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Treaty of Accession 1972

The Treaty of Accession 1972 was the international agreement which provided for the accession of Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom to the European Communities. Norway did not ratify the treaty after it was rejected in a referendum held in September 1972; the treaty was ratified by Denmark and the United Kingdom who became EC member states on 1 January 1973 when the treaty entered into force. The treaty remains an integral part of the constitutional basis of the European Union; the full official name of the treaty is: Treaty between the Kingdom of Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, the French Republic, the Italian Republic, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Kingdom of the Netherlands the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning the accession of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the European Economic Community and to the European Atomic Energy Community.

Denmark and the United Kingdom were economically linked within the European Free Trade Area. The UK's role in international affairs had weakened, unlike the EC member countries, which in the 1960s were recovering from the Second World War. To join the EC, countries had to meet two criteria: belonging to the European continent and obtain agreement from all member countries. On 31 July 1961 the United Kingdom and Denmark applied to join the EC. In 1963, after lengthy negotiations, France vetoed Britain's application because of the aversion of Charles de Gaulle to the UK, which he considered a "Trojan Horse" for the United States. De Gaulle famously uttered the single word'non' into the television cameras at the critical moment, a statement used to sum up French opposition towards the UK for many years afterwards. UK Prime Minister Harold Macmillan said afterwards that he always believed that de Gaulle would prevent the UK joining, but thought he would do it behind the scenes, he complained that "all our plans are in tatters".

France, under de Gaulle's successor Georges Pompidou, removed its opposition following the 1969 Hague EEC summit conference. This made the expansion of membership possible, providing for political convergence between the EEC and EFTA. After a long period of negotiations, expansion of the EC's membership was ratified by the member states' national parliaments, except in the case of France, where in April 1972 a referendum on EC enlargement was passed with a favorable vote of 68%. Between May and October 1972, the treaty was passed in three EFTA states. In Norway's referendum however, 53.5% of voters opposed the country's accession, Prime Minister Trygve Bratteli resigned following the defeat of his government. It was the second attempt by Norway to become a member, after being rejected by France in 1962 and again temporarily in 1967, but the first attempt at a referendum following a successful negotiation; the United Kingdom consulted its citizens directly only after joining the European Communities: following the British general election of October 1974, the Labour government of Harold Wilson held a referendum to fulfill one of its campaign promises.

The non-binding referendum was held on 5 June 1975, some two and half years after the UK's accession. It was the first national referendum to be held in the UK, the "yes" vote won by a landslide 67.23% on a 65% turnout with 66 out of the 68 local counting areas returning majority "yes" votes. One fundamental change effected by the treaty is stated in Article 3 of the accompanying "Act concerning the Conditions of Accession and the Adjustments to the Treaties" where the new members agree they will, regarding original Member States and Communities agreements, "observe the principles and guidelines deriving from those declarations, resolutions or other positions and will take such measures as may be necessary to ensure their implementation". Article 4 continues the list of agreements they undertake, in 4 they agree to adjust their international agreements "to the rights and obligations arising from their accession to the Communities". Accession of the United Kingdom to the European Communities Enlargement of the European Union Norway–European Union relations 1972 Danish European Communities membership referendum 1975 United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum Third Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland Original text

St Saviour's in the Meadows

Saint Saviour's Church is a parish church in the Church of England in The Meadows, Nottingham. The church is Grade II listed by the Department for Culture, Media & Sport as it is a building of special architectural or historic interest; the parish was formed out of that of Nottingham. The foundation stone of the church building was laid by the Rt. Revd. John Jackson, Bishop of Lincoln, on 28 September 1863; the nave of the church was opened for worship in 1864 and was designed by the local architect Richard Charles Sutton funded by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. It replaced a small mission chapel which had served the residents of the Meadows but became too small for the increasing population after the enclosure of the Meadows; the chancel occupies the east end, with the organ chamber on the other. The length of the nave is 74 ft. and the width 24 ft.. The chancel is 30 ft. deep by 24 ft. wide. The height of the nave is 46 ft, it was designed to accommodate seats for 750 people. The amount of the contract was about £3,000.

The contractor was John Barker, based in Arkwright-street, The Meadows. The vicarage to designs by Frederick Bakewell was added in 1867; the church is located on Arkwright Walk. Worship services are held weekly at 4:30 PM; the congregation is in an informal partnership with the local Salvation Army church, with joint worship services held each Sunday. In 2013 the main church building was renovated to make room for an indoor softplay centre and café. Eden Softplay is open seven days a week for families to enjoy; the Buildings of England, Nottinghamshire. Nikolaus Pevsner See St. Saviour's Church on Google Street View Saviour's Church website Eden Softplay

The Wild Angels

The Wild Angels is a 1966 American outlaw biker film produced and directed by Roger Corman. Made on location in Southern California, The Wild Angels was the first film to associate actor Peter Fonda with Harley-Davidson motorcycles and 1960s counterculture, it inspired the biker film genre. The Wild Angels, released by American International Pictures, stars Fonda as the fictitious Hells Angels San Pedro, California chapter president "Heavenly Blues", Nancy Sinatra as his girlfriend "Mike", Bruce Dern as doomed fellow outlaw "the Loser", Dern's real-life wife Diane Ladd as the Loser's on-screen wife, "Gaysh". Small supporting roles are played by Michael J. Pollard and Gayle Hunnicutt and, according to literature promoting the film, members of the Hells Angels from Venice, California. Members of the Coffin Cheaters motorcycle club appeared. In 1967 AIP followed this film with Devil's Angels, The Glory Stompers with Dennis Hopper, The Born Losers. In between sprees featuring drugs, sexual assault, loud revving Harley chopper engines and bongo drums, the Angels ride out to Mecca, California in the desert to look for the Loser's stolen motorcycle.

One of the Angels find what they say is a piece of the Loser's motorcycle in a garage, the hang-out of a Mexican group. The two groups brawl with the Angels winning; the police arrive and the Angels escape but the Loser gets separated from the others and is left behind. He steals a police motorcycle but is not able to lose the policeman, pursuing him or evade the road block that the police have in place. One of the officers shoots the Loser in the back, putting him in the hospital. Blues leads a small group of Angels. One of the other Angels attempts to rape a nurse who happens to hear a noise and comes into the room. Blues pulls the other Angel away, forcing him to stop the attempted rape, but the nurse sees Blues and identifies Blues to police. Without proper medical care, the Loser dies, his cohorts arrange a church funeral in the Loser's rural hometown. Blues interrupts the minister's sermon; the other Angels follow his lead and have another "party". The Angels remove the Loser from his Nazi flag-draped casket, sit him up and place a joint in his mouth, knock out the minister, place him in the casket, two Angels drug and rape the Loser's grieving widow, while Blues is raping another woman.

The Angels proceed to the Sequoia Grove cemetery to bury the Loser. There, the locals provoke a fight; as police sirens approach and everyone scatters, Mike begs Blues to leave but he refuses and tells her to leave with another member of the gang. Blues stays behind, before starting to bury his friend on his own, says with resignation, "There's nowhere to go." Peter Fonda as Heavenly Blues Nancy Sinatra as Mike Bruce Dern as Joe'Loser' Kearns Diane Ladd as Gaysh Buck Taylor as Dear John Norman Alden as Medic Michael J. Pollard as Pigmy Frank Maxwell as funeral preacher Roger Corman became interested in making a film about the Hells Angels after seeing a photo in the January 1966 of Life magazine for a biker funeral. Corman approached AIP, Charles B. Griffith was hired to write a screenplay. Griffith's first draft was a near-silent movie which contrasted the bikers with the story of a police motorcycle cop. Corman had Griffith rewrite it. Corman gave it to Peter Bogdanovich to rewrite. Bogdanovich had met Corman and agreed to write an adventure script in the vein of Lawrence of Arabia or Bridge on the River Kwai "only cheap".

Bogdanovich estimated he rewrote 80% of the script. He directed second unit and did various other odd jobs. George Chakiris and Peter Fonda were cast in the lead roles; however Chakiris could not ride a motorcycle. Film critic Leonard Maltin called The Wild Angels "OK after about 24 beers", it opened the Venice Film Festival in 1966, to tepid response. In a 2009 interview, Corman told Mick Garris that the US State Department tried to prevent the film from being shown in Venice on the grounds that it "did not show America the way it is", but the film was shown there anyway. Corman took chances with this subject matter and the Charles B. Griffith–authored screenplay, without being overly graphic, paid dividends commercially: The Wild Angels was the 16th highest-grossing film of 1966, earning $5.5 million in domestic rentals. The film had admissions in France of 531,240 people; the movie's success established Fonda as "a counter culture film star". The film holds a 61% "Fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 18 reviews.

While promoting another of his 1960s counterculture movies, The Trip, autographing a movie still from The Wild Angels depicting Bruce Dern and him sharing one motorcycle, Fonda conceived the film Easy Rider. Edited samples of dialogue from the film, where Fonda's character Blues explains his attitude toward life to the preacher at Loser's funeral was used at the start of Mudhoney's 1989 track In'n' Out of Grace and Primal Scream's 1990 single Loaded; some of the same sample of dialogue was featured in the launch trailer of the video game Need for Speed. Audio of Fonda's speech was sampled in the Edgar W