Free Colchian is the name of the swimming style from Georgia. This style was revived by the swimmer Henry Kuprashvili by swimming 2 kilometers using military-training style of swimming “Hands and Feet bound Colchian” on January 28, 2001. In 2002, for the first time in history, he swam across the Dardanelles Strait in 3 hours and 15 minutes using "Hands and Feet bound Colchian" on August 30. Henry Kuprashvili laid foundation of Georgian styles of swimming study process and established the school of swimming; the Georgian style of swimming comprises several styles unique to Georgia: “Lazuri”, “Hands and feet bound Colchian”, “Apkhazuri”, “Okribula”, “Iberiuli”, “Takhvia” and “Khashuruli” and “Kizikuri”. More traditional movements of the extremities are restricted or barred and forward motion is accomplished by dolphin-like undulation of hips and paired feet; these styles emulate the motions of mammals such as the seal, sea lion and beaver, which have evolved adaptations to water that enable them to attain an optimal swimming ability.
For those familiar with competitive swimming styles, Free Colchian most resembles the butterfly stroke, but with the arms remaining at the swimmer's sides. While swimming Lazuri or sport style: The legs are pressed together, the arms are pressed along the bodyline, the elbows should not jut out; the palms are touching the thighs. At the same time feet get out of the low position, the faster they leave the low position the weaker are the brake factors. Energetic blow is maximally powerful, forward sliding in water active and quick, which becomes more effective with energetic simultaneous movements, twice of joined feet; the swimmer should follow the stream, without making any rough movements in order not to “disturb” water and cause unnecessary excessive hydrodynamic resistance. The swimmer should be in such control of this process, as well as water, to avoid occurrence of excessive hindering waves.. In Lazuri swimming starts like Free style and butterfly, but at initial condition, while start and going into the water hands are moved up straight to the body Turning movement while swimming Lazuri is similar to that of the front crawl.
Hero of the Dardanelles: Seven Unique Developments. 2003. Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Doc. O. Gogiashvili. Tbilisi, Media-Holding Georgian Times, Text on Georgian and Russian languages UDC:796.092.2 + 797.2. Kuprashvili H. 2005. Georgian swimming. Textbook. Second publishing,Kutaisi State University, Kutaisi, ISBN 99940-0-561-8 УДК:797.2.034.2 + 797.2 Kuprashvili H. 2004. Georgian swimming. Textbook. Tbilisi, ISBN 99940-0-190-6. UDC: 797.2.034.2 + 797.2 Colchian-Iberian style of swimming "REUTERS 2007. The second traditional Tbilisi Sea group swimming... YouTube".] "Georgian Records Federation - Ana Lominadze's world record (CNN YouTube". Цанов Иван. Грузинци се състезават на техен плувен стил. The First Bulgarian Swimming Site Ivan Tsanov. Colchian-Iberian style of swimming… - The First Bulgarian Swimming Site.html первый чемпионат по древнему стилю плавания CNN-2002 CNN-2001 Competition in Georgian sport style of swimming „Free Kolkhuri" 2010
Water polo is a competitive team sport played in the water between two teams. The game consists of four quarters in which the two teams attempt to score goals by throwing the ball into the opposing team's goal; the team with the most goals at the end of the game wins the match. Each team is made up of one goalkeeper. Except for the goalkeeper, players participate in both defensive roles. Water polo is played in an all-deep pool meaning that players cannot touch the bottom. A game of water polo consists of the players swimming to move about the pool, treading water, passing the ball and shooting at goal. Teamwork, tactical thinking and game awareness are highly important aspects in a game of water polo. Water polo is a physical and demanding sport and has been cited as one of the toughest sports to play. Special equipment for water polo includes a ball which floats on the water; the game is thought to have originated in Scotland in the late 19th century as a sort of "water rugby". William Wilson is thought to have developed the game during a similar period.
The game thus developed with the formation of the London Water Polo League and has since expanded, becoming popular in various parts of Europe, the United States, China and Australia. The history of water polo as a team sport began as a demonstration of strength and swimming skill in late 19th century England and Scotland, where water sports and racing exhibitions were a feature of county fairs and festivals. Men's water polo was among the first team sports introduced at the modern Olympic games in 1900. Water polo is now popular in many countries around the world, notably Europe, the United States and Australia; the present-day game involves teams of seven players, with a water polo ball similar in size to a soccer ball but constructed of air-tight nylon. One of the earliest recorded viewings of water polo was conducted at the 4th Open Air Fete of the London Swimming Club, held at the Crystal Palace, London on 15 September 1873. Another antecedent of the modern game of Water Polo was a game of water ‘handball’ played at Bournemouth on 13 July 1876.
This was a game between 12 members of the Premier Rowing Club, with goals being marked by four flags placed in the water near to the midpoint of Bournemouth Pier. The game lasted for 15 minutes watched by a large crowd; the rules of water polo were developed in the late nineteenth century in Great Britain by William Wilson. Wilson is believed to have been the First Baths Master of the Arlington Baths Club in Glasgow; the first games of'aquatic football' were played at the Arlington in the late 1800s, with a ball constructed of India rubber. This "water rugby" came to be called "water polo" based on the English pronunciation of the Balti word for ball, pulu. Early play allowed brute strength and holding opposing players underwater to recover the ball. Players held underwater for lengthy periods surrendered possession; the goalie stood outside the playing area and defended the goal by jumping in on any opponent attempting to score by placing the ball on the deck. The rules of water polo cover the play, procedures and officiating of water polo.
These rules are similar throughout the world, although slight variations to the rules do occur regionally and depending on the governing body. Governing bodies of water polo include FINA, the international governing organization for the rules. There are seven players in the water from each team at one time. There are one goalkeeper. Unlike most common team sports, there is little positional play; these positions consist of a center forward, a center back, the two wing players and the two drivers. Players who are skilled in all positions of offense or defense are called utility players. Utility players tend to come off of the bench. Certain body types are more suited for particular positions, left-handed players are coveted on the right-hand side of the field, allowing teams to launch two-sided attacks; the offensive positions include: one center forward, two wings, two drivers, one "point", positioned farthest from the goal. The wings and point are called the perimeter players. There is a typical numbering system for these positions in U.
S. NCAA men's division one polo. Beginning with the offensive wing to the opposing goalie's right side is called one; the flat in a counter clockwise from one is called two. Moving along in the same direction the point player is three, the next flat is four, the final wing is five, the hole set is called six
A bicycle called a cycle or bike, is a human-powered or motor-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A bicycle rider is called bicyclist. Bicycles were introduced in the late 19th century in Europe, by the early 21st century, more than 1 billion were in existence at a given time; these numbers far exceed the number of cars, both in total and ranked by the number of individual models produced. They are the principal means of transportation in many regions, they provide a popular form of recreation, have been adapted for use as children's toys, general fitness and police applications, courier services, bicycle racing and bicycle stunts. The basic shape and configuration of a typical upright or "safety bicycle", has changed little since the first chain-driven model was developed around 1885. However, many details have been improved since the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design; these have allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for many types of cycling.
The bicycle's invention has had an enormous effect on society, both in terms of culture and of advancing modern industrial methods. Several components that played a key role in the development of the automobile were invented for use in the bicycle, including ball bearings, pneumatic tires, chain-driven sprockets and tension-spoked wheels; the word bicycle first appeared in English print in The Daily News in 1868, to describe "Bysicles and trysicles" on the "Champs Elysées and Bois de Boulogne". The word was first used in 1847 in a French publication to describe an unidentified two-wheeled vehicle a carriage; the design of the bicycle was an advance on the velocipede, although the words were used with some degree of overlap for a time. Other words for bicycle include "bike", "pushbike", "pedal cycle", or "cycle". In Unicode, the code point for "bicycle" is 0x1F6B2; the entity 🚲. The "Dandy horse" called Draisienne or Laufmaschine, was the first human means of transport to use only two wheels in tandem and was invented by the German Baron Karl von Drais.
It is regarded as the modern bicycle's forerunner. Its rider sat astride a wooden frame supported by two in-line wheels and pushed the vehicle along with his or her feet while steering the front wheel; the first mechanically-propelled, two-wheeled vehicle may have been built by Kirkpatrick MacMillan, a Scottish blacksmith, in 1839, although the claim is disputed. He is associated with the first recorded instance of a cycling traffic offense, when a Glasgow newspaper in 1842 reported an accident in which an anonymous "gentleman from Dumfries-shire... bestride a velocipede... of ingenious design" knocked over a little girl in Glasgow and was fined five shillings. In the early 1860s, Frenchmen Pierre Michaux and Pierre Lallement took bicycle design in a new direction by adding a mechanical crank drive with pedals on an enlarged front wheel; this was the first in mass production. Another French inventor named Douglas Grasso had a failed prototype of Pierre Lallement's bicycle several years earlier.
Several inventions followed using rear-wheel drive, the best known being the rod-driven velocipede by Scotsman Thomas McCall in 1869. In that same year, bicycle wheels with wire spokes were patented by Eugène Meyer of Paris; the French vélocipède, made of iron and wood, developed into the "penny-farthing". It featured a tubular steel frame on; these bicycles were difficult to ride due to poor weight distribution. In 1868 Rowley Turner, a sales agent of the Coventry Sewing Machine Company, brought a Michaux cycle to Coventry, England, his uncle, Josiah Turner, business partner James Starley, used this as a basis for the'Coventry Model' in what became Britain's first cycle factory. The dwarf ordinary addressed some of these faults by reducing the front wheel diameter and setting the seat further back. This, in turn, required gearing—effected in a variety of ways—to efficiently use pedal power. Having to both pedal and steer via the front wheel remained a problem. Englishman J. K. Starley, J. H. Lawson, Shergold solved this problem by introducing the chain drive, connecting the frame-mounted cranks to the rear wheel.
These models were known as safety bicycles, dwarf safeties, or upright bicycles for their lower seat height and better weight distribution, although without pneumatic tires the ride of the smaller-wheeled bicycle would be much rougher than that of the larger-wheeled variety. Starley's 1885 Rover, manufactured in Coventry is described as the first recognizably modern bicycle. Soon the seat tube was added. Further innovations increased comfort and ushered in a second bicycle craze, the 1890s Golden Age of Bicycles. In 1888, Scotsman John Boyd Dunlop introduced the first practical pneumatic tire, which soon became universal. Willie Hume demonstrated the supremacy of Dunlop's tyres in 1889, winning the tyre's first-ever races in Ireland and England. Soon after, the rear freewheel was developed; this refinement led to the 1890s invention of coaster brakes. Dérailleur gears and hand-operated Bowden cable-pull brakes were developed during these years, but were only adopted by casual riders; the Svea Velocipede with vertical pedal arrangement and
Ratko Rudić is a Croatian water polo coach and a former water polo player. As of 2015, he has won 38 medals as a coach at major events, making him the most successful water polo coach in history, second most successful team sport coach of all time, he won four gold medals, of which three consecutive, with three different national teams at the Summer Olympics, as well as three gold medals with three national teams at the World Championships, among many others. In 2007 was inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame, described as "one of the best, if not the best, water polo coach to walk the deck of the pool". In 1989 received AVNOJ award, the highest Yugoslav award. In 2007 received Franjo Bučar State Award for Sport as Yearly Award, while in 2012 Award for Life Achievement. In 2012 was the recipient of Order of Duke Branimir in Croatia, while in 2018 of Palma al Merito Tecnico by the Italian National Olympic Committee. In 2012 he retired from coaching and became sports director of the Croatian Water Polo Federation until late 2013 when he became the coach of the Brazil men's national team to lead them through the 2016 Summer Olympics.
Since mid-2018 is coach of Italian water polo club Pro Recco. He was born on 7 June 1948 in SFR Yugoslavia, to father Jakov and mother Zorica; as his father was a military officier he lived two years in Belgrade, four years in Rijeka and Split, six years in Zagreb. He started playing water polo in 1958 as a child in club Jedinstvo from Zadar, his debut in a first league game was for VK Jadran Split against HAVK Mladost. Although his desire was to study at the Academy of Fine Arts, he studied architecture in Zagreb, but as professional player moved to Belgrade in 1971, there finished studies at the Faculty of Physical Education, he lived in Belgrade until 1990, when lived and worked in Rome until 2000, from until 2004 in Los Angeles. He has a daughter Martina, he played for club VK Jadran Split from 1963 till 1971. He decided for the club because it was the only alongside HAVK Mladost from Zagreb which had full year training, several other Croatian players were brought in the same year, as well the coach from Dubrovnik.
With the team won eight Yugoslavian championships, six Yugoslavian cups, two European Champions League in 1974 and 1975. Rudić played 297 games for the Yugoslavian water polo team, winning gold medals in 1971 and 1979, silver medal at the 1975 Mediterranean Games. At the 1968 Olympics he was injured before the tournament and was unable to play with his team which went on to win the gold medal. At the World Championship in 1975, he was falsely accused of doping, so the entire Yugoslav national team was disqualified. Only after a subsequent investigation by Manfred Donike proved that Rudić did not take any banned substances, he and his team were exonerated, his case was included in professional literature as an example of the wrong analysis. At the 1976 Olympics was a reserve due to injury, but helped tactically and soon became assistant coach in VK Partizan. During his career Rudić coached five national teams: Yugoslavia, Italy, USA, Brazil; as a coach he works with much preparation, including control training, testing and technique.
He is one of the first coaches who had a multidisciplinary coaching staff, with specific emphasis on cooperation with psychologists. He works on the long-term programmes which leave behind long-term positive consequences in the national teams. Rudić started his coaching career as the coach of juniors in VK Partizan between 1980 and 1983, between 1983 and 1984 of the Yugoslavian junior national team, which won silver medals at the World and European Championship. Several players like Dubravko Šimenc, Perica Bukić, Igor Milanović formed the core in the following Yugoslavian golden period, he received the nickname Tiranin because he demanded a considerable amount of discipline. He was the coach of the Yugoslavia men's national water polo team between 1984 and 1988, won two consecutive gold medals at the 1984 and 1988 Summer Olympics. After the coach position at VK Partizan between 1988 and 1990, in 1990 he became the coach of Italy, his work in Italy was in the conflict with the players who had tactical and technical skills but lack of physical working philosophy.
As the strenuous trainings were accepted they became the best national team at the time. They were the first national team to win all titles in one Olympic cycle. In 1994, after the gold medal at the 1994 World Championship, changed the whole team with younger players, received with harsh criticism by the sport journalist in Italy, but won gold medal at the 1995 European Championship; the period as the coach of the Italian national team, ended in controversy: at the end of the quarterfinals of the 2000 Summer Olympics in which Italy lost against Hungary 5–8, Rudić accused the officials for a planned conspiracy against the Italian team, which cost him a yearly suspension from all competitions by FINA. As the coach of Italy men's national water polo team he won gold medal at the 1992, bronze at the 1996 Summer Olympics.
Cetacean surfacing behaviour
Cetacean surfacing behaviour or breaching is a group of behaviours demonstrated by the Cetacea infraorder when they come to the water's surface to breathe. Time intervals between surfacing can vary depending on the species, surfacing style or the purpose of the dive, some species have been known to dive for up to 85 minutes at a time when hunting. In addition to respiration, cetaceans have developed and used surface behaviours for many other functions such as display and communication. All observed members of the order Cetacea, including whales and porpoises, show a range of surfacing behaviours. Cetacea is split into two suborders and Mysticeti, based on the presence of teeth or baleen plates in adults respectively. However, when considering behaviour, Cetacea can be split into whales and dolphins and porpoises as many behaviours are correlated with size. Although some behaviours such as spyhopping and lobtailing occur in both groups, others such as bow riding or peduncle throws are exclusive to one or the other.
It is these energetic behaviours that humans observe most which has resulted in a large amount of scientific literature on the subject and a popular tourism industry. A breach or a lunge is a leap out of the water known as cresting; the distinction between the two is arbitrary: cetacean researcher Hal Whitehead defines a breach as any leap in which at least 40% of the animal's body clears the water, a lunge as a leap with less than 40% clearance. Qualitatively, a breach is a genuine jump with an intent to clear the water, whereas a lunge is the result of a fast upward-sloping swim that has caused the whale to clear the surface of the water unintentionally; this latter "lunging" behaviour is a result of feeding in rorquals. The right and sperm whales are the most observed jumpers; however other baleen whales such as fin, minke and sei whales breach. Oceanic dolphins, including the orca, are common breachers and are in fact capable of lifting themselves out of the water easily, although there is little distinction between this and porpoising.
Some non-cetacean marine creatures exhibit breaching behavior, such as several shark species and rays of the genera Manta and Mobula. Two techniques are used by cetaceans in order to breach; the first method, most common in sperm and humpback whales, is conducted by swimming vertically upwards from depth, heading straight out of the water. The other more common method is to travel close to the surface and parallel to it, jerk upwards at full speed with as few as 3 tail strokes to perform a breach. In all breaches the cetacean clears the water with the majority of its body at an acute angle, such as an average of 30° to the horizontal as recorded in sperm whales; the whale turns to land on its back or side, less may not turn but "belly flop" instead. In order to achieve 90% clearance, a humpback needs to leave the water at a speed of eight metres per second or 29 kilometres per hour. For a 36 metric tons animal, this results in a momentum of 288 thousand newton seconds. Despite its energetic cost, breaching is carried out in series.
The longest recorded sustained series was by a humpback near the West Indies totaling 130 leaps in less than 90 minutes. Repeated breaches tire the animal, so less of the body clears the water each time; the reasons for breaching are unknown. Whales are more to breach when they are in groups, suggesting that it is a non-verbal signal to other group members during social behaviour. Scientists have called this theory "honest signalling"; the immense cloud of bubbles and underwater disturbance following a breach cannot be faked. A single breach costs a whale only about 0.075% of its total daily energy intake, but a long series of breaches may add up to a significant energy expenditure. A breach is therefore a sign that the animal is physically fit enough to afford energy for this acrobatic display, hence it could be used for ascertaining dominance, courting or warning of danger, it is possible that the loud "smack" upon re-entering is useful for stunning or scaring prey, similar to lobtailing. As breaching is seen in rough seas it is possible that a breach allows the whale to breathe in air, not close to the surface and full of spray, or that they use breaching to communicate when the noise of the ocean would mask acoustic signals.
Another accepted possible reason is to dislodge parasites from the skin. The behaviour may be more a form of play. Porpoising known as running, is a high speed surface behaviour of small cetaceans where long jumps are alternated with swimming close to the surface. Despite the name, porpoising behaviour is seen in dolphins and porpoises, as well as other marine species such as penguins and pinnipeds; when marine mammals are travelling at speed they are forced to stay close to the surface in order to maintain respiration for the energetic exercise. At leisurely cruising speeds below 4.6 m/s, dolphins swim below the water's surface and only expose their blowholes along with up to one third of their body at any one time. This results in little splashing as they have a streamlined shape. Porpoising occurs when dolphins and porpoises are swimming at speeds greater than 4.6 m/s. Here, jump length is equal to distance traveled when the cetaceans are submerged; this exposes the blowhole for longer, needed to get enough oxygen to maintain metabolism and therefore
The front crawl or forward crawl known as the Australian crawl or American crawl, is a swimming stroke regarded as the fastest of the four front primary strokes. As such, the front crawl stroke is universally used during a freestyle swimming competition, hence freestyle is used metonymically for the front crawl, it is one of the other one being the backstroke. Unlike the backstroke, the butterfly stroke, the breaststroke, the front crawl is not regulated by the FINA; this style is sometimes referred to as the Australian crawl although this can sometimes refer to a more specific variant of front crawl. This stroke was used by Gertrude Ederle in 1926 to be the first woman to cross the English channel The face-down swimming position allows for a good range of motion of the arm in the water, as compared to the backstroke, where the hands cannot be moved along the back of the spine; the above-water recovery of the stroke reduces drag, compared to the underwater recovery of breaststroke. The alternating arms allow some rolling movement of the body for an easier recovery compared to, for example, butterfly.
The alternating arm stroke makes for a constant speed throughout the cycle. The "front crawl" style has been in use since ancient times. There is an Egyptian bas relief piece dating to 2000 BCE showing it in use. In the Western world, the stroke, which would be refined into the modern front crawl, was first seen in a swimming race held in 1844 in London, where it was swum by Northern Native Americans; the Anishinaabe Flying Gull and Tobacco had been invited by the British Swimming Society to give an exhibition at the swimming baths in High Holborn. They raced against each other for a silver medal to be presented by the society, won by Flying Gull. English gentlemen, considered this style, with its considerable splashing and "grotesque antics", to be barbarically "un-European" and the British continued to swim only the breaststroke in competition. Sometime around 1873, British swimmer John Arthur Trudgen learned the front crawl from native South Americans during a trip to Argentina. However, Trudgen applied the more common sidestroke kick instead of the flutter kick used by the Native Americans.
This hybrid stroke was called the Trudgen stroke. Because of its speed, this stroke became popular; this style was further improved by the Australian champion swimmer Richmond "Dick" Cavill, who developed the stroke with his brother "Tums". They were inspired by Alick Wickham, a young Solomon Islander living in Sydney who swam a version of the crawl stroke, popular in his home island at Roviana lagoon; the Cavills modified their swimming stroke using this as inspiration and this modified Trudgen stroke became known as the "Australian crawl". The American swimmer Charles Daniels made modifications to a six-beat kick, thereby creating the "American crawl"; the starting position for front crawl is known as the "streamline" position. The swimmer starts on the stomach with both arms stretched out to the front and both legs extended to the back; the arm movements of the front crawl provide most of the forward motion. The arms alternate from side to side, so while one arm is pulling and pushing under the water, the other arm is recovering above the water.
The move can be separated into four parts: the downsweep, the insweep, the upsweep, the recovery. Each complete arm movement is referred to as a stroke. From the initial position, the arm sinks lower and the palm of the hand turns 45 degrees with the thumb side of the palm towards the bottom, to catch the water and prepare for the pull; the pull movement follows a semicircle, with the elbow higher than the hand, the hand pointing towards the body center and downward. The semicircle ends in front of the chest at the beginning of the ribcage; the push pushes the palm backward through the water underneath the body at the beginning and at the side of the body at the end of the push. This pull and push is known as the S-curve; some time after the beginning of the pull, the other arm begins its recovery. The recovery moves the elbow in a semicircle in a vertical plane in the swimming direction; the lower arm and the hand are relaxed and hang down from the elbow close to the water surface and close to the swimmer's body.
The beginning of the recovery looks similar to pulling the hand out of the back pocket of a pair of pants, with the small finger upwards. Further into the recovery phase, the hand movement has been compared to pulling up a center zip on a wetsuit; the recovering hand moves forward, with the fingers trailing downward, just above the surface of the water. In the middle of the recovery one shoulder is rotated forward into the air while the other is pointing backwards to avoid drag due to the large frontal area which at this specific time is not covered by the arm. To rotate the shoulder, some twist their torso while others rotate everything down to their feet. Beginners make the mistake of not relaxing the arm during the recovery and of moving the hand too high and too far away from the body, in some cases higher than the elbow. In these cases and incidental muscle effort is increased at the expense of speed. Beginners forget to use their shoulders to let the hand enter as far forward as possible.
Some say the hand should enter the water thumb first, reducing drag through possible turbulence, others say the middle finger is first with the hand bent down, giving thrust right from the start. At the beginning of the pull, the hand acts like a wing and is moved slower than the swimmer while at the end it acts like an oar an
A lifeguard is a rescuer who supervises the safety and rescue of swimmers and other water sports participants such as in a swimming pool, water park, beach or river. Lifeguards are strong swimmers and trained in CPR/AED first aid, certified in water rescue using a variety of aids and equipment depending on requirements of their particular venue. In some areas, lifeguards are part of the emergency services system to incidents and in some communities,lifeguards may function as the primary EMS provider. A lifeguard is responsible for the safety of people in an area of water, a defined area surrounding or adjacent to it, such as a beach next to an ocean or lake; the priority is to ensure. Lifeguards take on this responsibility upon employment, although they can be volunteers; the conditions resulting in drowning are summarized by the'drowning chain' in which each link can lead directly to an incident, or contribute to a succession of links. It consists of lack of education about water safety or local conditions, a lack of safety advice a lack of protection, lack of safety supervision, or an inability to cope with conditions.
The drowning chain provides a clear basis for preventing drowning which includes: education and information provision of warnings denial of access supervision training in survival skillsThe lifeguard is able to provide all these elements to help prevent drownings in their area of responsibility, for this reason this should be the primary focus of a lifeguard's activities, as it is better to stop an incident occurring than trying to react once it has occurred. This means that the effectiveness of a lifeguard unit can be measured not by the number or rapidity of rescues, or the skill with which they are executed, but by the absence or reduction of drownings and other medical emergencies. Prevention is an effective skill, vitally important to a lifeguard because it can aid in maintaining the safety of the aquatic patrons. A lifeguard's key duties are to: Enforce rules in order to anticipate problems/injuries Maintain concentrated observation of the duty area and its users in order to anticipate problems and to identify an emergency quickly.
Supervise the use of other equipment when allocated to that duty Carry out rescues and initiate other emergency action as necessary Give immediate first aid in the event of injury to a bather or other incident Communicate with bathers and other users to help fulfill the above tasks Help clean areas around pool or beach to ensure the safety and experience for patronsLifeguards may have other secondary duties such as cleaning, filing paperwork, checking a swimming pool's chlorine and pH levels, or acting as a general information point. It is important that lifeguards never allow their secondary responsibilities to interfere with their primary responsibilities. Lifeguards may be required to attend occasional in-service meetings to strengthen their lifeguarding skills. Lifeguards are trained in a variety of different lifesaving skills. There are minor differences between these skills depending on the organization who trained the lifeguards; the skills vary depending on the facility in which they will be put to use, such as the depth of the pool, a water-park facility, or a beach.
Some of the various out-of-water skills taught are: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation A series of chest compressions and ventilations that try to circulate blood containing oxygen throughout the body to vital organs in an attempt to resuscitate a victim. A lifeguard performing CPR on an adult should use two hands on the chest, with the ring finger of the bottom hand lined up with the nipple; the chest compressions should consist of thirty compressions to 2 rescue breaths with a depth of at least 2 inches but no more than 2.4 inches. For a child the hands should be placed the same way as an adult, chest compressions should be about two inches </ref> The rate at which the compressions should be is 100-120 compressions per minute for both child and adult. For an infant, the hand placement should be two fingers at the center of the chest, again just below the nipple line; the depth of compressions should be about one and a half inches with compressions being 30:2. The rate of compressions should be 100-120 compressions per minute.
The chest compressions to ventilation's ratio changes from 30:2 to 15:2 for a child and infant during two rescuer CPR. Use an AED - Provides an electrical shock that attempts to restore normal heart rhythm in a victim For AED, the information needed is what is in the AED container, where the pads should be placed and how to use the AED; when using an AED, make sure that the device is on. The device should include, a pair of scissors, a razor, 3 different size AED Pads; the AED pads should be placed on an on the upper right side of the chest, on the lower left side below the armpit. The pediatric pads should only be used on a infant; the placement of the pads for a child is the same as an adult. On an infant place one of the pads on the center of the chest in between the nipples, the other pad should be placed on the back between the shoulder blades. First Aid- the lifeguard in training should know how to protect themselves from blood borne pathogens. Lifeguards should protect themselves at all times.