille Brigte to go unharmed. In 1176, Gille Brigte obtained an agreement with King Henry II of England, in which he became his vassal, and gave his son Duncan as a hostage. Gille Brigte spent the next decade carrying out devastating raids on King William's territory, with the protection of the English. Gille Brigte's death in 1185 was the signal for general turmoil amongst the Galwegians. Roland, son of the murdered Uchtred, defeated the supporters of Gille Brigte in 1185, planted forts across Galloway to secure his authority; this angered King Henry, he marched a large force to Carlisle in preparation for invasion.
However, war was averted at a meeting between Roland and Henry, when it was agreed that Roland would rule the main part of Galloway, while Gille Brigte's son Duncan would rule the northern section, known as Carrick. Duncan agreed to these terms, renounced all claims to the Lordship of Galloway, becoming the first Earl of Carrick. Duncan married Avelina, daughter of Alan, High Steward of Scotland, his son or grandson Niall's eldest daughter Marjorie succeeded him, becoming Countess of Carrick in her own right. She married firstly Adam de Kilconquhar. In 1269, Adam journeyed to the Holy Land under the banners of King Louis IX of France, as part of the Eighth Crusade, he never returned, dying of disease at Acre in 1270. The next year, the widowed Countess happened to meet Robert de Brus hunting in her lands. According to legend, Marjorie imprisoned Robert, they were married at Turnberry Castle, without their families' knowledge or the requisite consent of the King. When news got out, Alexander III seized her castles and estates, but she atoned for her foolishness with a fine, Robert was recognised as her husband and Earl of Carrick jure uxoris..
Marjorie and Robert were succeeded by their eldest son. When the old House of Dunkeld became extinct, this Robert, known as "the Bruce", became a principal candidate for the throne as the great-great-great-great grandson of David I, he was crowned at Scone in 1306. Around 1313, King Robert made his younger brother Edward the Earl of Carrick. Edward had no issue, save a natural son he had by Lady Isabella Strathbogie, daughter of John, Earl of Atholl; the title therefore became extinct on his death at the Battle of Faughart in 1318. After being held by Robert's son David prior to his accession to the throne, the title was granted in 1332 to Alexander, Edward's bastard. However, Alexander was killed the next year at the Battle of Halidon Hill and the title again became extinct. In 1368, King David created his great-nephew John Stewart the Earl of Carrick. David died unexpectedly in 1371, he had no children, meaning he was succeeded by his nephew Robert Stewart, John's father. After Robert's death in 1390, John succeeded him, taking the regnal name Robert III.
The title was next held by Robert III's son David, created Duke of Rothesay and Earl of Atholl. David died childless in 1402, the Earldom was regranted to his brother James. James acceded to the throne in 1406, his titles merged with the Crown. In 1469, the Scottish Parliament passed an Act declaring that the eldest son of the King and heir to the throne would automatically hold the Earldom, along with the Dukedom of Rothesay. After the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England, the Dukedom and Earldom have been held by the eldest son and heir apparent of the kings and queens of Great Britain, thus Prince Charles is the current Duke of Earl of Carrick. In 1628, King Charles I created John Stewart the Earl of Carrick, he had been made Lord Kincleven in 1607 in the Peerage of Scotland. Stewart was a younger son of Robert, Earl of Orkney, bastard son of King James V; this title was deemed not to conflict with the Earldom of Ca
Wall Street (1987 film)
Wall Street is a 1987 American drama film, directed and co-written by Oliver Stone, which stars Michael Douglas, Charlie Sheen, Daryl Hannah. The film tells the story of Bud Fox, a young stockbroker who becomes involved with Gordon Gekko, a wealthy, unscrupulous corporate raider. Stone made the film as a tribute to his father, Lou Stone, a stockbroker during the Great Depression; the character of Gekko is said to be a composite of several people, including Dennis Levine, Ivan Boesky, Carl Icahn, Asher Edelman, Michael Milken, Stone himself. The character of Sir Lawrence Wildman, was modeled on the prominent British financier and corporate raider Sir James Goldsmith; the studio wanted Warren Beatty to play Gekko, but he was not interested. The film was well received among major film critics. Douglas won the Academy Award for Best Actor, the film has come to be seen as the archetypal portrayal of 1980s success, with Douglas' character declaring that "greed is good." It has proven influential in inspiring people to work on Wall Street, with Sheen and Stone commenting over the years how people still approach them and say that they became stockbrokers because of their respective characters in the film.
Stone and Douglas reunited for a sequel titled Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps, released theatrically on September 24, 2010. In 1985, Bud Fox is a junior stockbroker at Jackson Co. in New York City. He wants to work with Gordon Gekko, a legendary Wall Street player. After calling Gekko's office 59 days in a row trying to land an appointment, Bud visits Gekko on his birthday with a box of Gekko's favorite, contraband Cuban cigars. Impressed at his boldness, Gekko grants Bud an interview. Bud pitches him stocks. Desperate, Bud provides him some inside information about Bluestar Airlines, which he has learned in a casual conversation with his father, leader of the company's maintenance workers union. Intrigued, Gekko tells Bud. A dejected Bud returns to his office. However, Gekko becomes one of Bud's clients. Gekko gives Bud some capital to manage. Gekko offers Bud another chance, tells him to spy on British CEO Sir Lawrence Wildman and discern Wildman's next move. Bud learns. Through Bud's spying, Gekko makes money, Wildman is forced to buy Gekko's shares to complete his takeover.
Bud becomes wealthy, enjoying Gekko's promised perks, including a penthouse on Manhattan's Upper East Side and a girlfriend, interior decorator Darien. Bud is promoted as a result of the large commission fees he is bringing in and is given a corner office with a view, he continues to maximize inside information and use friends as straw buyers to provide more income for him and Gekko. Unknown to Bud, several of his trades attract the attention of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Bud pitches a new idea to Gekko: buy Bluestar Airlines and expand the company, with Bud as president, using savings achieved by union concessions and the overfunded pension. Though Bud is unable to persuade his father to support him and Gekko, he is able to get the unions to push for the deal. Soon afterward, Bud learns that Gekko plans to dissolve the company and sell off Bluestar's assets in order to access cash in the company's pension plan, leaving Carl and the entire Bluestar staff unemployed. Although this would leave Bud a rich man, he is angered by Gekko's deceit and racked with the guilt of being an accessory to Bluestar's impending destruction after his father suffers a heart attack.
Bud resolves to disrupt Gekko's plans, breaks up with Darien when she refuses to go against Gekko, her former lover. Bud devises a plan to drive up Bluestar's stock before manipulating it back down, he and the other union presidents secretly meet with Wildman and arrange for him to buy controlling interest in Bluestar at a significant discount. Gekko, realizing that his stock is plummeting, dumps his remaining interest in the company on Bud's advice. However, when Gekko learns on the evening news that Wildman is buying Bluestar, he realizes that Bud has engineered the entire scheme. Bud triumphantly goes back to work at Jackson Steinem the following day, only to be arrested for insider trading. Sometime Bud confronts Gekko in Central Park. Gekko punches him in the face a couple of times. Mr. Gekko berates him for his role with Bluestar and accuses him of ingratitude for several of their illicit trades. Following the confrontation, it is revealed that Bud was wearing a wire to record his encounter with Gekko.
He turns the tapes over to the authorities, who suggest that he may get a lighter sentence in exchange for helping them make a case against Gekko. Bud's parents drive him down FDR Drive towards the New York County Courthouse to answer for his crimes. After the success of Platoon, Stone wanted film school friend and Los Angeles screenwriter Stanley Weiser to research and write a screenplay about quiz show scandals in the 1950s. During a story conference, Stone suggested making a film about Wall Street instead; the director pitched the premise of two investment partners getting involved in questionable financial dealings, using each other, they are tailed by a prosecutor as in Crime and Punishment. The director had been thinking about this kind of a movie as early as 1981 and was inspired by his father, Lou Stone, a broker during the Great Depression at Hayden Stone; the filmmaker knew a New York businessman, making millions and working long days putting together deals all over the world. This man started making mistakes that cost
Duchess of Rothesay
Duchess of Rothesay is a Scottish courtesy title. It is held by the wife of the Duke of Rothesay since the first Duke in 1398. Due to the mortality rate and the fact that few Dukes of Rothesay were of majority or married prior to ascending the throne, there have in fact been only eight Duchesses of Rothesay. A separate Scottish throne has not existed de facto since 1603 when James VI of Scotland acceded to the throne of England when the House of Tudor died out, creating a personal union; the Act of Union of 1707 united de jure the separate kingdoms and thrones into the Kingdom of Great Britain. Since 1603 the title of the Duchess of Rothesay is held by the wife of the Prince of Wales, the Duchess of Cornwall and always the Princess of Wales. Since under current succession law the title of Duke of Rothesay can only be held by an heir-apparent, the eldest son of the monarch, no woman has been Duchess of Rothesay in her own right thus far; this is a list of Duchesses of Rothesay
International Campaign to Ban Landmines
The International Campaign to Ban Landmines is a coalition of non-governmental organizations whose stated objective is a world free of anti-personnel mines and cluster munitions, where mine and cluster munitions survivors see their rights respected and can lead fulfilling lives. The coalition was formed in 1992 when six organisations with similar interests agreed to cooperate on their common goal; the campaign has since grown and spread to become a network with active members in some 100 countries – including groups working on women, veterans, religious groups, the environment, human rights, arms control and development—working locally and internationally to eradicate antipersonnel landmines. A prominent supporter was Princess of Wales; the organization and its founding coordinator, Jody Williams, jointly received the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to bring about the Mine Ban Treaty. The signature of this treaty is seen as the campaign's greatest success; the prize was received on the organisation's behalf by its co-founder, Rae McGrath of the Mines Advisory Group and by Tunn Channareth, a Cambodian mine victim and ICBL activist.
The ICBL monitors the global mine and cluster munition situation, conducts advocacy activities, lobbying for implementation and universalization of the Mine Ban Treaty, humanitarian mine action programs geared toward the needs of mine-affected communities, support for landmine survivors, their families and their communities, a stop to the production and transfer of landmines, including by non-State armed groups. The ICBL participates in the periodical meetings of the Mine Ban Treaty process, urges states not parties to the treaty to join and non-state armed groups to respect the mine ban norm, condemns mine use and promotes public awareness and debate on the mine issue, organizing events and generating media attention. In 2011, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines and Cluster Munition Coalition merged into one unified structure, now known as the ICBL-CMC, in order to realize operational efficiencies and reinforce complementary work; the ICBL and the CMC campaigns remain separate and continue to remind governments of their commitments to implement and promote both treaties.
Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor continues its unique civil society monitoring program on the humanitarian and developmental consequences of landmines, cluster munitions, explosive remnants of war. The activities of the ICBL-CMC are supported by a Governance Board representative of various elements of the ICBL that provides strategic and human resources oversight. An Advisory Committee provides the working of the campaign. Four ambassadors serve as campaign representatives at speaking events and other conferences worldwide, they include Jody Williams, Tun Channareth, Song Kosal, Margaret Arech Orech. The ICBL has 14 staff members based in Geneva, Lyon and Ottawa. Additionally, the ICBL-CMC hosts several interns each year; the Mine Ban Treaty, or the Ottawa Treaty, is the international agreement that bans anti-personnel mines. Entitled The Convention on the Prohibition, Stockpiling and Transfer of Antipersonnel Mines and on Their Destruction, the treaty is sometimes referred to as the Ottawa Convention.
The Mine Ban Treaty was adopted in Oslo, Norway, in September 1997 and signed by 122 States in Ottawa, Canada, on 3 December 1997. As of March 2018, there were 164 States Parties to the Ottawa Treaty; the mine ban treaty suggest several agendas to member states: Never use antipersonnel mines, nor to "develop, otherwise acquire, retain or transfer" them Destroy mines in their stockpiles within four years Clear mined areas in their territory within 10 years In mine-affected countries, conduct mine risk education and ensure that mine survivors, their families and communities receive comprehensive assistance Offer assistance to other States Parties, for example in providing for survivors or contributing to clearance programs Adopt national implementation measures in order to ensure that the terms of the treaty are upheld in their territory Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor is the ICBL-CMC's research and monitoring arm. It is the de facto monitoring regime for the Mine Ban Treaty and the Convention on Cluster Munitions of 2008.
It monitors and reports on States Parties' implementation of and compliance with the Mine Ban Treaty and the Convention on Cluster Munitions, more it assesses the problems caused by landmines, cluster munitions, other explosive remnants of war. The Monitor represents the first time that NGOs have come together in a coordinated and sustained way to monitor humanitarian law or disarmament treaties, to document progress and problems, thereby putting into practice the concept of civil society-based verification. Since its creation in 1998, Monitor research has been carried out by a global network of in-country researchers, most of them ICBL-CMC campaigners, all content undergoes rigorous editing by the Monitor's Editorial Team prior to publication. Mines Advisory Group Geneva Call, an NGO inspired by the ICBL that focuses on non-state a